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Cotrimoxazol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090718/an-analysis-of-policies-for-cotrimoxazole-amoxicillin-and-azithromycin-use-in-namibia-s-public-sector-findings-and-therapeutic-implications
#1
Dan Kibuule, Mwangana Mubita, Ester Naikaku, Francis Kalemeera, Brian B Godman, Evans Sagwa
BACKGROUND: Despite Namibia's robust medicine use systems and policies, antibiotic use indicators remain suboptimal. Recent medicine use surveys rank cotrimoxazole, amoxicillin and azithromycin (CAA) among the most used medicines. However, there is rising resistance to CAA (55.9%-96.7%). Unfortunately, to date, there have been limited studies evaluating policies to improve antibiotic use in Namibia. AIM: To evaluate public sector pharmaceutical policies and guidelines influencing the therapeutic use of CAA antibiotics in Namibia...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077587/malaria-parasitemia-and-parasite-density-in-antiretroviral-treated-hiv-infected-adults-following-discontinuation-of-cotrimoxazole-prophylaxis
#2
Ronald K Ottichilo, Christina S Polyak, Bernard Guyah, Benson Singa, Josphat Nyataya, Krista Yuhas, Grace John-Stewart, John N Waitumbi
BACKGROUND:  Cotrimoxazole (CTX) discontinuation increases malaria incidence in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Rates, quantity, and timing of parasitemia rebound following CTX remain undefined. METHODS:  Serial specimens from a trial of HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) randomized to continue (the CTX arm) or discontinue (the STOP-CTX arm) were examined for malaria parasites by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069912/idiosyncratic-drug-induced-neutropenia-agranulocytosis
#3
Emmanuel Andrès, Rachel Mourot-Cottet, Frédéric Maloisel, François Séverac, Olivier Keller, Thomas Vogel, Martine Tebacher, Jean-Christophe Weber, Georges Kaltenbach, Jacques-Eric Gottenberg, Bernard Goichot, Jean Sibilia, Anne-Sophie Korganow, Raoul Herbrecht
BACKGROUD: Few data is currently available on neutropenia and agranulocytosis related to drug intake. We report here data on 203 patients with established idiosyncratic drug-induced agranulocytosis, followed up in a referral centre within a university hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data from 203 patients with idiosyncratic drug-induced agranulocytosis were retrospectively reviewed. All cases were extracted from a cohort study on agranulocytosis in the Strasbourg University Hospital (Strasbourg, France) RESULTS: : The mean age was 61...
January 9, 2017: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068935/qualitative-insights-into-implementation-processes-and-outcomes-of-a-randomized-trial-on-peer-support-and-hiv-care-engagement-in-rakai-uganda
#4
April Monroe, Gertrude Nakigozi, William Ddaaki, Jeremiah Mulamba Bazaale, Ronald H Gray, Maria J Wawer, Steven J Reynolds, Caitlin E Kennedy, Larry W Chang
BACKGROUND: People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who have not yet initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) can benefit from being engaged in care and utilizing preventive interventions. Community-based peer support may be an effective approach to promote these important HIV services. METHODS: After conducting a randomized trial of the impact of peer support on pre-ART outcomes, we conducted a qualitative evaluation to better understand trial implementation, processes, and results...
January 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056828/pneumococcal-carriage-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-patterns-from-two-cross-sectional-colonization-surveys-among-children-aged-5-years-prior-to-the-introduction-of-10-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-kenya-2009-2010
#5
Miwako Kobayashi, Laura M Conklin, Godfrey Bigogo, Geofrey Jagero, Lee Hampton, Katherine E Fleming-Dutra, Muthoni Junghae, Maria da Gloria Carvalho, Fabiana Pimenta, Bernard Beall, Thomas Taylor, Kayla F Laserson, John Vulule, Chris Van Beneden, Lindsay Kim, Daniel R Feikin, Cynthia G Whitney, Robert F Breiman
BACKGROUND: Pneumococci are spread by persons with nasopharyngeal colonization, a necessary precursor to invasive disease. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines can prevent colonization with vaccine serotype strains. In 2011, Kenya became one of the first African countries to introduce the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) into its national immunization program. Serial cross-sectional colonization surveys were conducted to assess baseline pneumococcal colonization, antibiotic resistance patterns, and factors associated with resistance...
January 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050070/report-on-the-newly-emerging-nosocomial-burkholderia-cepacia-in-a-tertiary-hospital
#6
Shoba Srinivasan, N C Arora, Kavita Sahai
BACKGROUND: Burkholderia cepacia is an aerobic, motile, opportunistic Gram negative bacillus that can survive in certain disinfectants. This is a report of the emerging infection with the bacteria B. cepacia in our hospital. The awareness of this emerging bacterium is important, as it is known to cause nosocomial infection in hospitals, especially in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) setting. setting. B. cepacia, although known to be multidrug resistant, shows sensitivity to some antibiotics that can be used to treat infection caused by it...
December 2016: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042214/study-of-invasive-pneumococcal-infection-in-adults-with-reference-to-penicillin-resistance
#7
Vrishali Avinash Muley, Dnyaneshwari Purushottam Ghadage, Gauri Eknath Yadav, Arvind Vamanrao Bhore
BACKGROUND: Invasive pneumococcal infections often prove rapidly fatal, even where good medical treatment is readily available. In developed countries, up to 20% of people who contract pneumococcal meningitis die; however, in developing world, mortality is closer to 50%, even among hospitalized patients. The World Health Organization estimated 600,000-800,000 adult deaths each year from pneumococcal pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis. AIMS: This study aims to estimate isolation rate of invasive pneumococcal infection in adults, to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates and to study the associated risk factors...
January 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025733/antibiotic-induced-liver-injury-in-paediatric-outpatients-a-case-control-study-in-primary-care-databases
#8
Carmen Ferrajolo, Katia M C Verhamme, Gianluca Trifirò, Geert W 't Jong, Gino Picelli, Carlo Giaquinto, Giampiero Mazzaglia, Bruno H Stricker, Francesco Rossi, Annalisa Capuano, Miriam C J M Sturkenboom
INTRODUCTION: Antibiotics are the most commonly prescribed drug class in children. Real-world data mining on the paediatric population showed potential associations between antibiotic use and acute liver injury. OBJECTIVE: We assessed risk estimates of liver injury associated with antibiotic use in children and adolescent outpatients. METHODS: A large, multi-database, population-based, case-control study was performed in people <18 years of age from two European countries (Italy and The Netherlands) during the period 2000-2008...
December 26, 2016: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935971/costs-of-care-of-hiv-infected-children-initiating-lopinavir-ritonavir-based-antiretroviral-therapy-before-the-age-of-two-in-cote-d-ivoire
#9
Sophie Desmonde, Divine Avit, Junie Petit, Madeleine Amorissani Folquet, Francois Tanoh Eboua, Clarisse Amani Bosse, Evelyne Dainguy, Véronique Mea, Marguerite Timite-Konan, Sylvie Ngbeché, Andrea Ciaranello, Valeriane Leroy
OBJECTIVES: To access the costs of care for Ivoirian children before and after initiating LPV/r-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) before the age of two. METHODS: We assessed the direct costs of care for all HIV-infected children over the first 12 months on LPV/r-based ART initiated <2 years of age in Abidjan. We recorded all drug prescriptions, ART and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis delivery, medical analyses/examinations and hospital admissions. We compared these costs to those accrued in the month prior to ART initiation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934830/coagulase-negative-staphylococci-causing-blood-stream-infection-at-an-indian-tertiary-care-hospital-prevalence-antimicrobial-resistance-and-molecular-characterisation
#10
S Singh, B Dhawan, A Kapil, S K Kabra, A Suri, V Sreenivas, B K Das
INTRODUCTION: Recent years have seen a rise of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) from common contaminants to agents of nosocomial blood stream infections (BSI's). Molecular typing and establishing a correlation with antibiotic resistance is essential particularly in countries like India where genotyping studies for drug-resistant CoNS are sparse. METHODS: A prospective study was done over 18 months, wherein 42,693 blood samples were received, and 59 patients with BSI due to CoNS were evaluated...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915986/molecular-analysis-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-metallo-beta-lactamase-a-first-report-of-an-iranian-referral-pediatric-hospital
#11
Shima Mahmoudi, Babak Pourakbari, Mansoure Hosseini, Amir Esmaeil Alyari, Mohammad Taghi Haghi Ashtiani, Setareh Mamishi
INTRODUCTION: Pseudomonas aerouginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen causes clinical infections among ill patients. Metallo- Beta- lactamases (MBLs) are important mechanisms of carbapenem (drug of choice) resistance among Pseudomonas aerouginosa isolates. The aim of this study was to determine B- lactamases genes (bla-genes) in P. aerouginosa isolates and to detect percentage of MBLs among P. aerouginosa isolates in different wards. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clinical isolates of P...
December 2, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894388/-analysis-of-distribution-and-drug-resistance-of-pathogens-isolated-from-541-hospitalized-children-with-burn-infection
#12
J X Dai, L Li, L Xu, Z H Chen, X Y Li, M Liu, Y Q Wen, X D Chen
Objective: To investigate the distribution and drug resistance of pathogens isolated from hospitalized children with burn infection. Methods: Totally 541 patients were hospitalized in Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, the 180th Hospital of Chinese People's Liberation Army(PLA), the 92th Hospital of PLA, and Longyan First Hospital from January 2013 to December 2015. Totally 848 clinical specimens (blood, catheter tip attachments, wound exudate, etc.) were collected for pathogen detection. After being identified by an automatic microbiological identification system, drug resistance of pathogens to 41 commonly-used antibiotics in clinic including gentamicin, aztreonam, erythromycin, clindamycin, etc...
November 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889717/profile-of-neonatal-sepsis-due-to-burkholderia-capacia-complex
#13
Aparna Chandrasekaran, Nivedhana Subburaju, Muzamil Mustafa, Sulochana Putlibai
We report the result of retrospective record review of the clinical profile of 59 neonates who presented to a tertiary-care extramural neonatal unit with Burkholderia cepacia complex infection. Among the 3265 admissions over 45 months, incidence of Burkholderia sepsis was 18 per 1000 admissions. Case fatality rate was 17%. Most (95%) isolates were sensitive to cotrimoxazole.
December 15, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859907/identification-and-functional-ascertainment-of-the-pneumocystis-jirovecii-potential-drug-targets-gsc1-and-kre6-involved-in-glucan-synthesis
#14
Amanda Luraschi, Ousmane H Cissé, Marco Pagni, Philippe M Hauser
The most efficient drug against the human pathogenic fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii is cotrimoxazole targeting the folate biosynthesis. However, resistance toward it is emerging and adverse effects occur in some patients. Studies in rodent models suggested that echinocandins could be useful to treat Pneumocystis pneumonia. Echinocandins inhibit the catalytic subunit Gsc1 of the enzymatic complex ensuring the synthesis of 1,3-β glucan, an essential constituent of cell walls of most fungi. Besides, inhibitors of the enzyme Kre6 involved in the synthesis of 1,6-β glucan, another essential component of fungal walls, were recently described...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852379/-investigation-of-molecular-epidemiology-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-department-of-critical-care-medicine
#15
Y X Qin, Q D Li, X Y Wan, L Y Bi, J Wang
Objective: To investigate the feature of antimicrobial resistance, homology and other molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) in Department of Critical Care Medicine(ICU). Methods: From October 2010 to December 2011, 149 strains of MRSA were collected and identified through sputum culture of patients from 10 ICUs of 10 teaching hospitals distributed in 9 chinese central city of China. Susceptibility testing to 18 kinds of antibiotic was performed, the method of pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to analyze the homology, and the technique of multilocus sequencing typing (MLST) was used to identify the sequence type (ST)...
November 8, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846254/extended-spectrum-beta-%C3%AE-lactamases-and-antibiogram-in-enterobacteriaceae-from-clinical-and-drinking-water-sources-from-bahir-dar-city-ethiopia
#16
Bayeh Abera, Mulugeta Kibret, Wondemagegn Mulu
BACKGROUND: The spread of Extended-Spectrum beta (β)-Lactamases (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae has become a serious global problem. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae vary based on differences in antibiotic use, nature of patients and hospital settings. This study was aimed at determining ESBL and antibiogram in Enterobacteriaceae isolates from clinical and drinking water sources in Bahir Dar City, Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Enterobacteriaceae species were isolated from clinical materials and tap water using standard culturing procedures from September 2013 to March 2015...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833719/antibiotic-resistance-properties-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolated-from-cases-of-superficial-infections-at-the-emergency-unit
#17
Koorosh Ahmadi, Amir Masoud Hashemian, Seyyed Mohsen Pouryaghobi, Reza Akhavan, Sara Rozmina, Ehsan Bolvardi
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a ubiquitous opportunistic pathogen, is one of the main causative agents of human superficial infections. Infections due to these bacteria are difficult to heal and cause serious economic issues. OBJECTIVES: The present study was carried out to investigate the antibiotic resistance pattern of P. aeruginosa isolated from cases of superficial infections referred to the emergency health care units of Iranian Hospitals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred swab samples were collected from patients with superficial infections...
2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822380/chronic-melioidosis-presenting-with-multiple-abscesses
#18
Anshul Goel, Rahul Bansal, Shweta Sharma, Suman Singhal, Ashok Kumar
Melioidosis is common in Australia and Southeast Asia and is increasingly recognized in India. It presents in various forms which are difficult to identify and often mimics suppurative infections, tuberculosis, fungal infections, malignancy and systemic rheumatic diseases. Presentation may vary from local disease to disseminated abscesses, pneumonia and sepsis. Disease is common and severe in diabetics. We describe a case of diabetic man presenting with fever, septic shock, peri-articular nodules, lung opacities and multiple abscesses in muscles for the past 3 months remaining undiagnosed...
January 2016: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816564/community-health-workers-provide-integrated-community-case-management-using-malaria-rapid-diagnostic-test-kits
#19
Bright C Orji, Namratha Rao, Elizabeth Thompson, William R Brieger, Emmanuel 'Dipo Otolorin
BACKGROUND: Throughout Nigeria malaria is an endemic disease. Efforts to treat malaria can also be combined with other illnesses including pneumonia and diarrhea, which are killing children under five years of age. The use of Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) aids early diagnosis of malaria and informs when other illnesses should be considered. Those with positive RDT results should be treated with Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACTs), while those with negative RDTs results are further investigated for pneumonia and diarrhea...
October 26, 2016: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814742/shigellosis-in-nepal-13%C3%A2-years-review-of-nationwide-surveillance
#20
Geeta Shakya, Jyoti Acharya, Shailaja Adhikari, Nisha Rijal
BACKGROUND: Shigella is a major cause of gastroenteritis especially in children. In developing countries, the incidence is frequent and results are often life threatening. Changing epidemiology and emerging antibiotic resistance warrants continuous monitoring of susceptibility. The present study highlights the changing epidemiology and drug resistance patterns of Shigella isolated at different hospitals of Nepal over a period of 13 years (Jan. 2003-Dec. 2015). METHODS: This study was carried out in 12 participating laboratories...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
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