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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441520/age-gender-and-deterrability-are-younger-male-drivers-more-likely-to-discount-the-future
#1
James Freeman, Sherrie-Anne Kaye, Verity Truelove, Jeremy Davey
Utilizing the Classical Deterrence theory and Stafford and Warr's (1993) reconceptualized model of deterrence, the current study examined whether age, gender, and discounting the future tendencies influence perceptions of being apprehended for speeding offences. Licensed motorists (N=700; 57% female) in Queensland (Australia) were recruited to complete a self-report questionnaire that measured perceptual deterrence, speeding related behaviors and discounting the future tendencies. Data were analyzed utilizing descriptive, bivariate and multivariate regressions...
April 22, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440300/insecticide-induced-leg-loss-does-not-eliminate-biting-and-reproduction-in-anopheles-gambiae-mosquitoes
#2
Alison T Isaacs, Amy Lynd, Martin J Donnelly
Recent successes in malaria control have been largely attributable to the deployment of insecticide-based vector control tools such as bed nets and indoor residual spraying. Pyrethroid-treated bed nets are acutely neurotoxic to mosquitoes, inducing symptoms such as loss of coordination, paralysis, and violent spasms. One result of pyrethroid exposure often seen in laboratory tests is mosquito leg loss, a condition that has thus far been assumed to equate to mortality, as females are not expected to blood feed...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438229/energy-drinks-available-in-ireland-a-description-of-caffeine-and-sugar-content
#3
Laura Keaver, Susannah Gilpin, Joana Caldeira Fernandes da Silva, Claire Buckley, Cliodhna Foley-Nolan
OBJECTIVE: To describe the caffeine and sugar content of all energy drinks available on the island of Ireland. DESIGN: Two retail outlets were selected from each of: multinational, convenience and discount stores in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, and all available single-serve energy drinks were purchased. The cross-sectional survey was conducted in February 2015 and brand name, price, volume, caffeine and sugar content were recorded for each product...
April 25, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436342/comparison-of-neural-substrates-of-temporal-discounting-between-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#4
C O Carlisi, L Norman, C M Murphy, A Christakou, K Chantiluke, V Giampietro, A Simmons, M Brammer, D G Murphy, D Mataix-Cols, K Rubia
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share abnormalities in hot executive functions such as reward-based decision-making, as measured in the temporal discounting task (TD). No studies, however, have directly compared these disorders to investigate common/distinct neural profiles underlying such abnormalities. We wanted to test whether reward-based decision-making is a shared transdiagnostic feature of both disorders with similar neurofunctional substrates or whether it is a shared phenotype with disorder-differential neurofunctional underpinnings...
April 24, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434811/predicting-and-planning-for-siea-flap-utilisation-in-breast-reconstruction-an-algorithm-combining-pre-operative-computed-tomography-analysis-and-intra-operative-angiosome-assessment
#5
Francis P Henry, Daniel P Butler, Simon H Wood, Navid Jallali
BACKGROUND: Low flap complication rates and excellent aesthetic outcomes are now commonplace in breast reconstruction. As a result, attention is now being focussed on minimising donor site morbidity. Despite its potential donor site advantages, the superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA) flap is often discounted, given concerns about the high flap failure rates. In this study, we present our experience of using the SIEA flap in breast reconstruction and provide an algorithm based on pre-operative computed tomography angiography (CTA) to aid pre-operative planning...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434387/cost-utility-of-biological-treatment-sequences-for-luminal-crohn-s-disease-in-europe
#6
Fanni Rencz, László Gulácsi, Márta Péntek, Krisztina B Gecse, Axel Dignass, Jonas Halfvarson, Fernando Gomollón, Petra Baji, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Péter L Lakatos, Valentin Brodszky
OBJECTIVES: To compare the cost-effectiveness of treatment sequences with available biologics, including adalimumab (ADA), biosimilar infliximab (bsIFX), originator infliximab (IFX) and vedolizumab (VEDO) for luminal Crohn's disease in nine European countries. METHODS: A Markov-model was constructed to simulate five-year medical costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Data on clinical efficacy were obtained from randomised controlled trials. Country-specific unit costs, discount rates and a third-party payer perspective were applied...
April 24, 2017: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432898/cost-effectiveness-of-sensor-augmented-pump-therapy-versus-standard-insulin-pump-therapy-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-in-denmark
#7
S Roze, S de Portu, J Smith-Palmer, A Delbaere, W Valentine, M Ridderstråle
AIMS: The use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in type 1 diabetes (T1D) has increased in recent years. Sensor-augmented pump therapy (SAP) with low glucose suspend (LGS) (allowing temporary suspension of insulin delivery if blood glucose level falls below a pre-defined threshold level) provides additional benefits over CSII alone, but is associated with higher acquisition costs. Therefore, a cost-effectiveness analysis of SAP+LGS versus CSII in patients with T1D was performed...
February 16, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432368/indoor-radon-in-micro-geological-setting-of-an-indigenous-community-in-canada-a-pilot-study-for-hazard-identification
#8
Atanu Sarkar, Derek Hc Wilton, Erica Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND: Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. In Canada, the health authorities have no access to comprehensive profile of the communities built over uranium-rich micro-geological settings. The present indoor radon monitoring guideline is unable to provide an accurate identification of health hazards due to discounting several parameters of housing characteristics. OBJECTIVE: To explore indoor radon levels in a micro-geological setting known for high uranium in bedrock and to develop a theoretical model for a revised radon testing protocol...
April 2017: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429784/sight-and-sound-persistently-out-of-synch-stable-individual-differences-in-audiovisual-synchronisation-revealed-by-implicit-measures-of-lip-voice-integration
#9
Alberta Ipser, Vlera Agolli, Anisa Bajraktari, Fatimah Al-Alawi, Nurfitriani Djaafara, Elliot D Freeman
Are sight and sound out of synch? Signs that they are have been dismissed for over two centuries as an artefact of attentional and response bias, to which traditional subjective methods are prone. To avoid such biases, we measured performance on objective tasks that depend implicitly on achieving good lip-synch. We measured the McGurk effect (in which incongruent lip-voice pairs evoke illusory phonemes), and also identification of degraded speech, while manipulating audiovisual asynchrony. Peak performance was found at an average auditory lag of ~100 ms, but this varied widely between individuals...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428587/healthy-discounts
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 21, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426796/correction-side-effects-in-time-discounting-procedures-fixed-alternatives-become-the-reference-point
#11
Przemysław Sawicki, Michał Białek
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0165245.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426708/let-s-decide-together-differences-between-individual-and-joint-delay-discounting
#12
Diana Schwenke, Maja Dshemuchadse, Cordula Vesper, Martin Georg Bleichner, Stefan Scherbaum
This study addressed the question whether or not social collaboration has an effect on delay discounting, the tendency to prefer sooner but smaller over later but larger delivered rewards. We applied a novel paradigm in which participants executed choices between two gains in an individual and in a dyadic decision-making condition. We observed how participants reached mutual consent via joystick movement coordination and found lower discounting and a higher decisions' efficiency. In order to establish the underlying mechanism for dyadic variation, we further tested whether these differences emerge from social facilitation or inner group interchange...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426345/economic-evaluation-of-ezetimibe-treatment-in-combination-with-statin-therapy-in-the-united-states
#13
Glenn M Davies, Ami Vyas, Carl A Baxter
AIMS: This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of ezetimibe with statin therapy versus statin monotherapy from a United States (US) payer perspective, assuming the impending patent expiration of ezetimibe. METHODS: A Markov-like economic model consisting of 28 distinct health states was used. Model population data were obtained from US linked claims and electronic medical records, with inclusion criteria based on diagnostic guidelines. Inputs came from recent clinical trials, meta-analyses, and cost-effectiveness analyses...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422965/diet-and-condition-of-mesopredators-on-coral-reefs-in-relation-to-shark-abundance
#14
Shanta C Barley, Mark G Meekan, Jessica J Meeuwig
Reef sharks may influence the foraging behaviour of mesopredatory teleosts on coral reefs via both risk effects and competitive exclusion. We used a "natural experiment" to test the hypothesis that the loss of sharks on coral reefs can influence the diet and body condition of mesopredatory fishes by comparing two remote, atoll-like reef systems, the Rowley Shoals and the Scott Reefs, in northwestern Australia. The Rowley Shoals are a marine reserve where sharks are abundant, whereas at the Scott Reefs numbers of sharks have been reduced by centuries of targeted fishing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421013/the-blurred-future-of-adolescent-gamblers-impulsivity-time-horizon-and-emotional-distress
#15
Giovanna Nigro, Marina Cosenza, Maria Ciccarelli
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the interplay of functional and dysfunctional impulsivity, delay discounting, time perspective, and emotional negative states on gambling severity in Italian adolescents. A second aim of the study was to analyze the developmental trajectories of gambling involvement, functional and dysfunctional impulsivity, delay discounting, consideration of future consequences, and negative affectivity in a cross-sectional perspective. One thousand and ten Italian adolescents aging between 12 and 19 years were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA), the Functional and Dysfunctional Impulsivity Scale (FDIS), the Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ), the Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (CFC-14), and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419232/time-discounting-and-tobacco-smoking-a-systematic-review-and-network-analysis
#16
Pepita Barlow, Martin McKee, Aaron Reeves, Gauden Galea, David Stuckler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416327/executive-functioning-and-substance-use-in-adolescence-neurobiological-and-behavioral-perspectives
#17
REVIEW
Jungmeen Kim-Spoon, Rachel E Kahn, Nina Lauharatanahirun, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Warren K Bickel, Pearl H Chiu, Brooks King-Casas
The current review is guided by the theoretical perspective that emphasizes the regulating role of executive functioning (Carver, Johnson, & Joormann, 2009) and presents studies that elucidate the ways that executive functioning (inhibition and working memory) explain individual differences in adolescent substance use independently or by regulating the reactive system (reward and punishment sensitivity). Behavioral studies indicate that main effects of executive functioning on adolescent substance use are often nonsignificant or weak in effect sizes...
April 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414355/experimental-study-of-temporal-spatial-binary-pattern-projection-for-3d-shape-acquisition
#18
Pei Zhou, Jiangping Zhu, Xianyu Su, Zhisheng You, Hailong Jing, Chao Xiao, Min Zhong
Three-dimensional (3D) acquisition of an object with modest accuracy and speed is of particular concern in practice. The performance of digital sinusoidal fringe pattern projection using an off-the-shelf digital video projector is generally discounted by the nonlinearity and low switch rate. In this paper, a binary encoding method to encode one computer-generated standard sinusoidal fringe pattern is presented for circumventing such deficiencies. In previous work [Opt. Eng.54, 054108 (2015)OPEGAR0091-328610...
April 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412832/gondeshapur-revisited-what-historical-evidence
#19
Touraj Nayernouri
In recent years, in European academic circles, there has been a trend to dismiss Gondeshapur as a myth perpetrated by the Bokhtishu family in early Islamic era, despite many historiographical attestations. The writings of Islamic historians such as Al-Qifti and Ibn Abi Usaibia have been discounted as exaggerations by non-contemporary historians, and the lack of primary Pahlavi sources blamed for historical hyperbole. In this essay, I have attempted to show through primary Syriac Christian texts, that there was both a medical school and a bimarestan in Gondeshapur in pre-Islamic Sassanid era, and that Galenic medical texts had been translated and taught in that institution...
April 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411154/neural-mechanisms-of-individual-differences-in-temporal-discounting-of-monetary-and-primary-rewards-in-adolescents
#20
Erik de Water, Gabry W Mies, Bernd Figner, Yuliya Yoncheva, Wouter van den Bos, F Xavier Castellanos, Antonius H N Cillessen, Anouk Scheres
Adolescents are generally characterized as impulsive. However, impulsivity is a multi-dimensional construct that involves multiple component processes. Which of these components contribute to adolescent impulsivity is currently unclear. This study focused on the neural mechanisms underlying individual differences in distinct components of temporal discounting (TD), i.e., the preference for smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards. Participants were 58 adolescents (12-16 years-old) who performed an fMRI TD task with both monetary and snack rewards...
April 14, 2017: NeuroImage
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