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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649802/punctal-occlusion-for-dry-eye-syndrome
#1
REVIEW
Ann-Margret Ervin, Andrew Law, Andrew D Pucker
BACKGROUND: Dry eye syndrome is a disorder of the tear film that is associated with symptoms of ocular discomfort. Punctal occlusion is a mechanical treatment that blocks the tear drainage system in order to aid in the preservation of natural tears on the ocular surface. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of punctal plugs versus no punctal plugs, different types of punctal plugs, and other interventions for managing dry eye. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 11), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 8 December 2016), Embase...
June 26, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649216/retrieval-and-encoding-interference-cross-linguistic-evidence-from-anaphor-processing
#2
Anna Laurinavichyute, Lena A Jäger, Yulia Akinina, Jennifer Roß, Olga Dragoy
The main goal of this paper was to disentangle encoding and retrieval interference effects in anaphor processing and thus to evaluate the hypothesis predicting that structurally inaccessible nouns (distractors) are not considered to be potential anaphor antecedents during language processing (Nicol and Swinney, 1989). Three self-paced reading experiments were conducted: one in German, comparing gender-unmarked reflexives and gender-marked pronouns, and two in Russian, comparing gender-marked and -unmarked reflexives...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648285/simultaneous-learning-of-two-languages-from-birth-positively-impacts-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-and-cognitive-control
#3
Shanna Kousaie, Xiaoqian J Chai, Kaija M Sander, Denise Klein
This study explores the effect of individual differences in the age of acquisition of a second language using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to examine functional connectivity and its relation with cognitive control within bilinguals. We compared simultaneous bilinguals, who learned two languages from birth, to sequential bilinguals, who learned a second language following mastery of their first language. Results show an effect of language experience on the strength of anticorrelation between the default mode network and the task-positive attention network and on cognitive control, with simultaneous bilinguals demonstrating stronger anticorrelations between the two networks, as well as superior cognitive control compared to sequential bilinguals...
June 22, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646654/inducing-asymmetrical-switch-costs-in-bilingual-language-comprehension-by-language-practice
#4
Mathieu Declerck, Jonathan Grainger
The most widely discussed observation in the language control literature is the larger cost found when switching into the first than the second language (i.e., asymmetrical switch costs), which has been determined as a marker of persisting, reactive inhibition. While this is a common effect in bilingual language production, it generally does not occur in bilingual language comprehension. In this bilingual language comprehension study, we manipulated the relative activation of languages by letting participants practice in pure language blocks prior to a mixed language block...
June 21, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645667/effect-of-different-restorative-crown-and-customized-abutment-materials-on-stress-distribution-in-single-implants-and-peripheral-bone-a-three-dimensional-finite-element-analysis-study
#5
Necati Kaleli, Duygu Sarac, Safak Külünk, Özgür Öztürk
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: In recent years, the use of resin-matrix ceramics and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) abutments has been suggested to absorb excessive stresses on dental implants. However, only a few studies have evaluated the effect of these materials on stress distribution in implants and peripheral bone structure. PURPOSE: The purpose of this finite element analysis was to evaluate the biomechanical behaviors of resin-matrix ceramics and PEEK customized abutments in terms of stress distribution in implants and peripheral bone...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639707/dressings-and-topical-agents-for-treating-pressure-ulcers
#6
REVIEW
Maggie J Westby, Jo C Dumville, Marta O Soares, Nikki Stubbs, Gill Norman
BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcers, also known as bedsores, decubitus ulcers and pressure injuries, are localised areas of injury to the skin or the underlying tissue, or both. Dressings are widely used to treat pressure ulcers and promote healing, and there are many options to choose from including alginate, hydrocolloid and protease-modulating dressings. Topical agents have also been used as alternatives to dressings in order to promote healing.A clear and current overview of all the evidence is required to facilitate decision-making regarding the use of dressings or topical agents for the treatment of pressure ulcers...
June 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639174/profiling-perceptual-learning-styles-of-chinese-as-a-second-language-learners-in-university-settings
#7
Peijian Paul Sun, Lin Sophie Teng
This study revisited Reid's (1987) perceptual learning style preference questionnaire (PLSPQ) in an attempt to answer whether the PLSPQ fits in the Chinese-as-a-second-language (CSL) context. If not, what are CSL learners' learning styles drawing on the PLSPQ? The PLSPQ was first re-examined through reliability analysis and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with 224 CSL learners. The results showed that Reid's six-factor PLSPQ could not satisfactorily explain the CSL learners' learning styles. Exploratory factor analyses were, therefore, performed to explore the dimensionality of the PLSPQ in the CSL context...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638355/motion-event-similarity-judgments-in-one-or-two-languages-an-exploration-of-monolingual-speakers-of-english-and-chinese-vs-l2-learners-of-english
#8
Yinglin Ji
Languages differ systematically in how to encode a motion event. English characteristically expresses manner in verb root and path in verb particle; in Chinese, varied aspects of motion, such as manner, path and cause, can be simultaneously encoded in a verb compound. This study investigates whether typological differences, as such, influence how first and second language learners conceptualize motion events, as suggested by behavioral evidences. Specifically, the performance of Chinese learners of English, at three proficiencies, was compared to that of two groups of monolingual speakers in a triads matching task...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638330/flat-vs-expressive-storytelling-young-children-s-learning-and-retention-of-a-social-robot-s-narrative
#9
Jacqueline M Kory Westlund, Sooyeon Jeong, Hae W Park, Samuel Ronfard, Aradhana Adhikari, Paul L Harris, David DeSteno, Cynthia L Breazeal
Prior research with preschool children has established that dialogic or active book reading is an effective method for expanding young children's vocabulary. In this exploratory study, we asked whether similar benefits are observed when a robot engages in dialogic reading with preschoolers. Given the established effectiveness of active reading, we also asked whether this effectiveness was critically dependent on the expressive characteristics of the robot. For approximately half the children, the robot's active reading was expressive; the robot's voice included a wide range of intonation and emotion (Expressive)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628521/experiences-of-acute-pain-in-children-who-present-to-a-healthcare-facility-for-treatment-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-evidence
#10
Nicole Pope, Mary Tallon, Ruth McConigley, Gavin Leslie, Sally Wilson
BACKGROUND: Pain is a universal and complex phenomenon that is personal, subjective and specific. Despite growing knowledge in pediatric pain, management of children's pain remains sub-optimal and is linked to negative behavioral and physiological consequences later in life. As there is no synthesis of these studies, it was timely to undertake a systematic review. OBJECTIVES: To identify, evaluate and synthesize the existing qualitative evidence on children's experiences of acute pain, including pain management, within a healthcare facility...
June 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627810/development-of-emotional-and-behavioral-problems-in-neurofibromatosis-type-1-during-young-childhood
#11
André B Rietman, Rianne Oostenbrink, Kimberley van Noort, Marie-Christine J P Franken, Coriene E Catsman-Berrevoets, Femke K Aarsen, Jos G Hendriksen, Pieter F A de Nijs
This retrospective longitudinal study in young children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) aimed to identify if, and how early problems in behavior, intelligence, and language development are associated with later behavioral problems. At the first assessment at preschool age, we evaluated language skills, intelligence, and emotional and behavioral problems as reported by parents. The second assessment at school-age we evaluated intelligence, and emotional and behavioral problems as reported by parents and teachers...
June 19, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627719/the-frontal-assessment-battery-in-clinical-practice-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Miriam Hurtado-Pomares, M Carmen Terol-Cantero, Alicia Sánchez-Pérez, Paula Peral-Gómez, Desirée Valera-Gran, Eva María Navarrete-Muñoz
BACKGROUND: The frontal assessment battery (FAB) is a brief tool designed to evaluate executive function. Some studies have particularly focused on assessing its applicability addressing two issues: first, on detecting the brain regions responsible for the FAB performance, and second, on determining its capability for differential diagnosis. Our aim was to summarize and analyze critically the studies that assessed the neuroanatomical correspondence and the differential diagnostic value of the FAB in several study populations suffering from different pathologies...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626259/lao-language-version-of-the-revised-hasegawa-s-dementia-scale
#13
Sengchanh Kounnavong, Khouanchay Soundavong, Syda Xayavong, Nialoun Vongpraserth, Phongsavang Bounsavath, Souphatsone Houatthongkham, Bounfeng Phoummalaysith, Yu Mon Saw, Eiko Yamamoto, Kenji Toba, Nobuyuki Hamajima
With the aging of society, the number of elderly with reduced cognitive function has been increasing worldwide. As a test to measure the cognitive function, the Revised Hasegawa's Dementia Scale (HDS-R) has been used in Japan, Korea, and China. Since there was no HDS-R version for Laotians, the questionnaire and manual were developed through the cooperation of Lao and Japanese researchers. Back-translation was conducted to confirm the accuracy of the translation. The score on the 9-item HDS-R ranges 0 to 30 points, and reduced cognitive function is usually defined as a score of 20 points or lower...
February 2017: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624932/word-level-and-sentence-level-automaticity-in-english-as-a-foreign-language-efl-learners-a-comparative-study
#14
Dongmei Ma, Xiaoru Yu, Haomin Zhang
The present study aimed to investigate second language (L2) word-level and sentence-level automatic processing among English as a foreign language students through a comparative analysis of students with different proficiency levels. As a multidimensional and dynamic construct, automaticity is conceptualized as processing speed, stability, and accuracy which are indexed by reaction time, coefficient variation and accuracy rate. Sixty students (39 undergraduate students and 21 graduate students) who majored in English participated in this study...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624915/the-contribution-of-surgical-brain-mapping-to-the-understanding-of-the-anatomo-functional-basis-of-syntax-a-critical-review
#15
REVIEW
Elia Zanin, Marco Riva, Valentina Bambini, Stefano F Cappa, Lorenzo Magrassi, Andrea Moro
A wide range of studies on language assessment during awake brain surgery is nowadays available. Yet, a consensus on a standardized protocol for intraoperative language mapping is still lacking. More specifically, very limited information is offered about intraoperative assessment of a crucial component of language such as syntax. This review aims at critically analyzing the intraoperative studies investigating the cerebral basis of syntactic processing. A comprehensive query was performed on the literature, returning a total of 18 studies...
June 17, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622530/brain-network-dynamics-in-the-human-articulatory-loop
#16
Masaaki Nishida, Anna Korzeniewska, Nathan E Crone, Goichiro Toyoda, Yasuo Nakai, Noa Ofen, Erik C Brown, Eishi Asano
OBJECTIVE: The articulatory loop is a fundamental component of language function, involved in the short-term buffer of auditory information followed by its vocal reproduction. We characterized the network dynamics of the human articulatory loop, using invasive recording and stimulation. METHODS: We measured high-gamma activity70-110 Hz recorded intracranially when patients with epilepsy either only listened to, or listened to and then reproduced two successive tones by humming...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621768/imaging-and-fluid-biomarkers-in-frontotemporal-dementia
#17
REVIEW
Lieke H Meeter, Laura Donker Kaat, Jonathan D Rohrer, John C van Swieten
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD), the second most common type of presenile dementia, is a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive behavioural and/or language problems, and includes a range of clinical, genetic and pathological subtypes. The diagnostic process is hampered by this heterogeneity, and correct diagnosis is becoming increasingly important to enable future clinical trials of disease-modifying treatments. Reliable biomarkers will enable us to better discriminate between FTD and other forms of dementia and to predict disease progression in the clinical setting...
June 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619421/the-protective-role-of-maternal-posttraumatic-growth-and-cognitive-trauma-processing-among-palestinian-mothers-and-infants
#18
Safwat Y Diab, Sanna Isosävi, Samir R Qouta, Saija Kuittinen, Raija-Leena Punamäki
War survivors use multiple cognitive and emotional processes to protect their mental health from the negative impacts of trauma. Because mothers and infants may be especially vulnerable to trauma in conditions of war, it is urgent to determine which cognitive and emotional processes are effective for preventing negative trauma impacts." This study examined whether mothers' high posttraumatic growth (PTG) and positive posttraumatic cognitions (PTC) protected (a) their own mental health and (b) their infants' stress regulation and sensorimotor and language development from the effects of war trauma...
June 12, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618823/effects-of-rhythm-and-phrase-final-lengthening-on-word-spotting-in-korean
#19
Hae-Sung Jeon, Amalia Arvaniti
A word-spotting experiment was conducted to investigate whether rhythmic consistency and phrase-final lengthening facilitate performance in Korean. Listeners had to spot disyllabic and trisyllabic words in nonsense strings organized in phrases with either the same or variable syllable count; phrase-final lengthening was absent, or occurring either in all phrases or only in the phrase immediately preceding the target. The results show that, for disyllabic targets, inconsistent syllable count and lengthening before the target led to fewer errors...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618297/does-communication-partner-training-improve-the-conversation-skills-of-speech-language-pathology-students-when-interacting-with-people-with-aphasia
#20
Emma Finch, Ashley Cameron, Jennifer Fleming, Jennifer Lethlean, Kyla Hudson, Steven McPhail
BACKGROUND: Aphasia is a common consequence of stroke. Despite receiving specialised training in communication, speech-language pathology students may lack confidence when communicating with People with Aphasia (PWA). This paper reports data from secondary outcome measures from a randomised controlled trial. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of communication partner training on the communication skills of speech-language pathology students during conversations with PWA...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
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