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Discounting

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166658/episodic-future-thinking-reduces-temporal-discounting-in-healthy-adolescents
#1
Uli Bromberg, Maria Lobatcheva, Jan Peters
Episodic Future Thinking has proven efficient in reducing impulsive behavior in several adult populations. Whether it also has a beneficial impact on decision making in adolescents is not known. Here the impact of episodic future thinking on discounting behavior was investigated in a sample of healthy adolescents (n = 44, age range 13-16 years). Discounting behavior in trials including episodic future thinking was significantly less impulsive than in control trials (t = 2.74, p = .009, dz = .44). In a subsample we controlled for executive function, alcohol use and developmental measures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163086/adolescent-exposure-to-methylphenidate-increases-impulsive-choice-later-in-life
#2
Zarish Abbas, Arwen Sweet, Giovanni Hernandez, Andreas Arvanitogiannis
Background: The psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH) is known to temporarily reduce impulsive choice and promote self-control. What is not sufficiently understood is how repeated treatment with MPH affects impulsive choice in the long run, and whether any such effect is contingent on exposure at certain developmental stages. Methods: Using an animal model for impulsive choice, we examined first whether giving MPH through early adolescence alters delay discounting, an operational measure of impulsive choice, later in adulthood...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161267/sugar-industry-sponsorship-of-germ-free-rodent-studies-linking-sucrose-to-hyperlipidemia-and-cancer-an-historical-analysis-of-internal-documents
#3
Cristin E Kearns, Dorie Apollonio, Stanton A Glantz
In 1965, the Sugar Research Foundation (SRF) secretly funded a review in the New England Journal of Medicine that discounted evidence linking sucrose consumption to blood lipid levels and hence coronary heart disease (CHD). SRF subsequently funded animal research to evaluate sucrose's CHD risks. The objective of this study was to examine the planning, funding, and internal evaluation of an SRF-funded research project titled "Project 259: Dietary Carbohydrate and Blood Lipids in Germ-Free Rats," led by Dr. W...
November 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159426/an-initial-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-intraoperative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-imri-in-pediatric-epilepsy-surgery
#4
Matthew F Sacino, Sean S Huang, Robert F Keating, William D Gaillard, Chima O Oluigbo
PURPOSE: Previous studies have illustrated the clinical utility of the addition of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) to conventional microsurgical resection. While iMRI requires initial capital cost investment, long-term reduction in costly follow-up management and reoperation costs may prove economically efficacious. The objective of this study is to investigate the cost-effectiveness of the addition of iMRI utilization versus conventional microsurgical techniques in focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) resection in pediatric patients with medically refractory epilepsy...
November 20, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159398/cost-effectiveness-of-publicly-funded-treatment-of-opioid-use-disorder-in-california
#5
Emanuel Krebs, Benjamin Enns, Elizabeth Evans, Darren Urada, M Douglas Anglin, Richard A Rawson, Yih-Ing Hser, Bohdan Nosyk
Background: Only 1 in 5 of the nearly 2.4 million Americans with an opioid use disorder received treatment in 2015. Fewer than half of Californians who received treatment in 2014 received opioid agonist treatment (OAT), and regulations for admission to OAT in California are more stringent than federal regulations. Objective: To determine the cost-effectiveness of OAT for all treatment recipients compared with the observed standard of care for patients presenting with opioid use disorder to California's publicly funded treatment facilities...
November 21, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156065/examining-exercise-in-older-adults-using-the-theory-of-planned-behavior-and-temporal-discounting
#6
Linda M Tate, Pao-Feng Tsai, Mallikarjuna Rettiganti, Reid D Landes, Leanne L Lefler, Keneshia Bryant-Moore
Exercise is one of the most important health behaviors to reduce and prevent the severity of many chronic diseases. The purpose of the current study was to determine if adding temporal discounting (TD) would affect the predictability of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in exercising among older adults. One hundred thirty-seven older adults were recruited from 11 churches in rural Arkansas using a cross-sectional design. Information regarding participants' exercise behavior, constructs of the TPB, TD rates, and demographics was collected...
November 1, 2017: Research in Gerontological Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155849/unusual-occurrence-of-a-dag-motif-in-the-ipomovirus-cassava-brown-streak-virus-and-implications-for-its-vector-transmission
#7
Elijah Ateka, Titus Alicai, Joseph Ndunguru, Fred Tairo, Peter Sseruwagi, Samuel Kiarie, Timothy Makori, Monica A Kehoe, Laura M Boykin
Cassava is the main staple food for over 800 million people globally. Its production in eastern Africa is being constrained by two devastating Ipomoviruses that cause cassava brown streak disease (CBSD); Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), with up to 100% yield loss for smallholder farmers in the region. To date, vector studies have not resulted in reproducible and highly efficient transmission of CBSV and UCBSV. Most virus transmission studies have used Bemisia tabaci (whitefly), but a maximum of 41% U/CBSV transmission efficiency has been documented for this vector...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154776/zero-determinant-strategies-in-finitely-repeated-games
#8
Genki Ichinose, Naoki Masuda
Direct reciprocity is a mechanism for sustaining mutual cooperation in repeated social dilemma games, where a player would keep cooperation to avoid being retaliated by a co-player in the future. So-called zero-determinant (ZD) strategies enable a player to unilaterally set a linear relationship between the player's own payoff and the co-player's payoff regardless of the strategy of the co-player. In the present study, we analytically study zero-determinant strategies in finitely repeated (two-person) prisoner's dilemma games with a general payoff matrix...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154615/differential-discounting-and-present-impact-of-past-information
#9
Laura Brandimarte, Joachim Vosgerau, Alessandro Acquisti
How does information about a person's past, accessed now, affect individuals' impressions of that person? In 2 survey experiments and 2 experiments with actual incentives, we compare whether, when evaluating a person, information about that person's past greedy or immoral behaviors is discounted similarly to information about her past generous or moral behaviors. We find that, no matter how far in the past a person behaved greedily or immorally, information about her negative behaviors is hardly discounted at all...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153122/age-specific-cost-effectiveness-of-using-intravenous-recombinant-tissue-plasminogen-activator-for-treating-acute-ischemic-stroke
#10
Heesoo Joo, Guijing Wang, Mary G George
INTRODUCTION: Studies have demonstrated that intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV rtPA) is a cost-effective treatment for acute ischemic stroke. Age-specific cost effectiveness has not been well examined. This study estimated age-specific incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of IV rtPA treatment versus no IV rtPA. METHODS: A Markov model was developed to examine the economic impact of IV rtPA over a 20-year time horizon on four age groups (18-44, 45-64, 65-80, and ≥81 years) from the U...
December 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152988/value-and-innovation-of-direct-acting-antivirals-long-term-health-outcomes-of-the-strategic-plan-for-the-management-of-hepatitis-c-in-spain
#11
Juan Turnes, Raquel Domínguez-Hernández, Miguel Ángel Casado
OBJECTIVE: To assess the long-term healthcare costs and health outcome in association with the access to new direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), during the first year of the National Strategic Plan for Chronic Hepatitis C (SPCHC) in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in Spain. METHODS: A decision tree and a lifetime Markov model were developed to simulate the natural history, morbidity, and mortality of a cohort of 51,900 patients with CHC before (pre-DAA strategy) and after (post-DAA strategy) access to DAA, following SPCHC approval...
November 20, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151097/the-dancing-manias-psychogenic-illness-as-a-social-phenomenon
#12
Douglas J Lanska
The dancing mania erupted in the 14th century in the wake of the Black Death, and recurred for centuries in central Europe - particularly Germany, the Netherlands, and Belgium - finally abating in the early 17th century. The term "dancing mania" was derived from "choreomania," a concatenation of choros (dance) and mania (madness). A variant, tarantism, was prevalent in southern Italy from the 15th to the 17th centuries, and was attributed at the time to bites from the tarantula spider. Affected individuals participated in continuous, prolonged, erratic, often frenzied and sometimes erotic, dancing...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147954/a-fully-automatic-end-to-end-method-for-content-based-image-retrieval-of-ct-scans-with-similar-liver-lesion-annotations
#13
A B Spanier, N Caplan, J Sosna, B Acar, L Joskowicz
PURPOSE: The goal of medical content-based image retrieval (M-CBIR) is to assist radiologists in the decision-making process by retrieving medical cases similar to a given image. One of the key interests of radiologists is lesions and their annotations, since the patient treatment depends on the lesion diagnosis. Therefore, a key feature of M-CBIR systems is the retrieval of scans with the most similar lesion annotations. To be of value, M-CBIR systems should be fully automatic to handle large case databases...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146652/dynamic-treatment-selection-and-modification-for-personalised-blood-pressure-therapy-using-a-markov-decision-process-model-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#14
Sung Eun Choi, Margaret L Brandeau, Sanjay Basu
OBJECTIVE: Personalised medicine seeks to select and modify treatments based on individual patient characteristics and preferences. We sought to develop an automated strategy to select and modify blood pressure treatments, incorporating the likelihood that patients with different characteristics would benefit from different types of medications and dosages and the potential severity and impact of different side effects among patients with different characteristics. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We developed a Markov decision process (MDP) model to incorporate meta-analytic data and estimate the optimal treatment for maximising discounted lifetime quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) based on individual patient characteristics, incorporating medication adjustment choices when a patient incurs side effects...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146589/impact-of-increasing-tobacco-taxes-on-working-age-adults-short-term-health-gain-health-equity-and-cost-savings
#15
Christine L Cleghorn, Tony Blakely, Giorgi Kvizhinadze, Frederieke S van der Deen, Nhung Nghiem, Linda J Cobiac, Nick Wilson
OBJECTIVE: The health gains and cost savings from tobacco tax increase peak many decades into the future. Policy-makers may take a shorter-term perspective and be particularly interested in the health of working-age adults (given their role in economic productivity). Therefore, we estimated the impact of tobacco taxes in this population within a 10-year horizon. METHODS: As per previous modelling work, we used a multistate life table model with 16 tobacco-related diseases in parallel, parameterised with rich national data by sex, age and ethnicity...
November 16, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144248/recognition-of-infantile-spasms-is-often-delayed-the-assist-study
#16
Shaun A Hussain, Johnson Lay, Emily Cheng, Julius Weng, Raman Sankar, Christine B Baca
OBJECTIVES: To characterize and quantify diagnostic and treatment delay among children with infantile spasms, and to estimate the developmental impact of this delay. STUDY DESIGN: In this cohort study, we surveyed the parents of 100 patients with infantile spasms about their experiences with diagnosis and treatment, and ascertained medical and sociodemographic factors potentially related to care of these infants. We specifically determined the latency to first visit an "effective provider," defined as a provider who identified infantile spasms, and prescribed an appropriate first-line treatment, namely adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosteroids, or vigabatrin...
November 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142245/obese-and-overweight-individuals-are-less-sensitive-to-information-about-meal-times-in-portion-size-judgements
#17
A R Zimmerman, A Mason, P J Rogers, J M Brunstrom
BACKGROUND: Obesity is related to a tendency to discount the future. Information regarding inter-meal interval (IMI) allows meal planning. We sought to assess how obese, overweight, and lean people select portion sizes based on the length of an IMI. We hypothesised that individuals with a high BMI would discount information about the IMI. In addition, we investigated how reduced sensitivity to IMIs relates to monetary temporal discounting. METHODS: Participants (lean, n=35; overweight, n=31; obese, n=22), selected lunchtime portion sizes in response to information about the timings of their next meal...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141639/tobacco-use-and-health-insurance-literacy-among-vulnerable-populations-implications-for-health-reform
#18
Robert T Braun, Yaniv Hanoch, Andrew J Barnes
BACKGROUND: Under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), millions of Americans have been enrolling in the health insurance marketplaces. Nearly 20% of them are tobacco users. As part of the ACA, tobacco users may face up to 50% higher premiums that are not eligible for tax credits. Tobacco users, along with the uninsured and racial/ethnic minorities targeted by ACA coverage expansions, are among those most likely to suffer from low health literacy - a key ingredient in the ability to understand, compare, choose, and use coverage, referred to as health insurance literacy...
November 15, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137968/food-bundling-as-a-health-nudge-investigating-consumer-fruit-and-vegetable-selection-using-behavioral-economics
#19
Kathryn A Carroll, Anya Samek, Lydia Zepeda
Displaying bundles of healthy foods at the grocery store is a health nudge that simplifies shopping and may have the potential for increasing fruit and vegetable (F&V) purchasing. To evaluate the impact of food bundling, we conduct an artefactual field experiment with community participants in a laboratory set up as a grocery store. Dual-self theory suggests that food choices may differ depending on whether shoppers are under cognitive load - in our experiment, we exogenously vary whether bundles are displayed (with and without a price discount) and whether shoppers are under cognitive load...
November 11, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136117/cost-effectiveness-of-community-based-hiv-self-testing-in-blantyre-malawi
#20
Hendramoorthy Maheswaran, Aileen Clarke, Peter MacPherson, Felistas Kumwenda, David G Lalloo, Elizabeth L Corbett, Stavros Petrou
Background: HIV self-testing (HIVST) is effective, with scale-up underway in sub-Saharan Africa. We assessed cost-effectiveness of adding HIVST to existing facility-based HIV testing and counselling (HTC) services. Both 2010 (initiate at CD4<350 cells/μl) and 2015 (initiate all) WHO guidelines for antiretroviral treatment (ART) were considered. Methods: A microsimulation model was developed that evaluated cost-effectiveness, from both health provider and societal perspectives, of an HIVST service implemented in a cluster-randomised trial (CRT) (ISRCTN02004005) in Malawi...
November 9, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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