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Michael J Ingargiola, Felipe Molina Burbano, Amy Yao, Saba Motakef, Paymon Sanati-Mehrizy, Nikki M Burish, Lisa R David, Peter J Taub
Background: The recently increased minimum aesthetic surgery requirements set by the Plastic Surgery Residency Review Committee of the ACGME highlight the importance of aesthetic surgery training for plastic surgery residents. Participation in resident aesthetic surgery clinics has become an important tool to achieve this goal. Yet, there is little literature on the current structure of these clinics. Objectives: The authors sought to evaluate current practices of aesthetic resident-run clinics in the United States...
March 14, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Kristin L Szuhany, Danny MacKenzie, Michael W Otto
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The impaired ability to delay rewards, delay discounting (DD), is associated with several problematic conditions in which impulsive decision-making derails long-term goals. Working memory (WM), the ability to actively store and manipulate information, is associated with DD. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cognitive priming on DD and to identify moderation of this effect dependent on degree of WM capacity (WMC) and depressed mood. METHODS: A WM task (n-back) was used as a cognitive prime before assessment of DD (Monetary Choice Questionnaire) and was compared to a similar prime from an inhibition task in a factorial design in 183 community participants...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Lesley Uttley, Iñigo Bermejo, Shijie Ren, Marrissa Martyn-St James, Ruth Wong, David L Scott, Adam Young, Matt Stevenson
As part of its Single Technology Appraisal process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer (Pfizer) of tofacitinib (TOF; Xeljanz® ) to submit evidence of the drug's clinical and cost-effectiveness in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) after the failure of conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (cDMARDs). The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG)...
March 15, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Augustine Tee, Wai Leng Chow, Colin Burke, Guruprasad Basavarajaiah
INTRODUCTION: In light of the growing evidence base for better clinical results with the use of the dual bronchodilator indacaterol/glycopyrronium (IND/GLY) over inhaled corticosteroid-containing salmeterol/fluticasone combination (SFC), this study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of IND/GLY over SFC in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who are at low risk of exacerbations in the Singapore healthcare setting. METHODS: A previously published patient-level simulation model was adapted for use in Singapore by applying local unit costs...
March 16, 2018: Singapore Medical Journal
Boon Phiaw Kho, Mohamed Azmi Hassali, Ching Jou Lim, Fahad Saleem
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this research were to determine extra-organisational challenges (e.g. market competition, governing policies) faced by community pharmacies in Sarawak, the coping strategies employed to deal with these challenges and explore potential legislative changes that can attenuate the intensity of these challenges. METHODS: Survey questionnaires (n = 184) were posted to all eligible community pharmacies in Sarawak, Malaysia. The questionnaire included sections on participants' demographic data, extra-organisational challenges faced, coping strategies employed and proposals to improve community pharmacy legislations...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Xue-Yan Liu, Keisuke Koba, Lina A Koyama, Sarah E Hobbie, Marissa S Weiss, Yoshiyuki Inagaki, Gaius R Shaver, Anne E Giblin, Satoru Hobara, Knute J Nadelhoffer, Martin Sommerkorn, Edward B Rastetter, George W Kling, James A Laundre, Yuriko Yano, Akiko Makabe, Midori Yano, Cong-Qiang Liu
Plant nitrogen (N) use is a key component of the N cycle in terrestrial ecosystems. The supply of N to plants affects community species composition and ecosystem processes such as photosynthesis and carbon (C) accumulation. However, the availabilities and relative importance of different N forms to plants are not well understood. While nitrate (NO3 - ) is a major N form used by plants worldwide, it is discounted as a N source for Arctic tundra plants because of extremely low NO3 - concentrations in Arctic tundra soils, undetectable soil nitrification, and plant-tissue NO3 - that is typically below detection limits...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Manuela Deidda, Kathleen Anne Boyd, Helen Minnis, Julia Donaldson, Kevin Brown, Nicole R S Boyer, Emma McIntosh
INTRODUCTION: Children who have experienced abuse and neglect are at increased risk of mental and physical health problems throughout life. This places an enormous burden on individuals, families and society in terms of health services, education, social care and judiciary sectors. Evidence suggests that early intervention can mitigate the negative consequences of child maltreatment, exerting long-term positive effects on the health of maltreated children entering foster care. However, evidence on cost-effectiveness of such complex interventions is limited...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Caris E Grimes, Matthew Quaife, Thaim B Kamara, Christopher B D Lavy, Andy J M Leather, Håkon A Bolkan
OBJECTIVES: The Lancet Commission on Global Surgery estimated that low/middle-income countries will lose an estimated cumulative loss of US$12.3 trillion from gross domestic product (GDP) due to the unmet burden of surgical disease. However, no country-specific data currently exist. We aimed to estimate the costs to the Sierra Leone economy from death and disability which may have been averted by surgical care. DESIGN: We used estimates of total, met and unmet need from two main sources-a cluster randomised, cross-sectional, countrywide survey and a retrospective, nationwide study on surgery in Sierra Leone...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Tazeen H Jafar, Ngiap Chuan Tan, John C Allen, Eric A Finkelstein, Paul Goh, Peter Moey, Joanne Hui Min Quah, Siew Wai Hwang, Juliana Bahadin, Anandan Gerard Thiagarajah, Jason Chan, Gary Kang, Agnes Koong
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a serious public health problem in Singapore and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) with considerable implications for health-care resources. The goal of the trial is to compare a multicomponent intervention (MCI) to usual care to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the MCI for lowering blood pressure (BP) among adults with uncontrolled hypertension in Singapore primary-care clinics. METHODS/DESIGN: The study is a cluster randomized trial in eight polyclinics in Singapore: four deliver a structured MCI and four deliver usual care...
March 14, 2018: Trials
Erik Summerside, Reza Shadmehr, Alaa A Ahmed
Making a movement may be thought of as an economic decision in which one spends effort in order to acquire reward. Time discounts reward, which predicts that the magnitude of reward should affect movement vigor: we should move faster, spending greater effort, when there is greater reward at stake. Indeed, saccade peak velocities are greater and reaction-times are shorter when a target is paired with reward. Here, we focused on human reaching and asked whether movement kinematics were affected by expectation of reward...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Matthew Quaife, Fern Terris-Prestholt, Robyn Eakle, Maria A Cabrera Escobar, Maggie Kilbourne-Brook, Mercy Mvundura, Gesine Meyer-Rath, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Peter Vickerman
INTRODUCTION: A number of antiretroviral HIV prevention products are efficacious in preventing HIV infection. However, the sexual and reproductive health needs of many women extend beyond HIV prevention, and research is ongoing to develop multi-purpose prevention technologies (MPTs) that offer dual HIV and pregnancy protection. We do not yet know if these products will be an efficient use of constrained health resources. In this paper, we estimate the cost-effectiveness of combinations of candidate multi-purpose prevention technologies (MPTs), in South Africa among general population women and female sex workers (FSWs)...
March 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Simone Kühn, Dimitrij Tycho Kugler, Katharina Schmalen, Markus Weichenberger, Charlotte Witt, Jürgen Gallinat
It is a widespread concern that violent video games promote aggression, reduce pro-social behaviour, increase impulsivity and interfere with cognition as well as mood in its players. Previous experimental studies have focussed on short-term effects of violent video gameplay on aggression, yet there are reasons to believe that these effects are mostly the result of priming. In contrast, the present study is the first to investigate the effects of long-term violent video gameplay using a large battery of tests spanning questionnaires, behavioural measures of aggression, sexist attitudes, empathy and interpersonal competencies, impulsivity-related constructs (such as sensation seeking, boredom proneness, risk taking, delay discounting), mental health (depressivity, anxiety) as well as executive control functions, before and after 2 months of gameplay...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Edeltraud J Lenk, William K Redekop, Marianne Luyendijk, Christopher Fitzpatrick, Louis Niessen, Wilma A Stolk, Fabrizio Tediosi, Adriana J Rijnsburger, Roel Bakker, Jan A C Hontelez, Jan H Richardus, Julie Jacobson, Epke A Le Rutte, Sake J de Vlas, Johan L Severens
BACKGROUND: The control or elimination of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has targets defined by the WHO for 2020, reinforced by the 2012 London Declaration. We estimated the economic impact to individuals of meeting these targets for human African trypanosomiasis, leprosy, visceral leishmaniasis and Chagas disease, NTDs controlled or eliminated by innovative and intensified disease management (IDM). METHODS: A systematic literature review identified information on productivity loss and out-of-pocket payments (OPPs) related to these NTDs, which were combined with projections of the number of people suffering from each NTD, country and year for 2011-2020 and 2021-2030...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Marta Trapero-Bertran, Celia Muñoz, Kathryn Coyle, Doug Coyle, Adam Lester-George, Reiner Leidl, Bertalan Németh, Kei-Long Cheung, Subhash Pokhrel, Ángel Lopez-Nicolás
AIMS: To assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative smoking cessation scenarios from the perspective of the Spanish National Health Service (NHS). DESIGN: We used the European study on Quantifying Utility of Investment in Protection from Tobacco model (EQUIPTMOD), a Markov-based state transition economic model, to estimate the return on investment (ROI) of: (a) the current provision of smoking cessation services (brief physician advice and printed self-helped material + smoking ban and tobacco duty at current levels); and (b) four alternative scenarios to complement the current provision: coverage of proactive telephone calls; nicotine replacement therapy (mono and combo) [prescription nicotine replacement therapy (Rx NRT)]; varenicline (standard duration); or bupropion...
March 13, 2018: Addiction
Aaron Gerow, Yuening Hu, Jordan Boyd-Graber, David M Blei, James A Evans
Assessing scholarly influence is critical for understanding the collective system of scholarship and the history of academic inquiry. Influence is multifaceted, and citations reveal only part of it. Citation counts exhibit preferential attachment and follow a rigid "news cycle" that can miss sustained and indirect forms of influence. Building on dynamic topic models that track distributional shifts in discourse over time, we introduce a variant that incorporates features, such as authorship, affiliation, and publication venue, to assess how these contexts interact with content to shape future scholarship...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sarah E Snider, Harshawardhan U Deshpande, Jonathan M Lisinski, Mikhail N Koffarnus, Stephen M LaConte, Warren K Bickel
BACKGROUND: Episodic thinking, whether past or future, uses similar neural machinery, and individuals with alcohol dependence have clear challenges with both. Moreover, alcohol-dependent individuals' narrowed temporal window likely gives rise to greater valuation of immediate rewards. We aimed to strengthen working memory (WM) in alcohol-dependent individuals and measure performance on near-transfer (novel WM) and far-transfer delay discounting (DD) tasks, including episodic future thinking (EFT) performance...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
William J Valentine, Kate Van Brunt, Kristina S Boye, Richard F Pollock
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cost effectiveness of rapid-acting analog insulin relative to regular human insulin in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus in Germany. METHODS: The PRIME Diabetes Model, a patient-level, discrete event simulation model, was used to project long-term clinical and cost outcomes for patients with type 1 diabetes from the perspective of a German healthcare payer. Simulated patients had a mean age of 21.5 years, duration of diabetes of 8...
March 10, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Leslee J Shaw, Abhinav Goyal, Christina Mehta, Joe Xie, Lawrence Phillips, Anita Kelkar, Joseph Knapper, Daniel S Berman, Khurram Nasir, Emir Veledar, Michael J Blaha, Roger Blumenthal, James K Min, Reza Fazel, Peter W F Wilson, Matthew J Budoff
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) imparts a heavy economic burden on the U.S. health care system. Evidence regarding the long-term costs after comprehensive CVD screening is limited. OBJECTIVES: This study calculated 10-year health care costs for 6,814 asymptomatic participants enrolled in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), a registry sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health. METHODS: Cumulative 10-year costs for CVD medications, office visits, diagnostic procedures, coronary revascularization, and hospitalizations were calculated from detailed follow-up data...
March 13, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
(no author information available yet)
Both River-Bank Filtration and dead-end sand-filtration are becoming increasingly applied in rural areas to improve quality of fecally contaminated water. To evaluate the capacity of both treatments to remove E. coli, fecal streptococci, somatic and K13 phages, we have studied their concentrations in diluted wastewater after short-distance tangential sand-filtration and after dead-end sand-filtration.Bacteria were almost undetectable in both systems after sixty cm depth and at a pore water velocity of 1 m/d...
January 22, 2018: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Ethan M McCormick, Michael T Perino, Eva H Telzer
Adolescence is a period of sensitivity to social stimuli. In particular, research has focused on the increased sensitivity to risks and social information seen during adolescence. However, recent evidence also suggests that adolescents can flexibly use information in service of their goals, raising an interesting question: are adolescents able to selectively discount social information if it conflicts with their goals? To test this question, fifty-five children and adolescents (ages 8-17 years) completed a social variant of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task during an fMRI session...
March 1, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
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