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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097361/folic-acid-supplementation-for-the-prevention-of-neural-tube-defects-an-updated-evidence-report-and-systematic-review-for-the-us-preventive-services-task-force
#1
Meera Viswanathan, Katherine A Treiman, Julia Kish-Doto, Jennifer C Middleton, Emmanuel J L Coker-Schwimmer, Wanda K Nicholson
Importance: Neural tube defects are among the most common congenital anomalies in the United States. Periconceptional folic acid supplementation is a primary care-relevant preventive intervention. Objective: To review the evidence on folic acid supplementation for preventing neural tube defects to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force for an updated Recommendation Statement. Data Sources: MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and trial registries through January 28, 2016, with ongoing surveillance through November 11, 2016; references; experts...
January 10, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095382/examination-of-anomalous-world-experience-a-report-on-reliability
#2
Joseph Conerty, Borut Skodlar, Elizabeth Pienkos, Tina Zadravek, Greg Byrom, Louis Sass
BACKGROUND: The EAWE (Examination of Anomalous World Experience) is a newly developed, semi-structured interview that aims to capture anomalies of subjectivity, common in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, that pertain to experiences of the lived world, including space, time, people, language, atmosphere, and certain existential attitudes. By contrast, previous empirical studies of subjective experience in schizophrenia have focused largely on disturbances in self-experience. AIM: To assess the reliability of the EAWE, including internal consistency and interrater reliability...
January 18, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095009/cross-lingual-neighborhood-effects-in-generalized-lexical-decision-and-natural-reading
#3
Nicolas Dirix, Uschi Cop, Denis Drieghe, Wouter Duyck
The present study assessed intra- and cross-lingual neighborhood effects, using both a generalized lexical decision task and an analysis of a large-scale bilingual eye-tracking corpus (Cop, Dirix, Drieghe, & Duyck, 2016). Using new neighborhood density and frequency measures, the general lexical decision task yielded an inhibitory cross-lingual neighborhood density effect on reading times of second language words, replicating van Heuven, Dijkstra, and Grainger (1998). Reaction times for native language words were not influenced by neighborhood density or frequency but error rates showed cross-lingual neighborhood effects depending on target word frequency...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091852/the-influence-of-orthography-on-the-production-of-alphabetic-second-language-allophones-by-speakers-of-a-non-alphabetic-language
#4
Jeong-Im Han, Joo-Yeon Kim
This study investigated the influence of orthographic information on the production of allophones in a second language (L2). Two proficiency levels of native Mandarin speakers learned novel Korean words with potential variants of /h/ based on auditory stimuli, and then they were provided various types of spellings for the variants, including the letters for [[Formula: see text]] and ø. Subsequently, picture-naming and spelling recall tasks were given to the Mandarin-speaking learners. The results showed that Mandarin-speaking learners, after exposure to the spellings, began to produce and lexically store the /h/ variants following the given forms of the spellings of words, which provides support for the impact of spellings in the production and lexical storage of L2 allophones...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087847/addressing-disparities-in-low-back-pain-care-by-developing-culturally-appropriate-information-for-aboriginal-australians-my-back-on-track-my-future
#5
Ivan B Lin, Kim Ryder, Juli Coffin, Charmaine Green, Eric Dalgety, Brian Scott, Leon M Straker, Anne J Smith, Peter B O'Sullivan
OBJECTIVES : Addressing disparities in low back pain care (LBP) is an important yet largely unaddressed issue. One avenue to addressing disparities, recommended by clinical guidelines, is to ensure that LBP information is culturally appropriate. Our objectives were, first, to develop LBP information that was culturally appropriate for Aboriginal Australians living in a rural area and, second, to compare this to traditional information. METHODS : The overall information development process was guided by a "cultural security" framework and included partnerships between Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal investigators, a synthesis of research evidence, and participation of a project steering group consisting of local Aboriginal people...
January 13, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076656/combined-inhaled-beta-agonist-and-anticholinergic-agents-for-emergency-management-in-adults-with-asthma
#6
REVIEW
Scott W Kirkland, Christine Vandenberghe, Britt Voaklander, Taylor Nikel, Sandra Campbell, Brian H Rowe
BACKGROUND: Inhaled short-acting anticholinergics (SAAC) and short-acting beta₂-agonists (SABA) are effective therapies for adult patients with acute asthma who present to the emergency department (ED). It is unclear, however, whether the combination of SAAC and SABA treatment is more effective in reducing hospitalisations compared to treatment with SABA alone. OBJECTIVES: To conduct an up-to-date systematic search and meta-analysis on the effectiveness of combined inhaled therapy (SAAC + SABA agents) vs...
January 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065958/role-of-clinical-skill-centre-in-undergraduate-medical-education-initial-experience-at-rehman-medical-college-peshawar
#7
Zainab Shafiq, Tariq Saeed Mufti, Iftikhar Qayum
OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of students on clinical skill factors and to measure the satisfaction level of students related to the training. METHODS: The descriptive study was conducted at Rehman Medical College, Peshawar, Pakistan, from August 1 to September 15, 2013, and comprised all third-year medical students who had undergone clinical skill training. Their performance was evaluated through end-of-module objective structured clinical examination. Students' feedback measuring satisfaction on a five-point Likert scale was obtained on a designed validated tool...
January 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065824/variable-white-matter-atrophy-and-intellectual-development-in-a-family-with-x-linked-creatine-transporter-deficiency-despite-genotypic-homogeneity
#8
Nicole Heussinger, Marc Saake, Angelika Mennecke, Helmuth-Günther Dörr, Regina Trollmann
BACKGROUND: The X-linked creatine transporter deficiency (CRTD) caused by an SLC6A8 mutation represents the second most common cause of X-linked intellectual disability. The clinical phenotype ranges from mild to severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, short stature, poor language skills, and autism spectrum disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate phenotypic variability in the context of genotype, cerebral creatine concentration, and volumetric analysis in a family with CRTD...
October 17, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059566/early-verb-action-and-noun-object-mapping-across-sensory-modalities-a-neuro-developmental-view
#9
Lakshmi Gogate, George Hollich
The authors provide an alternative to the traditional view that verbs are harder to learn than nouns by reviewing three lines of behavioral and neurophysiological evidence in word-mapping development across cultures. First, preverbal infants tune into word-action and word-object pairings using domain-general mechanisms. Second, while post-verbal infants from noun-friendly language environments experience verb-action mapping difficulty, infants from verb-friendly language environments do not. Third, children use language-specific conventions to learn all types of words, although still strongly influenced by their language environment...
January 6, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053921/what-are-the-links-of-prostate-cancer-with-physical-activity-and-nutrition-a-systematic-review-article
#10
REVIEW
Joanna Kruk, Hassan Aboul-Enein
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common malignancy in men worldwide. The purpose of this study was to provide a brief synthesis the current knowledge for the effects of physical activity (PA) and nutrition on PCa risk. METHODS: A systematic review of English languages reviews, meta-analysis, and original articles published from 2009 to 2015 extracted from the following websites: MEDLINE, Web of Science, Health Source, Science Direct, and their references...
December 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052845/efficacy-and-effectiveness-of-screen-and-treat-policies-in-prevention-of-type-2-diabetes-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-screening-tests-and-interventions
#11
Eleanor Barry, Samantha Roberts, Jason Oke, Shanti Vijayaraghavan, Rebecca Normansell, Trisha Greenhalgh
OBJECTIVES:  To assess diagnostic accuracy of screening tests for pre-diabetes and efficacy of interventions (lifestyle or metformin) in preventing onset of type 2 diabetes in people with pre-diabetes. DESIGN:  Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES AND METHOD:  Medline, PreMedline, and Embase. Study protocols and seminal papers were citation-tracked in Google Scholar to identify definitive trials and additional publications...
January 4, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052483/natural-language-processing-to-ascertain-two-key-variables-from-operative-reports-in-ophthalmology
#12
Liyan Liu, Neal H Shorstein, Laura B Amsden, Lisa J Herrinton
PURPOSE: Antibiotic prophylaxis is critical to ophthalmology and other surgical specialties. We performed natural language processing (NLP) of 743 838 operative notes recorded for 315 246 surgeries to ascertain two variables needed to study the comparative effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis in cataract surgery. The first key variable was an exposure variable, intracameral antibiotic injection. The second was an intraoperative complication, posterior capsular rupture (PCR), which functioned as a potential confounder...
January 3, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050745/an-evolving-ecosystem-for-natural-language-processing-in-department-of-veterans-affairs
#13
Jennifer H Garvin, Megha Kalsy, Cynthia Brandt, Stephen L Luther, Guy Divita, Gregory Coronado, Doug Redd, Carrie Christensen, Brent Hill, Natalie Kelly, Qing Zeng Treitler
In an ideal clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP) ecosystem, researchers and developers would be able to collaborate with others, undertake validation of NLP systems, components, and related resources, and disseminate them. We captured requirements and formative evaluation data from the Veterans Affairs (VA) Clinical NLP Ecosystem stakeholders using semi-structured interviews and meeting discussions. We developed a coding rubric to code interviews. We assessed inter-coder reliability using percent agreement and the kappa statistic...
February 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050494/prosthetic-status-needs-and-oral-health-related-quality-of-life-ohrqol-in-the-elderly-population-of-aluva-india
#14
Albin Geo Joseph, Chandrashekar Janakiram, Anil Mathew
INTRODUCTION: Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQOL), being a patient-centred outcome has profound association with the existing prosthetic status and needs. AIM: To assess the association between the prosthetic status and needs with OHRQOL in the elderly population of Aluva, Kochi, Kerala, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the elderly residing in the municipal wards of Aluva municipality, Kochi, Kerala, India...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048235/su-g-tep4-09-development-of-a-plan-data-aggregator-for-time-efficient-physics-second-checks-of-machine-parameters-for-external-beam-treatment-plans
#15
M Belley, M Schmidt, N Knutson, M Price
PURPOSE: Physics second-checks for external beam radiation therapy are performed, in-part, to verify that the machine parameters in the Record-and-Verify (R&V) system that will ultimately be sent to the LINAC exactly match the values initially calculated by the Treatment Planning System (TPS). While performing the second-check, a large portion of the physicists' time is spent navigating and arranging display windows to locate and compare the relevant numerical values (MLC position, collimator rotation, field size, MU, etc...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045787/some-neurocognitive-correlates-of-noise-vocoded-speech-perception-in-children-with-normal-hearing-a-replication-and-extension-of-eisenberg-et-al-2002
#16
Adrienne S Roman, David B Pisoni, William G Kronenberger, Kathleen F Faulkner
OBJECTIVES: Noise-vocoded speech is a valuable research tool for testing experimental hypotheses about the effects of spectral degradation on speech recognition in adults with normal hearing (NH). However, very little research has utilized noise-vocoded speech with children with NH. Earlier studies with children with NH focused primarily on the amount of spectral information needed for speech recognition without assessing the contribution of neurocognitive processes to speech perception and spoken word recognition...
December 27, 2016: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040029/categorical-perception-of-lexical-tones-by-english-learners-of-mandarin-chinese
#17
Guannan Shen, Karen Froud
Whether native speakers of non-tonal languages can acquire categorical representations of lexical tones remains controversial. This study investigates the acquisition of lexical tone categories by native English speakers learning Mandarin Chinese as a foreign language by comparing the categorical perception (CP) of lexical tones between three groups of listeners: (1) native English speakers who had taken advanced Mandarin courses in colleges; (2) native English speakers with no knowledge of Mandarin Chinese; and (3) native Mandarin speakers...
December 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039290/measuring-the-prevalence-and-impact-of-poor-menstrual-hygiene-management-a-quantitative-survey-of-schoolgirls-in-rural-uganda
#18
Julie Hennegan, Catherine Dolan, Maryalice Wu, Linda Scott, Paul Montgomery
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to describe Ugandan schoolgirls' menstrual hygiene management (MHM) practices and estimate the prevalence of inadequate MHM. Second, to assess the relative contribution of aspects of MHM to health, education and psychosocial outcomes. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of survey data collected as part of the final follow-up from a controlled trial of reusable sanitary pad and puberty education provision was used to provide a cross-sectional description of girls' MHM practices and assess relationships with outcomes...
December 30, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035711/written-cohesion-in-children-with-and-without-language-learning-disabilities
#19
Anthony D Koutsoftas, Victoria Petersen
BACKGROUND: Cohesion refers to the linguistic elements of discourse that contribute to its continuity and is an important element to consider as part of written language intervention, especially in children with language learning disabilities (LLD). There is substantial evidence that children with LLD perform more poorly than typically developing (TD) peers on measures of cohesion in spoken language and on written transcription measures; however, there is far less research comparing groups on cohesion as a measure of written language across genres...
December 30, 2016: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034640/oral-perineurioma-clinicopathologic-features-from-two-cases-and-review-of-literature
#20
Wagner Gomes da Silva, Marisol Martínez Martínez, Águida Maria Menezes Aguiar Miranda, Roberto Bastos Silva, Henrique Martins da Silveira, Oslei Paes de Almeida, Fábio Ramôa Pires
The present study reports two cases of oral perineuriomas, including a clinicopathologic review of the 39 published cases (17 intraneural and 22 extraneural perineuriomas) in the English language literature. In the first case, the tumor occurred in an 84-year-old male as a painless, asymptomatic, 20-mm submucosal nodule on the right lower mucobuccal fold near to the premolar area. In the second case, a 46-year-old female presented with a painless, 25-mm, slow-growing, fibrous, pedunculated nodule on the right buccal mucosa...
October 12, 2016: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
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