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salt inequities

Amnesty E LeFevre, Diwakar Mohan, Sarmila Mazumder, Laura L Lamberti, Sunita Taneja, Robert E Black, Christa L Fischer-Walker
BACKGROUND: India has the greatest burden of diarrhea in children under 5 years globally. The Diarrhea Alleviation through zinc and oral rehydration salts (ORS) Therapy program (2010-2014) sought to improve access to and utilization of zinc and ORS among children 2-59 months in Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh (UP), India, through public and private sector delivery channels. In this analysis, we present findings on program's effect in reducing child-health inequities. METHODS: Data from cross-sectional baseline and endline surveys were used to assess disparities in key outcomes across six dimensions: socioeconomic strata, gender, caregiver education, ethnicity and geography...
December 2016: Journal of Global Health
Chris Kypridemos, Maria Guzman-Castillo, Lirije Hyseni, Graeme L Hickey, Piotr Bandosz, Iain Buchan, Simon Capewell, Martin O'Flaherty
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impact and equity of existing and potential UK salt reduction policies on primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and gastric cancer (GCa) in England. DESIGN: A microsimulation study of a close-to-reality synthetic population. In the first period, 2003-2015, we compared the impact of current policy against a counterfactual 'no intervention' scenario, which assumed salt consumption persisted at 2003 levels. For 2016-2030, we assumed additional legislative policies could achieve a steeper salt decline and we compared this against the counterfactual scenario that the downward trend in salt consumption observed between 2001 and 2011 would continue up to 2030...
January 24, 2017: BMJ Open
Milan Předota, Michael L Machesky, David J Wesolowski
The zeta potential (ZP) is an oft-reported measure of the macroscopic charge state of solid surfaces and colloidal particles in contact with solvents. However, the origin of this readily measurable parameter has remained divorced from the molecular-level processes governing the underlying electrokinetic phenomena, which limits its usefulness. Here, we connect the macroscopic measure to the microscopic realm through nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of electroosmotic flow between parallel slabs of the hydroxylated (110) rutile (TiO2) surface...
October 11, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Nhung Nghiem, Tony Blakely, Linda J Cobiac, Christine L Cleghorn, Nick Wilson
BACKGROUND: A "diet high in sodium" is the second most important dietary risk factor for health loss identified in the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. We therefore aimed to model health gains and costs (savings) of salt reduction interventions related to salt substitution and maximum levels in bread, including by ethnicity and age. We also ranked these four interventions compared to eight other modelled interventions. METHODS: A Markov macro-simulation model was used to estimate QALYs gained and net health system costs for four dietary sodium reduction interventions, discounted at 3 % per annum...
2016: BMC Public Health
Nick Wilson, Nhung Nghiem, Helen Eyles, Cliona Ni Mhurchu, Emma Shields, Linda J Cobiac, Christine L Cleghorn, Tony Blakely
BACKGROUND: Dietary salt reduction is included in the top five priority actions for non-communicable disease control internationally. We therefore aimed to identify health gain and cost impacts of achieving a national target for sodium reduction, along with component targets in different food groups. METHODS: We used an established dietary sodium intervention model to study 10 interventions to achieve sodium reduction targets. The 2011 New Zealand (NZ) adult population (2...
April 26, 2016: Nutrition Journal
Ashkan Afshin, Jose Penalvo, Liana Del Gobbo, Michael Kashaf, Renata Micha, Kurtis Morrish, Jonathan Pearson-Stuttard, Colin Rehm, Siyi Shangguan, Jessica D Smith, Dariush Mozaffarian
Poor diet is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease in the USA and globally. Evidence-based policies are crucial to improve diet and population health. We reviewed the effectiveness for a range of policy levers to alter diet and diet-related risk factors. We identified evidence to support benefits of focused mass media campaigns (especially for fruits, vegetables, salt), food pricing strategies (both subsidies and taxation, with stronger effects at lower income levels), school procurement policies (for increasing healthful or reducing unhealthful choices), and worksite wellness programs (especially when comprehensive and multicomponent)...
November 2015: Current Cardiology Reports
Duncan O S Gillespie, Kirk Allen, Maria Guzman-Castillo, Piotr Bandosz, Patricia Moreira, Rory McGill, Elspeth Anwar, Ffion Lloyd-Williams, Helen Bromley, Peter J Diggle, Simon Capewell, Martin O'Flaherty
BACKGROUND: Public health action to reduce dietary salt intake has driven substantial reductions in coronary heart disease (CHD) over the past decade, but avoidable socio-economic differentials remain. We therefore forecast how further intervention to reduce dietary salt intake might affect the overall level and inequality of CHD mortality. METHODS: We considered English adults, with socio-economic circumstances (SEC) stratified by quintiles of the Index of Multiple Deprivation...
2015: PloS One
Rory McGill, Elspeth Anwar, Lois Orton, Helen Bromley, Ffion Lloyd-Williams, Martin O'Flaherty, David Taylor-Robinson, Maria Guzman-Castillo, Duncan Gillespie, Patricia Moreira, Kirk Allen, Lirije Hyseni, Nicola Calder, Mark Petticrew, Martin White, Margaret Whitehead, Simon Capewell
BACKGROUND: Interventions to promote healthy eating make a potentially powerful contribution to the primary prevention of non communicable diseases. It is not known whether healthy eating interventions are equally effective among all sections of the population, nor whether they narrow or widen the health gap between rich and poor. We undertook a systematic review of interventions to promote healthy eating to identify whether impacts differ by socioeconomic position (SEP). METHODS: We searched five bibliographic databases using a pre-piloted search strategy...
May 2, 2015: BMC Public Health
Nhung Nghiem, Tony Blakely, Linda J Cobiac, Amber L Pearson, Nick Wilson
BACKGROUND: Given the high importance of dietary sodium (salt) as a global disease risk factor, our objective was to compare the impact of eight sodium reduction interventions, including feasible and more theoretical ones, to assist prioritisation. METHODS: Epidemiological modelling and cost-utility analysis were performed using a Markov macro-simulation model. The setting was New Zealand (NZ) (2.3 million citizens, aged 35+ years) which has detailed individual-level administrative cost data...
2015: PloS One
A D Drozdov, J deClaville Christiansen
A model is developed for the elastic response of a polyelectrolyte gel under unconstrained and constrained swelling in a water bath with an arbitrary pH, where a monovalent salt is dissolved. A gel is treated as a three-phase medium consisting of an equivalent polymer network, solvent (water), and solute (mobile ions). Transport of solvent and solute is thought of as their diffusion through the network accelerated by an electric field formed by mobile and fixed ions and accompanied by chemical reactions (self-ionization of water molecules, dissociation of functional groups attached to polymer chains, and formation of ion pairs between bound charges and mobile counter-ions)...
March 21, 2015: Journal of Chemical Physics
Chen Ji, Francesco P Cappuccio
OBJECTIVES: The impact of the national salt reduction programme in the UK on social inequalities is unknown. We examined spatial and socioeconomic variations in salt intake in the 2008-2011 British National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) and compared them with those before the programme in 2000-2001. SETTING: Cross-sectional survey in Great Britain. PARTICIPANTS: 1027 Caucasian males and females, aged 19-64 years. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants' dietary sodium intake measured with a 4-day food diary...
August 14, 2014: BMJ Open
Lindsay McLaren, Shayla Heidinger, Daniel J Dutton, Valerie Tarasuk, Norman R Campbell
INTRODUCTION: In many countries including Canada, excess consumption of dietary sodium is common, and this has adverse implications for population health. Socio-economic inequities in sodium consumption seem likely, but research is limited. Knowledge of socio-economic inequities in sodium consumption is important for informing population-level sodium reduction strategies, to ensure that they are both impactful and equitable. METHODS: We examined the association between socio-economic indicators (income and education) and sodium, using two outcome variables: 1) sodium consumption in mg/day, and 2) reported use of table salt, in two national surveys: the 1970/72 Nutrition Canada Survey and the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2...
June 5, 2014: International Journal for Equity in Health
Rachel A Crockett, Susan A Jebb, Matthew Hankins, Theresa M Marteau
There is some evidence for paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake particularly amongst restrained eaters and those with a higher body mass index (BMI) resulting in greater consumption of energy from foods with a positive health message (e.g. "low-fat") compared with the same foods, unlabelled. This study aimed to investigate, in a UK general population sample, the likelihood of paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake. Participants (n = 287) attended a London cinema and were offered a large tub of salted or toffee popcorn...
October 2014: Appetite
Vasilis Kontis, Colin D Mathers, Jürgen Rehm, Gretchen A Stevens, Kevin D Shield, Ruth Bonita, Leanne M Riley, Vladimir Poznyak, Robert Beaglehole, Majid Ezzati
BACKGROUND: Countries have agreed to reduce premature mortality (defined as the probability of dying between the ages of 30 years and 70 years) from four main non-communicable diseases (NCDs)--cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, cancers, and diabetes--by 25% from 2010 levels by 2025 (referred to as 25×25 target). Targets for selected NCD risk factors have also been agreed on. We estimated the contribution of achieving six risk factor targets towards meeting the 25×25 mortality target...
August 2, 2014: Lancet
Chandrakant S Pandav, Kapil Yadav, Rahul Srivastava, Rijuta Pandav, M G Karmarkar
Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD...
September 2013: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Young-Ho Khang
Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are the most important causes of premature mortality and disability-adjusted life years in Korea. NCDs are also the main contributor to socioeconomic inequalities in mortality and life expectancy. Reduction of NCDs and NCD inequalities would result in significant improvement in healthy life expectancy and health equity in Korea. Major NCD risk factors such as dietary risks (including salt intake), alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and high blood pressure were found to be the leading modifiable risk factors of disability-adjusted life years in Korea, based on the 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study...
July 2013: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
Rodrigo Rodriguez-Fernandez, Margarida Siopa, Sarah J Simpson, Rachel M Amiya, Joao Breda, Francesco P Cappuccio
OBJECTIVE: To assess current salt reduction policies in countries of the WHO European Region against the backdrop of varying levels of human development adjusted for income, education and health (longevity) inequalities. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study, with data gathered through systematic review of relevant databases and supplementary information provided by WHO Nutrition Counterparts. SETTING: Member States of the WHO European Region...
August 2014: Public Health Nutrition
Loretta McKinnon, Katrina Giskes, Gavin Turrell
OBJECTIVES: To assess socio-economic differences in three components of nutrition knowledge, i.e. knowledge of (i) the relationship between diet and disease, (ii) the nutrient content of foods and (iii) dietary guideline recommendations; furthermore, to determine if socio-economic differences in nutrition knowledge contribute to inequalities in food purchasing choices. DESIGN: The cross-sectional study considered household food purchasing, nutrition knowledge, socio-economic and demographic information...
August 2014: Public Health Nutrition
Barbara S Bucher, Alessandra Ferrarini, Nico Weber, Marina Bullo, Mario G Bianchetti, Giacomo D Simonetti
There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure in children and adolescents, because of its association with the obesity epidemic. Moreover, cardiovascular function and blood pressure level are determined in childhood and track into adulthood. Primary hypertension in childhood is defined by persistent blood pressure values ≥ the 95th percentile and without a secondary cause. Preventable risk factors for elevated blood pressure in childhood are overweight, dietary habits, salt intake, sedentary lifestyle, poor sleep quality and passive smoking, whereas non-preventable risk factors include race, gender, genetic background, low birth weight, prematurity, and socioeconomic inequalities...
October 2013: Current Hypertension Reports
Linda J Cobiac, Lennert Veerman, Theo Vos
Concern about the overconsumption of unhealthy foods is growing worldwide. With high global rates of noncommunicable diseases related to poor nutrition and projections of more rapid increases of rates in low- and middle-income countries, it is vital to identify effective but low-cost interventions. Cost-effectiveness studies show that individually targeted dietary interventions can be effective and cost-effective, but a growing number of modeling studies suggest that population-wide approaches may bring larger and more sustained benefits for population health at a lower cost to society...
2013: Annual Review of Nutrition
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