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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736413/an-innovative-methodological-approach-to-building-successful-community-partnerships-for-improving-insurance-coverage-health-and-health-care-in-high-risk-communities
#1
Glenn Flores, Candy Walker, Hua Lin, Michael Lee, Marco Fierro, Monica Henry, Alberto Portillo, Kenneth Massey
BACKGROUND: More than 48% of U.S. children are racial/ethnic minorities, 21% are poor, and 6% are uninsured. It is unclear, however, what methods are most effective for identifying and engaging community partners in study enrollment of these children in high-risk communities. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate a new methodological approach to the screening, identification, and intervention study enrollment of uninsured minority children. METHODS: We developed, implemented, and evaluated a methodological approach consisting of four components: (1) identify communities with the highest proportions of low-income minority families with uninsured children, (2) hire minority research staff responsible for community engagement and data collection, (3) implement and evaluate a parent mentor (PM) intervention built on community partnerships and which creates jobs, and (4) successfully execute the research by engaging appropriate community partners...
2017: Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734200/rates-of-meaningful-change-in-the-mental-health-of-children-in-long-term-out-of-home-care-a-seven-to-nine-year-prospective-study
#2
Michael Tarren-Sweeney
Children residing in long-term out-of-home care have high rates of clinical-level mental health difficulties. However, the stability of these children's difficulties throughout their time in care is uncertain. This paper reports estimates of the seven- to nine-year stability of carer-reported scores on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Assessment Checklists for Children (ACC) and Adolescents (ACA) for 85 children in long-term foster or kinship care. Prospective score changes on the CBCL total problems and ACC-ACA shared-item scales were assigned to one of four change groups: 'sustained mental health'; 'meaningful improvement'; 'no meaningful change'; and 'meaningful deterioration'...
July 19, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734126/german-estsmoke-estimating-adult-smoking-related-costs-and-consequences-of-smoking-cessation-for-germany
#3
Diana Sonntag, Simon Gilbody, Winkler Volker, Shehzad Ali
AIMS: We compared predicted lifetime health care costs for current, never and ex-smokers in Germany under the current set of tobacco control polices. We compared these economic consequences of the current situation with an alternative in which Germany were to implement more comprehensive tobacco control policies consistent with the WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) guidelines. DESIGN: German EstSmoke, an adapted version of the UK EstSmoke simulation model, applies the Markov modelling approach...
July 22, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728645/elevated-behavioral-economic-demand-for-alcohol-in-a-community-sample-of-heavy-drinking-smokers
#4
Michael Amlung, James MacKillop, Peter M Monti, Robert Miranda
OBJECTIVE: Cigarette smokers are more likely to consume alcohol at higher levels and experience poorer response to treatment for alcohol problems than are nonsmokers. One previous study in university students suggests that a potential reason for the high overlap between alcohol and tobacco use is that concurrent smoking is associated with overvaluation of alcohol, as reflected in elevated behavioral economic demand. The present study sought to extend these initial findings in a community sample with heavier levels of alcohol and tobacco use...
May 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726530/incremental-net-monetary-benefit-of-ocrelizumab-relative-to-subcutaneous-interferon-%C3%AE-1a
#5
Melissa A Frasco, Tiffany Shih, Devin Incerti, Oliver Diaz Espinosa, Diana K Vania, Nina Thomas
AIM: Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) impact the natural history of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (RRMS) by reducing annual relapse rates and slowing disability progression. The effect of DMTs on indirect costs has not been consistently explored in cost-effectiveness studies thus far. The value to patients of an emerging DMT, ocrelizumab, was quantified in comparison to subcutaneous interferon beta-1a (IFNβSC) for the prevalent RRMS population with mild to moderate disability in the United States based on two Phase 3 trials, OPERA I and OPERA II, of ocrelizumab versus IFNβSC in RRMS...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725282/addiction-and-the-brain-development-not-disease
#6
Marc Lewis
I review the brain disease model of addiction promoted by medical, scientific, and clinical authorities in the US and elsewhere. I then show that the disease model is flawed because brain changes in addiction are similar to those generally observed when recurrent, highly motivated goal seeking results in the development of deep habits, Pavlovian learning, and prefrontal disengagement. This analysis relies on concepts of self-organization, neuroplasticity, personality development, and delay discounting. It also highlights neural and behavioral parallels between substance addictions, behavioral addictions, normative compulsive behaviors, and falling in love...
2017: Neuroethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724374/cost-effectiveness-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-among-hiv-infected-patients-clinicaly-screened-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania-a-prospective-cohort-study
#7
Grace A Shayo, Dereck Chitama, Candida Moshiro, Said Aboud, Muhammad Bakari, Ferdinand Mugusi
BACKGROUND: One of the reasons why Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for Tuberculosis (TB) is not widely used in low income countries is concerns on cost of excluding active TB. We analyzed the cost-effectiveness of IPT provision in Tanzania having ruled out active TB by a symptom-based screening tool. METHODS: Data on IPT cost-effectiveness was prospectively collected from an observational cohort study of 1283 HIV-infected patients on IPT and 1281 controls; followed up for 24 months...
July 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719305/optimizing-household-chlorination-marketing-strategies-a-randomized-controlled-trial-on-the-effect-of-price-and-promotion-on-adoption-in-haiti
#8
Michael Ritter, Eveline Camille, Christophe Velcine, Rose-Kerline Guillaume, Daniele Lantagne
Household water treatment can reduce diarrheal morbidity and mortality in developing countries, but adoption remains low and supply is often unreliable. To test effects of marketing strategies on consumers and suppliers, we randomized 1,798 households in rural Haiti and collected data on purchases of a household chlorination product for 4 months. Households received randomly selected prices ($0.11-$0.56 per chlorine bottle), and half received monthly visits from sales agents. Each $0.22 drop in price increased purchases by 0...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714718/multiple-sclerosis-reduces-sensitivity-to-immediate-reward-during-decision-making
#9
Elisabetta Grippa, Manuela Sellitto, Cristina Scarpazza, Flavia Mattioli, Giuseppe di Pellegrino
Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) often face important health-related and financial decisions that involve trade-offs between short-term and long-term benefits, yet decision making is rarely studied in MS patients. The temporal discounting paradigm is a useful tool for investigating such time-dependent choices in humans. Here, we investigated whether patients with relapsing-remitting MS differed from healthy controls when making choices between hypothetical monetary rewards available at different points in time...
August 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712618/would-a-large-tpa-trial-for-those-4-5-to-6-0-hours-from-stroke-onset-be-good-value-for-information
#10
Djøra I Soeteman, Nicolas A Menzies, Ankur Pandya
OBJECTIVES: To quantify the potential value of new research in patients treated with thrombolytic treatment (tissue-type plasminogen activator [tPA]) in the 4.5- to 6.0-hour time window after stroke onset and to determine the optimal size of a future trial using value of information analysis. METHODS: Expected value of partial perfect and sample information (EVPPI and EVSI) analyses were conducted using a probabilistic Markov model. Data for modified Rankin Scale (mRS) distributions in patients 4...
July 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712112/socioeconomic-differences-in-the-cost-availability-and-quality-of-healthy-food-in-sydney
#11
Belinda Crawford, Roy Byun, Emily Mitchell, Susan Thompson, Bin Jalaludin, Siranda Torvaldsen
OBJECTIVE: To compare the cost of a basket of staple foods, together with the availability and quality of fresh fruit and vegetables, by supermarket store type in high and low socioeconomic suburbs of Sydney. METHODS: A food basket survey was undertaken in 100 supermarkets in the 20 highest and 20 lowest socioeconomic suburbs of Sydney. We assessed the cost of 46 foods, the range of 30 fresh fruit and vegetables and the quality of ten fresh fruit and vegetables...
July 16, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710870/self-changing-behaviour-in-smoking-cessation-linked-to-trait-and-cognitive-impulsivity
#12
Jaume Celma-Merola, Francesc Abella-Pons, Fernanda Mata, Gerard Pedra-Pagés, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To compare impulsivity, measured using self-report and cognitive tasks in people who ceased smoking without treatment (self-changers) with each of the following groups: (i) smoking non-treatment seekers, (ii) people in smoking cessation treatment and currently abstinent, and (iii) people in smoking cessation treatment but non-abstinent. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, observational study. SETTING: The smoking cessation unit of a public general hospital, Hospital de Santa Maria, in Lleida, Spain...
July 15, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706486/observed-and-normative-discount-functions-in-addiction-and-other-diseases
#13
Salvador Cruz Rambaud, María J Muñoz Torrecillas, Taiki Takahashi
The aim of this paper is to find a suitable discount function able to describe the progression of a certain addiction or disease under treatment as a discounting process. In effect, a certain indicator related to a disease decays over time in a manner which is mathematically similar to the way in which discounting has been modeled. We analyze the discount functions observed in experiments which study addictive and other problematic behaviors as well as some alternative hyperbola-like discount functions in order to fit the patience exhibited by the subject after receiving the treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702483/datasets-for-supplier-selection-and-order-allocation-with-green-criteria-all-unit-quantity-discounts-and-varying-number-of-suppliers
#14
Sadeque Hamdan, Ali Cheaitou
This data article provides detailed optimization input and output datasets and optimization code for the published research work titled "Dynamic green supplier selection and order allocation with quantity discounts and varying supplier availability" (Hamdan and Cheaitou, 2017, In press) [1]. Researchers may use these datasets as a baseline for future comparison and extensive analysis of the green supplier selection and order allocation problem with all-unit quantity discount and varying number of suppliers...
August 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701153/cost-effectiveness-of-an-ambulance-based-referral-system-for-emergency-obstetrical-and-neonatal-care-in-rural-ethiopia
#15
Sandro Accorsi, Edgardo Somigliana, Hagos Solomon, Tsegaye Ademe, Jofrey Woldegebriel, Biadgo Almaz, Mohammed Zemedu, Fabio Manenti, Akalu Tibebe, Pasquale Farese, Aberra Seifu, Serena Menozzi, Giovanni Putoto
BACKGROUND: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of an ambulance-based referral system an dedicated to emergency obstetrics and neonatal care (EmONC) in remote sub-Saharan settings. METHODS: In this prospective study performed in Oromiya Region (Ethiopia), all obstetrical cases referred to the hospital with the ambulance were consecutively evaluated during a three-months period. The health professionals who managed the referred cases were requested to identify those that could be considered as undoubtedly effective...
July 12, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699271/discounting-a-practical-guide-to-multilevel-analysis-of-indifference-data
#16
Michael E Young
Multilevel modeling provides the ability to simultaneously evaluate the discounting of individuals and groups using indifference point data. After considering the conditions when weaknesses emerge in estimating individual discounting as a prelude to estimating group discounting, examples are provided that indicate that multilevel modeling improves estimation in the presence of variability and missing data, and when trying to fit two-parameter discounting functions. Concrete examples of how to fit nonlinear multilevel models are provided to help researchers in the adoption of these methods...
July 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694338/no-effect-of-commercial-cognitive-training-on-neural-activity-during-decision-making
#17
Joseph W Kable, M Kathleen Caulfield, Mary Falcone, Mairead McConnell, Leah Bernardo, Trishala Parthasarathi, Nicole Cooper, Rebecca Ashare, Janet Audrain-McGovern, Robert Hornik, Paul Diefenbach, Frank J Lee, Caryn Lerman
Increased preference for immediate over delayed and for risky over certain rewards has been associated with unhealthy behavioral choices. Motivated by evidence that enhanced cognitive control can shift choice behavior away from immediate and risky rewards, we tested whether training executive cognitive function could influence choice behavior and brain responses. In this randomized controlled trial, 128 young adults (71 male, 57 female) participated in 10 weeks of training with either a commercial web-based cognitive training program or web-based video games that do not specifically target executive function or adapt the level of difficulty throughout training...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693751/cost-effectiveness-of-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-pcv13-in-older-australians
#18
S Dirmesropian, J G Wood, C R MacIntyre, P Beutels, P McIntyre, R Menzies, J F Reyes, C Chen, A T Newall
BACKGROUND: The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) has been funded under the Australia National Immunisation Program (NIP) since January 2005 for those aged >65years and other risk groups. In 2016, PCV13 was accepted by the Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee (PBAC) as a replacement for a single dose of PPV23 in older Australian adults. METHODS: A single-cohort deterministic multi-compartment (Markov) model was developed describing the transition of the population between different invasive and non-invasive pneumococcal disease related health states...
August 3, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693555/delay-discounting-differences-in-brain-activation-connectivity-and-structure-in-individuals-with-addiction-a-systematic-review-protocol
#19
Max M Owens, Michael T Amlung, Steven R H Beach, Lawrence H Sweet, James MacKillop
BACKGROUND: Delayed reward discounting (DRD), the degree to which future rewards are discounted relative to immediate rewards, is used as an index of impulsive decision-making and has been associated with a number of problematic health behaviors. Given the robust behavioral association between DRD and addictive behavior, there is an expanding literature investigating the differences in the functional and structural correlates of DRD in the brain between addicted and healthy individuals...
July 11, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690137/cost-effectiveness-of-population-based-brca-testing-with-varying-ashkenazi-jewish-ancestry
#20
Ranjit Manchanda, Shreeya Patel, Antonis C Antoniou, Ephrat Levy-Lahad, Clare Turnbull, Gareth Evans, John Hopper, Robert J Macinnis, Usha Menon, Ian Jacobs, Rosa Legood
BACKGROUND: Population-based BRCA1/BRCA2 testing has been found to be cost-effective compared with family history-based testing in Ashkenazi-Jewish women were >30 years old with 4 Ashkenazi-Jewish grandparents. However, individuals may have 1, 2, or 3 Ashkenazi-Jewish grandparents, and cost-effectiveness data are lacking at these lower BRCA prevalence estimates. We present an updated cost-effectiveness analysis of population BRCA1/BRCA2 testing for women with 1, 2, and 3 Ashkenazi-Jewish grandparents...
July 6, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
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