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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781594/-monoclonal-spread-of-multi-drug-resistant-ctx-m-15-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-impact-of-measures-to-control-the-outbreak
#1
M A Asencio Egea, M Huertas Vaquero, C Muñoz-Cuevas, J Gaitán Pitera, O Herráez Carrera, P Alcázar Carmona, H D Patiño Ortega, M Franco Huerta, C Román Ortiz, M C Conde García, R Carranza González, J R Barberá, V Bautista Sánchez
OBJECTIVE: To describe an outbreak of multi-drug resistant extended-spectrum β-lactamases-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (MDR-ESBL-KPN) and the impact of measures for its control. METHODS: We reviewed the patients´ clinical records with MDR-ESBL-KPN isolation during 2013-2016 with resistance to fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, fosfomycin, and nitrofurantoin; susceptible to imipenem, meropenem, colistin, and tigecycline and variable to ertapenem and cotrimoxazole (Vitek-2)...
May 18, 2018: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773433/-cerebral-and-pulmonary-nocardiosis-to-nocardia-abscessus-in-an-immunocompetent-algerian-patient
#2
D Arrache, H Zait, V Rodriguez-Nava, E Bergeron, T Durand, M Yahiaoui, F Grenouillet, A Amrane, F Chaouche, A Baiod, K Madani, B Hamrioui
Nocardial brain abscess is often occurring in immunocompromised patients. It is uncommon in immunocompetent individuals. Here, the authors describe a case of cerebral and pulmonary nocardiosis mimicking a metastatic tumor in an apparently health 40-year-old Algerian male. The patient presented multiple brain abscess revealed by inaugural epileptic seizure. He was afebrile and presented with left hemiparesis. Staging imaging showed a nodular lung lesion in the apical segment of the right lower lobe. The patient underwent double craniotomy for resection of the lesion...
May 14, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768458/burden-of-bacterial-meningitis-in-india-preliminary-data-from-a-hospital-based-sentinel-surveillance-network
#3
Yuvaraj Jayaraman, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Girish Kumar Chethrapilly Purushothaman, Bharathy Sukumar, Boopathi Kangusamy, Ambujam Nair Kapoor, Nivedita Gupta, Sanjay Madhav Mehendale
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, acute bacterial meningitis is a major cause of high morbidity and mortality among under five children, particularly in settings where vaccination for H. influenzae type b, S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis is yet to be introduced in the national immunization programs. Estimation of disease burden of bacterial meningitis associated with these pathogens can guide the policy makers to consider inclusion of these newer vaccines in the immunization programs. A network of hospital based sentinel surveillance was established to generate baseline data on the burden of bacterial meningitis among children aged less than 5 years in India and to provide a platform for impact assessment following introduction of the Pentavalent and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines (PCV)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746496/pharyngeal-colonization-and-drug-resistance-profiles-of-morraxella-catarrrhalis-streptococcus-pneumoniae-staphylococcus-aureus-and-haemophilus-influenzae-among-hiv-infected-children-attending-art-clinic-of-felegehiwot-referral-hospital-ethiopia
#4
Wondemagegn Mulu, Endalew Yizengaw, Megbaru Alemu, Daniel Mekonnen, Derese Hailu, Kassaw Ketemaw, Bayeh Abera, Mulugeta Kibret
BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic pharyngeal colonization by potential bacteria is the primary reservoir for bacterial species within a population and is considered a prerequisite for development of major childhood diseases such as sinusitis, otitis media, pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis. However, there is dearth of data on the colonization and drug resistance pattern of the main bacterial pathogens in the pharynx of HIV infected children in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study determined the pharyngeal colonization and drug resistance profile of bacterial pathogens in HIV infected children attending ART clinic of Felegehiwot Referral Hospital (FHRH), Amhara Region, Ethiopia...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736825/bleeding-events-attributable-to-concurrent-use-of-warfarin-and-other-medications-in-high-risk-elderly-meta-analysis-and-italian-population-based-investigation
#5
Rosanna Irene Comoretto, Federico Rea, Ersilia Lucenteforte, Alessandro Mugelli, Gianluca Trifirò, Silvia Cascini, Giuseppe Roberto, Alessandro Chinellato, Amelia Filippelli, Giovanni Corrao
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of bleedings that occurred among warfarin users attributable to the concomitant use of other medications. A general approach for measuring the impact of the prescriptive inappropriateness on drug adverse outcomes at the population level is described. METHODS: A meta-analysis was conducted to obtain summary relative risks of bleeding associated with concurrent use of warfarin and other medications compared to warfarin use alone...
May 7, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696167/reasons-for-participating-in-a-randomised-clinical-trial-the-volunteers-voices-in-the-costop-trial-in-uganda
#6
Agnes Ssali, Andrew Nunn, Martin Mbonye, Zacchaeus Anywaine, Janet Seeley
Introduction: The reasons why research participants join clinical trials remains an area of inquiry especially in low and middle income countries. Methods: We conducted exit interviews with participants who took part in a trial which aimed to evaluate whether long term prophylaxis with cotrimoxazole can be safely discontinued among adults who have been stabilised on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Participants were all reported to be stable on ART and had been participating in the trial for between 12 and 36 months; at the end of the trial participants were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire...
September 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695265/antimicrobial-resistance-among-clinically-relevant-bacterial-isolates-in-accra-a-retrospective-study
#7
Jibril Mohammed, Yaovi Mahuton Gildas Hounmanou, Line Elnif Thomsen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance pattern of bacterial isolates from different specimens at various hospitals and private diagnostic service laboratories in Ghana. RESULTS: A retrospective data of culture and sensitivity test results from 2016 were extracted from the microbiology record book of six laboratories in Accra, Ghana. The data included type of clinical specimen, sex of patient, name of bacterial isolate and antibiotic resistance profile...
April 25, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692577/antibiotic-susceptibility-pattern-of-shigella-isolates-in-a-tertiary-healthcare-center
#8
Anitha Madhavan, Sobha Balakrishnan, Jayalakshmi Vasudevapanicker
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Shigellosis is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in children in developing countries. To the best of our knowledge, there is no published data in the study area on the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and prevalence of Shigella species among diarrheagenic cases. Therefore, a retrospective analysis was done to find the Shigella serotypes, common age group affected, and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Shigella isolates in South Kerala...
April 2018: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690929/gonococcal-sepsis-in-a-32-year-old-female-a-case-report
#9
Michael Owusu, Kwadwo Sarfo Marfo, Godfred Acheampong, Abednego Arthur, Nimako Sarpong, Justin Im, Ondari D Mogeni, Augustina Annan, Hsin-Ying Chiang, Chih-Horng Kuo, Se Eun Park, Florian Marks, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie
BACKGROUND: Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a Gram-negative bacterium which affects the urethra, throat, rectum and cervix of patients and often associated with sexually transmitted infections. The global epidemiology of the disease is not well characterised especially in resource constraint countries due to poor diagnostic capacity and inefficient reporting systems. Although important, little is known about the propensity of this bacterium to cause sepsis in immunocompetent individuals. CASE PRESENTATION: A 32-year-old female presented with fever and generalised malaise to a rural hospital in Ghana...
April 24, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686180/chromobacterium-violaceum-the-deadly-sepsis
#10
Guntur Darmawan, R N Yasmin Kusumawardhani, Bachti Alisjahbana, Trinugroho Heri Fadjari
Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative facultatively anaerobic, oxidase-positive bacterium producing a dark violet antioxidant pigment called violacein. It is an opportunistic pathogen and has an ubiquitous distribution, mainly resides in water and soil of tropical and subtropical regions.An-18-year-old man referred to the emergency room with a 5-day history of progressively worsening swelling of the right cheek. He sought consult and hospitalized at another institution for three days prior this admission; however, his condition deteriorated...
January 2018: Acta Medica Indonesiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684575/draft-genome-sequence-of-field-isolate-brucella-melitensis-strain-2007bm-1-from-india
#11
D K Singh, Bablu Kumar, Garima Shrinet, R P Singh, Aparajita Das, B G Mantur, Abhishek, Aruna Pandey, Piyali Mondal, B K Sajjanar, Soni Doimari, Vijayata Singh, Reena Kumari, A K Tiwari, Gandham Ravikumar
OBJECTIVES: Brucellosis, is among one of the most widespread important global zoonotic diseases which is endemic in many parts of India. Brucella melitensis is supposed to be the most pathogenic species for humans. Here, we report draft genome sequence of B. melitensis strain 2007BM/1 isolated from human in India. METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from Brucella culture and was sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq platform. The generated reads were assembled using three de novo assemblers and the draft genome was annotated...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673879/trimethoprim-susceptibility-in-e-coli-community-acquired-urinary-tract-infections-in-france
#12
C Duployez, J Robert, A Vachée
OBJECTIVES: Trimethoprim has been recently included in the French guidelines for the treatment of urinary tract infections, but no epidemiological data supports its use. We aimed to determine the trimethoprim susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolates responsible for community-acquired urinary tract infections in women of childbearing age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a national prospective survey. A total of 350 strains of E. coli isolated from urines in 35 laboratories were included...
April 16, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660103/submicroscopic-plasmodium-falciparum-parasitaemia-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-adults-living-in-gabon-central-africa-a-pilot-study
#13
J V Koumba Lengongo, N P M'Bondoukwé, J M Ndong Ngomo, S François, A Ndjoyi-Mbiguino, O A Mbang Nguema, M K Bouyou Akotet, D P Mawili-Mboumba
Background: Submicroscopic malaria infections contribute to malaria transmission. Describing the extent of the parasite reservoir is of importance. In people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the frequency of subpatent malaria infections is rarely reported. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of submicroscopic infections in people living with HIV in Gabon and its relationship with cotrimoxazole (CTX) use. Methods: A survey was conducted in two health care centres in rural areas (Koulamoutou and Oyem) and three in urban areas (Libreville) of Gabon from March 2015 to June 2016...
April 5, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621302/factors-associated-with-death-and-loss-to-follow-up-in-children-on-antiretroviral-care-in-mingalardon-specialist-hospital-myanmar-2006-2016
#14
Kay Khaing Kaung Nyunt, Wai Wai Han, Srinath Satyanarayana, Petros Isaakidis, San Hone, Aye Aye Khaing, Hoa Nguyen Binh, Htun Nyunt Oo
BACKGROUND: Myanmar National AIDS programme's priority is to improve the survival of all people living with HIV by providing anti-retroviral therapy (ART) care. More than 7200 children (aged <15 years) have been enrolled into ART care from 2005 to 2016. A previous study showed that ~11% children on ART care had either died or were lost to follow-up by 60 months. Factors associated with death and lost-to follow-up (adverse outcomes) have not been previously studied. OBJECTIVES: To describe the association between demographic and clinical characteristics at enrollment into ART care with adverse outcomes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620934/factors-associated-with-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#15
Adriana Weinberg, Marisa Mussi-Pinhata, Qilu Yu, Rachel A Cohen, Volia C Almeida, Fabiana R Amaral, Laura Freimanis, D Robert Harris, Christiana Smith, George Siberry
OBJECTIVES: To identify factors that predispose HIV-exposed uninfected infants (HEUs) to higher incidence of severe infections, hospitalization and death in the first 6 to 24 months of life compared with HEUs with and without lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in the first 6 months of life. DESIGN: Nested case-control study of 107 LRTI+ infants enrolled in the NISDI Perinatal and LILAC studies with and 140 LRTI- in the first 6 months of, matched by date and place of birth...
March 18, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610195/overexpression-of-the-efflux-pumps-smevwx-and-smedef-is-a-major-cause-of-resistance-to-cotrimoxazole-in-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia
#16
María Blanca Sánchez, José Luis Martínez
Cotrimoxazole is one of the antimicrobials of choice for treating Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections. Most works on the molecular epidemiology of resistance to this drugs combination are based in the analysis of sul genes. Nevertheless, the existence of clinical cotrimoxazole resistant S. maltophilia isolates that do not harbor sul genes has been reported. To investigate potential mutations that can reduce the susceptibility of S. maltophilia to cotrimoxazole, spontaneous S. maltophilia cotrimoxazole resistant mutants isolated under different cotrimoxazole concentrations were studied...
April 2, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587739/prevalence-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-asymptomatic-bacteriuria-among-women-with-pelvic-organ-prolapse-in-abakaliki-south-east-nigeria
#17
K C Ekwedigwe, I Sunday-Adeoye, M O Eliboh, M E Isikhuemen, H Uro-Chukwu, P Ezeonu, A B C Daniyan, E N Yakubu
BACKGROUND: Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is the herniation of pelvic organs from its anatomical confines, and it is of considerable importance to the practicing gynaecologist in middle and low income countries. It is commonly associated with, urinary tract infection (UTI), both symptomatic and asymptomatic due to anatomical and physiological changes. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among women with pelvic organ prolapse, to know the organisms commonly implicated and the sensitivity pattern...
March 27, 2018: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563819/a-case-of-brucella-melitensis-endocarditis-in-a-patient-with-cardiovascular-implantable-electronic-device
#18
Wasl Al-Adsani, Ali Ahmad, Mohammad Al-Mousa
Background: Brucellosis is a bacterial infection, caused by the nonmotile gram-negative aerobic coccobacilli. The clinical manifestation of brucellosis is variable, ranging from mild disease to severe disease. The gold standard test to confirm the diagnosis of brucellosis is assaying blood, bone marrow, or other body fluids or by tissue culture. Preferred first-line treatment in adults with uncomplicated, nonlocalized disease consists of doxycycline-aminoglycoside combination. The recommended duration of treatment is 6 weeks...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562847/oral-provocation-testing-in-cutaneous-adverse-drug-reactions-to-antiretroviral-and-antitubercular-therapy-a-study-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-south-india
#19
Sowmya Kaimal, Jithendriya Madhukara
AIM: To collect data pertaining to oral drug provocation testing (DPT) in hospitalized patients with antiretroviral (ARV)/antitubercular agent-induced rashes. METHODS: Patients with cutaneous adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to ARV/antitubercular drugs and who underwent oral DPT during a 5-year period were included in this study. RESULTS: Data were collected from the records of 21 patients. Of the 21, 19 had HIV infection. The most commonly implicated drug was nevirapine (NVP), followed by cotrimoxazole and antitubercular agents...
January 2018: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561063/mefloquine-for-preventing-malaria-in-pregnant-women
#20
REVIEW
Raquel González, Clara Pons-Duran, Mireia Piqueras, John J Aponte, Feiko O Ter Kuile, Clara Menéndez
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for malaria for all women who live in moderate to high malaria transmission areas in Africa. However, parasite resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has been increasing steadily in some areas of the region. Moreover, HIV-infected women on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis cannot receive sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine because of potential drug interactions. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify alternative drugs for prevention of malaria in pregnancy...
March 21, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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