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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525928/-indicators-for-speech-comprehension-in-migrant-children-a-comparison-of-extreme-groups
#1
Christiane Kiese-Himmel, Herbert Poinstingl, Nicole von Steinbüchel
Objective Children with migrant background learning German as second language are frequently considered having problems in speech comprehension and speaking; nevertheless, it is very difficult to objectify that for young children. For this purpose risk-factors should be determined empirically. Material and Methods The study comprised 126 children from a developmental longitudinal study in 7 day-care centers in Frankfurt/M and Darmstadt. The sample was sorted into two extreme groups by their achievement in oral German language comprehension: criterion T-score ≥46=age appropriate (N=61) vs...
May 19, 2017: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523224/the-treatment-methods-for-post-stroke-visual-impairment-a%C3%A2-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Kerry Louise Hanna, Lauren Rachel Hepworth, Fiona J Rowe
AIM: To provide a systematic overview of interventions for stroke related visual impairments. METHOD: A systematic review of the literature was conducted including randomized controlled trials, controlled trials, cohort studies, observational studies, systematic reviews, and retrospective medical note reviews. All languages were included and translation obtained. This review covers adult participants (aged 18 years or over) diagnosed with a visual impairment as a direct cause of a stroke...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516192/the-value-of-gesell-score-in-predicting-the-outcome-of-cochlear-implantation-in-children
#3
Yang Yang, Liu Haihong, Zheng Jun, Chen Min, Li Ying, Hao Jinsheng, Liu Wei, Zhang Jie, Ni Xin
The purpose is to determine the value of preoperative evaluation on developmental levels using Gesell score in predicting the postoperative outcome in pediatric cochlear implantation (CI) recipients. 78 children who underwent CI were included in our study. Age at the time of CI ranged from 6 to 67 months. The Gesell score including adaptability, fine motor, gross motor, language, and social skill was used for evaluating the patients' developmental levels before the CI, and a developmental quotient (DQ) was calculated by the following formula: (developmental age/actual age) × 100...
May 17, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512275/knowledge-attitude-and-practice-of-pregnant-women-regarding-oral-health-status-and-treatment-needs-following-oral-health-education-in-pune-district-of-maharashtra-a-longitudinal-hospital-based-study
#4
Roshani M Chawla, Sahana H Shetiya, Deepti R Agarwal, Pranjan Mitra, Nikhil A Bomble, D Satya Narayana
INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy is a natural process that may create some changes in different parts of the body including the oral cavity. These changes will lead to oral diseases if enough and timely care of oral cavity is not taken. Women may experience increased gingivitis or pregnancy gingivitis beginning in the second or third month of pregnancy that increases in severity throughout the duration of pregnancy. To motivate the patient toward oral health and implement the needed prophylactic measures, a longitudinal study was planned to observe the effect of oral health education during pregnancy on knowledge, attitude, practice, oral health status, and treatment needs (TNs) of pregnant women belonging to different socioeconomic groups...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508598/for-debate-should-we-worry-about-hematospermia-in-adolescents-and-young-men-a-report-of-six-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
EDITORIAL
Vincenzo De Sanctis, Javaad Zargooshi, Alberto Marsciani, Ashraf T Soliman, Heba Elsedfy, Nada A Soliman, Salvatore Di Maio
Hematospermia or hemospermia is defined as the presence of blood in ejaculate. The true prevalence of the condition is unknown because many cases escape the patient's notice, and remain unrecognized and unreported. There are two main aims in the patient evaluation: first, to ensure that there is no specific condition that is treatable; second, to reassure the patient's parents that no causative factor is present. Many physicians are unfamiliar with this disorder and this forms the basis for our current review...
March 2017: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507524/changing-what-you-see-by-changing-what-you-know-the-role-of-attention
#6
Gary Lupyan
Attending is a cognitive process that incorporates a person's knowledge, goals, and expectations. What we perceive when we attend to one thing is different from what we perceive when we attend to something else. Yet, it is often argued that attentional effects do not count as evidence that perception is influenced by cognition. I investigate two arguments often given to justify excluding attention. The first is arguing that attention is a post-perceptual process reflecting selection between fully constructed perceptual representations...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506904/ordinal-convolutional-neural-networks-for-predicting-rdoc-positive-valence-psychiatric-symptom-severity-scores
#7
Anthony Rios, Ramakanth Kavuluru
BACKGROUND: The CEGS N-GRID 2016 Shared Task in Clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP) provided a set of 1000 neuropsychiatric notes to participants as part of a competition to predict psychiatric symptom severity scores. This paper summarizes our methods, results, and experiences based on our participation in the second track of the shared task. OBJECTIVE: Classical methods of text classification usually fall into one of three problem types: binary, multi-class, and multi-label classification...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505522/the-knowledge-about-older-patients-quiz-kop-q-for-nurses-cross-cultural-validation-between-the-netherlands-and-united-states-of-america
#8
Jeroen Dikken, Jita G Hoogerduijn, Sharon Klaassen, Mary D Lagerwey, Lillie Shortridge-Baggett, Marieke J Schuurmans
BACKGROUND: The Knowledge about Older Patients-Quiz (KOP-Q) is designed as a unidimensional scale measuring knowledge of hospital nurses about older patients. Furthermore, the KOP-Q measures a second unidimensional construct, certainty of hospital nurses about their knowledge. The KOP-Q is developed and validated in the Netherlands. Whether the KOP-Q can be used in other countries is unknown given the cultural and language differences. OBJECTIVES: Investigate the level of measurement invariance of the KOP-Q between the Netherlands and United States of America (USA)...
May 6, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504837/immunotherapy-for-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma
#9
REVIEW
Susanne Unverzagt, Ines Moldenhauer, Monika Nothacker, Dorothea Roßmeißl, Andreas V Hadjinicolaou, Frank Peinemann, Francesco Greco, Barbara Seliger
BACKGROUND: Since the mid-2000s, the field of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has experienced a paradigm shift from non-specific therapy with broad-acting cytokines to specific regimens, which directly target the cancer, the tumour microenvironment, or both.Current guidelines recommend targeted therapies with agents such as sunitinib, pazopanib or temsirolimus (for people with poor prognosis) as the standard of care for first-line treatment of people with mRCC and mention non-specific cytokines as an alternative option for selected patients...
May 15, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504532/orthography-affects-second-language-speech-double-letters-and-geminate-production-in-english
#10
Bene Bassetti
Second languages (L2s) are often learned through spoken and written input, and L2 orthographic forms (spellings) can lead to non-native-like pronunciation. The present study investigated whether orthography can lead experienced learners of EnglishL2 to make a phonological contrast in their speech production that does not exist in English. Double consonants represent geminate (long) consonants in Italian but not in English. In Experiment 1, native English speakers and EnglishL2 speakers (Italians) were asked to read aloud English words spelled with a single or double target consonant letter, and consonant duration was compared...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503906/more-than-words-the-role-of-multiword-sequences-in-language-learning-and-use
#11
Morten H Christiansen, Inbal Arnon
The ability to convey our thoughts using an infinite number of linguistic expressions is one of the hallmarks of human language. Understanding the nature of the psychological mechanisms and representations that give rise to this unique productivity is a fundamental goal for the cognitive sciences. A long-standing hypothesis is that single words and rules form the basic building blocks of linguistic productivity, with multiword sequences being treated as units only in peripheral cases such as idioms. The new millennium, however, has seen a shift toward construing multiword linguistic units not as linguistic rarities, but as important building blocks for language acquisition and processing...
May 14, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500472/impaired-interpretation-of-others-behavior-is-associated-with-difficulties-in-recognizing-pragmatic-language-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#12
Keita Fukuhara, Yasuhiro Ogawa, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Yuma Nagata, Saiji Nishida, Daisuke Haga, Takashi Nishikawa
Much attention has been paid to the pragmatic language function in schizophrenia. This study of Japanese patients with schizophrenia examined the relationship between impaired interpretation of the behaviors of other people in social contexts and the ability to recognize metaphor and irony. We assessed 34 patients with schizophrenia and 34 normal subjects using first- and second-order theory of mind tasks, the Metaphor and Sarcasm Scenario Test, and the Dewey Story Test (which tests the ability to judge others' social behaviors)...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500021/thoracic-surgery-information-on-the-internet-a-multilingual-quality-assessment
#13
Myles Davaris, Stephen Barnett, Robert Abouassaly, Nathan Lawrentschuk
BACKGROUND: Previous data suggest that quality of Internet information regarding surgical conditions and their treatments is variable. However, no comprehensive analysis of website quality exists for thoracic surgery. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to quantify website quality in a multilingual setting using an international standard for assessment. METHODS: Health On the Net (HON) principles may be applied to websites using an automated toolbar function...
May 12, 2017: Interactive Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498529/mother-adolescent-proficiency-in-a-common-language-facilitates-socialization-among-mexican-origin-families
#14
Thomas J Schofield, Rand D Conger, Richard W Robins, Scott Coltrane, Ross D Parke
The primary goal of this study was to test how mother and adolescent proficiency in a common language moderates the link from parenting to adolescent development. A sample of Mexican-origin fifth-grade adolescents (N = 674, 50% female) was measured longitudinally on self-control and aggression. Mothers were rated on observed positive discipline, warmth, and harsh discipline. Positive discipline and warm parenting predicted increases in self-control and decreases in aggression, but only among mother-adolescent dyads who were proficient in a common language...
March 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498088/mental-health-problems-of-second-generation-children-and-adolescents-with-migration-background
#15
Veysi Ceri, Zeliha Özlü-Erkilic, Ürün Özer, Tayyib Kadak, Dietmar Winkler, Burak Dogangün, Türkan Akkaya-Kalayci
OBJECTIVE: Despite the growing number of young second-generation immigrant (SGI) children and adolescents, studies about their mental health are rare. The objective of this study was to investigate the mental health problems of SGI children and adolescents in Istanbul, Turkey. METHODS: In a clinical sample the mental health of 54 SGIs and 50 native children and adolescents were examined using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) and Children's Global Assessment Scale...
February 24, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497568/neuropsychological-phenotypes-of-76-individuals-with-joubert-syndrome-evaluated-at-a-single-center
#16
Angela C Summers, Joseph Snow, Edythe Wiggs, Alexander G Liu, Camilo Toro, Andrea Poretti, Wadih M Zein, Brian P Brooks, Melissa A Parisi, Sara Inati, Dan Doherty, Meghana Vemulapalli, Jim C Mullikin, Thierry Vilboux, William A Gahl, Meral Gunay-Aygun
Joubert syndrome (JS) is a genetically heterogeneous ciliopathy characterized by hypo-dysplasia of the cerebellar vermis, a distinct hindbrain/midbrain malformation (molar tooth sign), and intellectual disability. We evaluated the neuropsychological profiles of 76 participants with JS in the context of molecular genetics and clinical covariates. Evaluations included neuropsychological testing, structured parental interviews, DNA sequencing, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electroencephalography (EEG), ophthalmologic examination, and assessment for renal and hepatic disease...
May 12, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497530/short-term-memory-in-childhood-dyslexia-deficient-serial-order-in-multiple-modalities
#17
Nelson Cowan, Tiffany P Hogan, Mary Alt, Samuel Green, Kathryn L Cabbage, Shara Brinkley, Shelley Gray
In children with dyslexia, deficits in working memory have not been well-specified. We assessed second-grade children with dyslexia, with and without concomitant specific language impairment, and children with typical development. Immediate serial recall of lists of phonological (non-word), lexical (digit), spatial (location) and visual (shape) items were included. For the latter three modalities, we used not only standard span but also running span tasks, in which the list length was unpredictable to limit mnemonic strategies...
May 12, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496423/the-inhibitory-mechanism-in-learning-ambiguous-words-in-a-second-language
#18
Yao Lu, Junjie Wu, Susan Dunlap, Baoguo Chen
Ambiguous words are hard to learn, yet little is known about what causes this difficulty. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between the representations of new and prior meanings of ambiguous words in second language (L2) learning, and to explore the function of inhibitory control on L2 ambiguous word learning at the initial stage of learning. During a 4-day learning phase, Chinese-English bilinguals learned 30 novel English words for 30 min per day using bilingual flashcards. Half of the words to be learned were unambiguous (had one meaning) and half were ambiguous (had two semantically unrelated meanings learned in sequence)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495598/mental-arithmetic-in-the-bilingual-brain-language-matters
#19
Amandine Van Rinsveld, Laurence Dricot, Mathieu Guillaume, Bruno Rossion, Christine Schiltz
How do bilinguals solve arithmetic problems in each of their languages? We investigated this question by exploring the neural substrates of mental arithmetic in bilinguals. Critically, our population was composed of a homogeneous group of adults who were fluent in both of their instruction languages (i.e., German as first instruction language and French as second instruction language). Twenty bilinguals were scanned with fMRI (3T) while performing mental arithmetic. Both simple and complex problems were presented to disentangle memory retrieval occuring in very simple problems from arithmetic computation occuring in more complex problems...
May 8, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494627/problem-based-learning-in-occupational-therapy-curriculum-implications-and-challenges
#20
Michal Avrech Bar, Margalit Pade, Tal Jarus, Sarah Gat, Yael Kaufman Cohen, Lena Lipskaya-Velikovsky
PURPOSE: Problem-based learning (PBL) is an educational method that fosters self-directed study in small groups. The purpose of this study was to describe the Tel Aviv University's occupational therapy (OT) program and the challenges implementing such program. In addition, the study compared the PBL grades obtained by students who are native Hebrew speakers with those students who are native Arabic speakers; and, assessed the correlation between the grades in the PBL course and the grades in the clinical fieldwork studies...
May 11, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
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