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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432867/examining-the-direct-and-indirect-effects-of-visual-verbal-paired-associate-learning-on-chinese-word-reading
#1
George Georgiou, Cuina Liu, Shiyang Xu
Associative learning, traditionally measured with paired associate learning (PAL) tasks, has been found to predict reading ability in several languages. However, it remains unclear whether it also predicts word reading in Chinese, which is known for its ambiguous print-sound correspondences, and whether its effects are direct or indirect through the effects of other reading-related skills such as phonological awareness and rapid naming. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect effects of visual-verbal PAL on word reading in an unselected sample of Chinese children followed from the second to the third kindergarten year...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431841/cognitive-profile-and-disorders-affecting-higher-brain-functions-in-paediatric-patients-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#2
E Vaucheret Paz, A López Ballent, C Puga, M J García Basalo, F Baliarda, C Ekonen, R Ilari, G Agosta
INTRODUCTION: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common neurocutaneous syndrome often associated with specific cognitive deficits that are rarely monitored during follow-up of these patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study is two-fold. First, we aimed to describe the cognitive profile of patients with NF1 and detect disorders in higher brain functions associated with the disease. Second, we identified the reasons for consultation associated with school performance in these patients...
April 18, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430974/using-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-of-the-undamaged-brain-to-identify-lesion-sites-that-predict-language-outcome-after-stroke
#3
Diego L Lorca-Puls, Andrea Gajardo-Vidal, Mohamed L Seghier, Alexander P Leff, Varun Sethi, Susan Prejawa, Thomas M H Hope, Joseph T Devlin, Cathy J Price
Transcranial magnetic stimulation focused on either the left anterior supramarginal gyrus or opercular part of the left inferior frontal gyrus has been reported to transiently impair the ability to perform phonological more than semantic tasks. Here we tested whether phonological processing abilities were also impaired following lesions to these regions in right-handed, English speaking adults, who were investigated at least 1 year after a left-hemisphere stroke. When our regions of interest were limited to 0...
April 18, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429816/a-randomised-controlled-trial-to-test-the-effect-of-promoting-caregiver-contingent-talk-on-language-development-in-infants-from-diverse-socioeconomic-status-backgrounds
#4
Michelle McGillion, Julian M Pine, Jane S Herbert, Danielle Matthews
BACKGROUND: Early language skills are critical for later academic success. Lower socioeconomic status (SES) children tend to start school with limited language skills compared to advantaged peers. We test the hypothesis that this is due in part to differences in caregiver contingent talk during infancy (how often the caregiver talks about what is in the focus of the infant's attention). METHODS: In a randomised controlled trial with high and low SES families, 142 11-month olds and their caregivers were randomly allocated to either a contingent talk intervention or a dental health control...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427388/movement-cognition-and-narration-of-the-emotions-treatment-versus-standard-speech-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-children-with-borderline-intellectual-functioning-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
V Blasi, G Baglio, F Baglio, M P Canevini, M Zanette
BACKGROUND: Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is defined as a "health meta-condition… characterized by various cognitive dysfunctions associated with an intellectual quotient (IQ) between 71 and 85 which determines a deficit in the individual's functioning both in the restriction of activities and in the limitation of social participation". It can be caused by many factors, including a disadvantaged background and prematurity. BIF affects 7-12% of primary school children that show academic difficulties due to poor executive functioning...
April 20, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424636/the-neural-basis-of-speech-perception-through-lipreading-and-manual-cues-evidence-from-deaf-native-users-of-cued-speech
#6
Mario Aparicio, Philippe Peigneux, Brigitte Charlier, Danielle Balériaux, Martin Kavec, Jacqueline Leybaert
We present here the first neuroimaging data for perception of Cued Speech (CS) by deaf adults who are native users of CS. CS is a visual mode of communicating a spoken language through a set of manual cues which accompany lipreading and disambiguate it. With CS, sublexical units of the oral language are conveyed clearly and completely through the visual modality without requiring hearing. The comparison of neural processing of CS in deaf individuals with processing of audiovisual (AV) speech in normally hearing individuals represents a unique opportunity to explore the similarities and differences in neural processing of an oral language delivered in a visuo-manual vs...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424634/when-the-second-language-takes-the-lead-neurocognitive-processing-changes-in-the-first-language-of-adult-attriters
#7
Kristina Kasparian, Karsten Steinhauer
Although research on multilingualism has revealed continued neuroplasticity for language-learning beyond what was previously expected, it remains controversial whether and to what extent a second language (L2) acquired in adulthood may induce changes in the neurocognitive processing of a first language (L1). First language (L1) attrition in adulthood offers new insight on neuroplasticity and the factors that modulate neurocognitive responses to language. To date, investigations of the neurocognitive correlates of L1 attrition and of factors influencing these mechanisms are still scarce...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418117/articulating-the-ideal-50-years-of-interprofessional-collaboration-in-medical-education
#8
Elise Paradis, Mandy Pipher, Carrie Cartmill, J Cristian Rangel, Cynthia R Whitehead
CONTEXT: Health care delivery and the education of clinicians have changed immensely since the creation of the journal Medical Education. In this project, we seek to answer the following three questions: How has the concept of collaboration changed over the past 50 years in Medical Education? Have the participants involved in collaboration shifted over time? Has the idea of collaboration itself been transformed over the past 50 years? METHODS: Starting from a constructionist view of scientific discourse, we used directed content analysis to sample, code and analyse 144 collaboration-related articles over the 50-year life span of Medical Education...
April 18, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417463/pharmacological-interventions-for-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-an-attempted-network-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Francesca Saffioti, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy, Neil Hawkins, Clare D Toon, Emmanuel Tsochatzis, Brian R Davidson, Douglas Thorburn
BACKGROUND: Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic cholestatic liver disease that is associated with both hepatobiliary and colorectal malignancies, which can result in liver cirrhosis and its complications. The optimal pharmacological treatment for patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: To assess the comparative benefits and harms of different pharmacological interventions in people with primary sclerosing cholangitis by performing a network meta-analysis, and to generate rankings of available pharmacological interventions according to their safety and efficacy...
March 28, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415998/effectiveness-of-current-policing-related-mental-health-interventions-in-england-and-wales-and-crisis-intervention-teams-as-a-future-potential-model-a-systematic-review
#10
Eddie Kane, Emily Evans, Farhad Shokraneh
BACKGROUND: Experiencing mental ill health adds a layer of complexity for individuals in touch with the justice system and for those responsible for working in the justice service with these individuals, such as frontline police officers. In England and Wales, there are three commonly used but not necessarily commonly designed or operated, mental health interventions associated with policing, Liaison and Diversion, Street Triage and specialist staff embedded in Police Contact Control Rooms...
April 17, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415140/imaging-modalities-for-characterising-focal-pancreatic-lesions
#11
REVIEW
Lawrence Mj Best, Vishal Rawji, Stephen P Pereira, Brian R Davidson, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: Increasing numbers of incidental pancreatic lesions are being detected each year. Accurate characterisation of pancreatic lesions into benign, precancerous, and cancer masses is crucial in deciding whether to use treatment or surveillance. Distinguishing benign lesions from precancerous and cancerous lesions can prevent patients from undergoing unnecessary major surgery. Despite the importance of accurately classifying pancreatic lesions, there is no clear algorithm for management of focal pancreatic lesions...
April 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413099/second-line-biologic-therapy-optimization-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-psoriatic-arthritis-and-ankylosing-spondylitis
#12
REVIEW
Fabrizio Cantini, Laura Niccoli, Carlotta Nannini, Emanuele Cassarà, Olga Kaloudi, Ennio Giulio Favalli, Andrea Becciolini, Maurizio Benucci, Francesca Li Gobbi, Serena Guiducci, Rosario Foti, Marta Mosca, Delia Goletti
OBJECTIVE: The Italian board for the TAilored BIOlogic therapy (ITABIO) reviewed the most consistent literature to indicate the best strategy for the second-line biologic choice in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), spondyloarthritis (SpA), and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). METHODS: Systematic review of the literature to identify English-language articles on efficacy of second-line biologic choice in RA, PsA, and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Data were extracted from available randomized, controlled trials, national biologic registries, national healthcare databases, post-marketing surveys, and open-label observational studies...
March 22, 2017: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412959/opportunities-for-developing-therapies-for-rare-genetic-diseases-focus-on-gain-of-function-and-allostery
#13
Binbin Chen, Russ B Altman
BACKGROUND: Advances in next generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized our ability to discover the causes of rare genetic diseases. However, developing treatments for these diseases remains challenging. In fact, when we systematically analyze the US FDA orphan drug list, we find that only 8% of rare diseases have an FDA-designated drug. Our approach leverages three primary insights: first, diseases with gain-of-function mutations and late onset are more likely to have drug options; second, drugs are more often inhibitors than activators; and third, some disease-causing proteins can be rescued by allosteric activators in diseases due to loss-of-function mutations...
April 17, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411058/brain-signatures-of-early-lexical-and-morphological-learning-of-a-new-language
#14
Viktória Havas, Matti Laine, Antoni Rodríguez Fornells
Morphology is an important part of language processing but little is known about how adult second language learners acquire morphological rules. Using a word-picture associative learning task, we have previously shown that a brief exposure to novel words with embedded morphological structure (suffix for natural gender) is enough for language learners to acquire the hidden morphological rule. Here we used this paradigm to study the brain signatures of early morphological learning in a novel language in adults...
April 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408898/from-lexical-tone-to-lexical-stress-a-cross-language-mediation-model-for-cantonese-children-learning-english-as-a-second-language
#15
William Choi, Xiuli Tong, Leher Singh
This study investigated how Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity contributed to English lexical stress sensitivity among Cantonese children who learned English as a second language (ESL). Five-hundred-and-sixteen second-to-third grade Cantonese ESL children were tested on their Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity, English lexical stress sensitivity, general auditory sensitivity, and working memory. Structural equation modeling revealed that Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity contributed to English lexical stress sensitivity both directly, and indirectly through the mediation of general auditory sensitivity, in which the direct pathway had a larger relative contribution to English lexical stress sensitivity than the indirect pathway...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408872/social-interaction-affects-neural-outcomes-of-sign-language-learning-as-a-foreign-language-in-adults
#16
Noriaki Yusa, Jungho Kim, Masatoshi Koizumi, Motoaki Sugiura, Ryuta Kawashima
Children naturally acquire a language in social contexts where they interact with their caregivers. Indeed, research shows that social interaction facilitates lexical and phonological development at the early stages of child language acquisition. It is not clear, however, whether the relationship between social interaction and learning applies to adult second language acquisition of syntactic rules. Does learning second language syntactic rules through social interactions with a native speaker or without such interactions impact behavior and the brain? The current study aims to answer this question...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408725/screening-for-developmental-delay-in-preschool-aged-children-using-parent-completed-ages-and-stages-questionnaires-additional-insights-into-child-development
#17
Soheir S Abo El Elella, Maha A M Tawfik, Wafaa Moustafa M Abo El Fotoh, Naglaa Fathy Barseem
BACKGROUND: Developmental delay is a delay in areas of speech, language, motor, social and cognitive development. Because of the negative impact of intellectual and learning disabilities, early identification of children with developmental and behavioral problems using appropriate screening tests is crucial. OBJECTIVES: Utilization of parent-completed Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQs) for detecting the developmental delay in preschool age children and clarification of possible associated risk factors...
April 13, 2017: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407219/multiple-micronutrient-supplementation-for-women-during-pregnancy
#18
REVIEW
Batool A Haider, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Multiple-micronutrient (MMN) deficiencies often coexist among women of reproductive age in low- to middle-income countries. They are exacerbated in pregnancy due to the increased demands, leading to potentially adverse effects on the mother and developing fetus. Though supplementation with MMNs has been recommended earlier because of the evidence of impact on pregnancy outcomes, a consensus is yet to be reached regarding the replacement of iron and folic acid supplementation with MMNs...
April 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406932/a-comparison-of-stimulus-types-in-online-classification-of-the-p300-speller-using-language-models
#19
William Speier, Aniket Deshpande, Lucy Cui, Nand Chandravadia, Dustin Roberts, Nader Pouratian
The P300 Speller is a common brain-computer interface communication system. There are many parallel lines of research underway to overcome the system's low signal to noise ratio and thereby improve performance, including using famous face stimuli and integrating language information into the classifier. While both have been shown separately to provide significant improvements, the two methods have not yet been implemented together to demonstrate that the improvements are complimentary. The goal of this study is therefore twofold...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406660/maternal-pre-and-postnatal-mental-health-and-infant-development-in-war-conditions-the-gaza-infant-study
#20
Raija-Leena Punamäki, Safwat Y Diab, Sanna Isosävi, Saija Kuittinen, Samir R Qouta
OBJECTIVE: Women and their infants need special protection in war context, as traumatic events can risk maternal mental and obstetric health and compromise infant development. This prospective study examined, first, how exposure to war trauma is associated with maternal mental health in pregnancy and postpartum, obstetric and newborn health, and infant development. Second, it tested the role of maternal mental health and obstetric risks in mediating between war trauma and infant development...
April 13, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
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