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Benjamin Kearns, Abdullah Pandor, Matt Stevenson, Jean Hamilton, Duncan Chambers, Mark Clowes, John Graham, M Satish Kumar
As part of its single technology appraisal (STA) process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the company that manufactures cabazitaxel (Jevtana(®), Sanofi, UK) to submit evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of cabazitaxel for treatment of patients with metastatic hormone-relapsed prostate cancer (mHRPC) previously treated with a docetaxel-containing regimen. The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG)...
October 22, 2016: PharmacoEconomics
Przemysław Sawicki, Michał Białek
Typical research on intertemporal choice utilizes a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) paradigm requiring participants to choose between a smaller sooner and larger later payoff. In the adjusting-amount procedure (AAP) one of the alternatives is fixed and the other is adjusted according to particular choices made by the participant. Such a method makes the alternatives unequal in status and is speculated to make the fixed alternative a reference point for choices, thereby affecting the decision made. The current study shows that fixing different alternatives in the AAP influences discount rates in intertemporal choices...
2016: PloS One
Ashleigh A McGirr, Kevin L Schwartz, Upton Allen, Melinda Solomon, Beate Sander
Background Children with cystic fibrosis (CF) are at higher risk of severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, which can lead to a decline in lung function. A monoclonal antibody, palivizumab (PMB), effectively prevents RSV hospitalizations; however, the high cost of PMB, approximately C$10,000 per patient per RSV season, limits its widespread use. We assess the cost-effectiveness of PMB prophylaxis in CF children less than 2 years of age from the Canadian healthcare payer's perspective. Methods In 2014, a Markov cohort model of CF disease and infant RSV infections in the Canadian setting was developed based on literature data...
October 21, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Mark Haden, John R H Archer, Paul I Dargan, David M Wood
BACKGROUND: MDMB-CHMICA (methyl 2-[[1-(cyclohexylmethyl)indole-3-carbonyl]amino]-3,3-dimethylbutanoate) is a synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist that has been detected in several recreational drug products in Europe since August 2014. OBJECTIVES: This article aims to describe the prevalence of use, availability, and desired and adverse effects of MDMB-CHMICA. METHODS: Data were collated from published scientific literature, and systematic searches were conducted of publically available Internet sources (the "gray literature"), including websites offering to sell MDMB-CHMICA and Internet discussion forums featuring user reports...
October 19, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Andrew Keller, Christian Gericke, Jennifer A Whitty, John Yaxley, Boon Kua, Geoff Coughlin, Troy Gianduzzo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Göteborg randomised population-based prostate cancer screening trial demonstrated that prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based screening reduces prostate cancer deaths compared with an age-matched control group. Utilising the prostate cancer detection rates from this study, we investigated the clinical and cost effectiveness of a similar PSA-based screening strategy for an Australian population of men aged 50-69 years. METHODS: A decision model that incorporated Markov processes was developed from a health system perspective...
October 18, 2016: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
M P Molete, L Chola, K J Hofman
BACKGROUND: The burden of untreated tooth decay remains high and oral healthcare utilisation is low for the majority of children in South Africa. There is need for alternative methods of improving access to low cost oral healthcare. The mobile dental unit of the University of the Witwatersrand (Wits) has been operational for over 25 years, providing alternative oral healthcare to children and adults who otherwise would not have access. The aim of this study was to conduct a cost-analysis of a school based oral healthcare program in the Wits mobile dental unit...
October 19, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Alison Pearce, Cathy Bradley, Paul Hanly, Ciaran O'Neill, Audrey Alforque Thomas, Michal Molcho, Linda Sharp
BACKGROUND: When individuals stop working due to cancer this represents a loss to society - the loss of productivity. The aim of this analysis was to estimate productivity losses associated with premature mortality from all adult cancers and from the 20 highest mortality adult cancers in Ireland in 2011, and project these losses until 2030. METHODS: An incidence-based method was used to estimate the cost of cancer deaths between 2011 and 2030 using the Human Capital Approach...
October 18, 2016: BMC Cancer
Xiuting Mo, Ruoyan Gai Tobe, Xiaoyan Liu, Rintaro Mori
BACKGROUND: Each year in China, approximately 700,000 children under 5 years old are diagnosed with pneumonia, and 30,000 die of the disease. Although 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV-23) are available in China, the costs are borne by the consumer, resulting in low coverage for PCV-7. We aimed to conduct a simulation study to assess the cost-effectiveness and health benefits of PCV-7, 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) and PPV-23 to prevent childhood pneumonia and other vaccine-preventive diseases in China...
November 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Irina A Tikhonova, Martin W Hoyle, Tristan M Snowsill, Chris Cooper, Joanna L Varley-Campbell, Claudius E Rudin, Ruben E Mujica Mota
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer of azacitidine (Celgene) to submit evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of this drug for the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia with more than 30 % bone marrow blasts in adults who are not eligible for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, as part of the NICE's Single Technology Appraisal process. The Peninsula Technology Assessment Group was commissioned to act as the Evidence Review Group (ERG). The ERG produced a critical review of the evidence contained within the company's submission to NICE...
October 17, 2016: PharmacoEconomics
Jillian Mullen, Charles W Mathias, Tara E Karns, Yuanyuan Liang, Nathalie Hill-Kapturczak, John D Roache, Richard J Lamb, Donald M Dougherty
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if behavioral impulsivity under multiple conditions (baseline, after alcohol consumption or after serotonin depletion) predicted naturalistic alcohol use or treatment outcomes from a moderation-based contingency management intervention. METHOD: The current data analysis pulls information from three phases of a large study: 1) Phase 1 examined baseline and the effects of alcohol use and serotonin depletion on three types of behavioral impulsivity: response initiation (IMT task), response inhibition (GoStop task), and delay discounting (SKIP task); 2) Phase 2 involved 28 days of naturalistic drinking; and 3) Phase 3 involved 3 months of contingency management...
September 2016: Addictive Disorders & Their Treatment
Yongwen Jiang, Megan L Ranney, Beatriz Perez, Samara Viner-Brown
INTRODUCTION: Mortality from injuries, particularly violent injuries, is more common among the young. Although traditional epidemiologic measures describe burden of death using rate-related mortalities, this method may not accurately represent burden of premature death. Years of life lost (YLLs) incorporate time discounting and age weighting to more accurately estimate the burden of death. To the authors' knowledge, there has been no examination of YLLs using the Rhode Island Violent Death Reporting System data...
November 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Bethany L Stangl, Vatsalya Vatsalya, Molly R Zametkin, Megan E Cooke, Martin H Plawecki, Sean O'Connor, Vijay A Ramchandani
BACKGROUND: Self-administration is a hallmark of all addictive drugs, including alcohol. Human laboratory models of alcohol self-administration have characterized alcohol-seeking behavior, and served as surrogate measures of the effectiveness of pharmacotherapies for alcohol use disorders. Intravenous alcohol self-administration (IV-ASA) is a novel method that assess alcohol exposure driven primarily by the pharmacological response to alcohol, and may have utility in characterizing unique behavioral and personality correlates of alcohol-seeking and consumption...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Robert M Nevels, Samuel T Gontkovsky, Bryman E Williams
Paroxetine, also known by the trade names Aropax, Paxil, Pexeva, Seroxat, Sereupin and Brisdelle, was first marketed in the U.S. in 1992. Effective for major depression and various anxiety disorders, it quickly gained a sizable share of the antidepressant prescription market. By the late 1990s, paroxetine frequently was being associated with serious drug interactions and medication side effects. Most significantly, in a major Canadian epidemiological study examining the relationship between antidepressants and diseases, paroxetine was associated with a 620 percent increase in the rate of breast cancer in women who had taken it over a four-year period...
March 1, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
A Baudouin, X Armoiry, C Dussart
INTRODUCTION: Therapeutic innovation contributes to the increase of health care expenditures in France. Medico-economic evaluation has still a minor role in the decision-making for the registration of drugs and medical devices in hospitals. This study aimed to systematically review published works on medico-economic studies conducted within French hospitals. METHODS: A literature review was carried out to search for medico-economic studies conducted by hospital teams on therapeutic or diagnostic strategies employed within French hospitals and published from 2010 to 2014...
October 10, 2016: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
Lars Sandman, Erik Gustavsson
How to handle orphan drugs for rare diseases is a pressing problem in current health-care. Due to the group size of patients affecting the cost of treatment, they risk being disadvantaged in relation to existing cost-effectiveness thresholds. In an article by Niklas Juth it has been argued that it is irrelevant to take indirectly operative factors like group size into account since such a compensation would risk discounting the use of cost, a relevant factor, altogether. In this article we analyze Juth's argument and observe that we already do compensate for indirectly operative factors, both outside and within cost-effectiveness evaluations, for formal equality reasons...
October 12, 2016: Health Care Analysis: HCA: Journal of Health Philosophy and Policy
Xiaojie Wang, Xue Zhang, Chengli Zhao, Dongyun Yi
It is a crucial and fundamental issue to identify a small subset of influential spreaders that can control the spreading process in networks. In previous studies, a degree-based heuristic called DegreeDiscount has been shown to effectively identify multiple influential spreaders and has severed as a benchmark method. However, the basic assumption of DegreeDiscount is not adequate, because it treats all the nodes equally without any differences. To consider a general situation in real world networks, a novel heuristic method named GeneralizedDegreeDiscount is proposed in this paper as an effective extension of original method...
2016: PloS One
Luis Hernandez, Shien Guo, Hector Toro-Diaz, Stuart Carroll, Syed Feisal Syed Farooq
AIMS: Peginterferon beta-1a 125 mcg administered subcutaneously every two weeks, a new disease-modifying therapy (DMT) for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), was approved in January 2015 by the Scottish Medicines Consortium. This study assesses long-term clinical and economic outcomes of peginterferon beta-1a compared with other self-injectable DMTs (interferon beta-1a [22 mcg, 30 mcg, and 44 mcg], interferon beta-1b, and glatiramer acetate 20 mg) in the treatment of RRMS, from the National Health Service and personal social services perspective in Scotland...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Medical Economics
August Cesarec, Robert Likić
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and has considerable impact on healthcare budgets and patients' quality of life. Trastuzumab (Herceptin(®)) is a monoclonal antibody directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2) for the treatment of breast cancer. Several trastuzumab biosimilars are currently in development. In 2015, trastuzumab was the drug with the highest financial consumption among all drugs in Croatia. This model estimates the 1-year budget impact of the introduction of biosimilar trastuzumab in Croatia...
October 11, 2016: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Matias R Fagiani, Harald Knorke, Tim K Esser, Nadja Heine, Conrad T Wolke, Sandy Gewinner, Wieland Schöllkopf, Marie-Pierre Gaigeot, Riccardo Spezia, Mark A Johnson, Knut R Asmis
We use cryogenic ion trap vibrational spectroscopy to study the structure of the protonated water pentamer, H(+)(H2O)5, and its fully deuterated isotopologue, D(+)(D2O)5, over nearly the complete infrared spectral range (220-4000 cm(-1)) in combination with harmonic and anharmonic electronic structure calculations as well as RRKM modelling. Isomer-selective IR-IR double-resonance measurements on the H(+)(H2O)5 isotopologue establish that the spectrum is due to a single constitutional isomer, thus discounting the recent analysis of the band pattern in the context of two isomers based on AIMD simulations 〈W...
September 29, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Jacob N S Jackson, James MacKillop
BACKGROUND: A growing number of studies have investigated delay discounting, a behavioral economic index of impulsivity, and its relevance to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but with mixed findings. The current meta-analysis synthesizes the literature on the relationship between monetary delay discounting and ADHD in studies using case-control designs. Specifically, the objectives were: 1) to characterize the aggregated differences in monetary delay discounting between individuals with ADHD (cases) and controls in studies using categorical case-control designs; 2) to examine potential differences based on sample age (<18 vs...
July 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
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