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Cotrimoxazol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121980/a-complicated-prosthetic-valve-endocarditis-due-to-methicillin-resistant-staphylococci-treated-with-linezolid-and-ciprofloxacin-a-case-report
#1
C G K Amiyangoda, H Wimalaratna, S Bowatte
BACKGROUND: Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) due to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a rare disease with significant mortality and morbidity. With the emerging resistance and adverse effect profile of vancomycin which is the standard treatment, there is a compelling necessity of an effective alternative for vancomycin. Linezolid is proved as such an agent for infections caused by MRSA in other sites. However to-date the evidence for successful use of linezolid for MRSA prosthetic valve endocarditis is limited only for few case studies...
November 9, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119726/cotrimoxazole-prophylaxis-was-associated-with-enteric-commensal-bacterial-resistance-among-hiv-exposed-infants-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial-botswana
#2
Kathleen M Powis, Sajini Souda, Shahin Lockman, Gbolahan Ajibola, Kara Bennett, Jean Leidner, Michael D Hughes, Sikhulile Moyo, Erik van Widenfelt, Haruna B Jibril, Joseph Makhema, Max Essex, Roger L Shapiro
INTRODUCTION: Despite declining risk of vertical HIV transmission, prophylactic cotrimoxazole (CTX) remains widely used to reduce morbidity and mortality in the event of HIV infection among exposed infants, with an inherent risk of conferring commensal antimicrobial resistance. Using data from a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of infant CTX prophylaxis, we sought to quantify emergence of antibiotic resistance. METHODS: HIV-exposed uninfected infants enrolled in the Botswana Mpepu study were randomized to prophylactic CTX or placebo between 14 and 34 days of life and continued through 15 months...
November 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099028/post-stroke-bacteriuria-a-longitudinal-study-among-stroke-outpatients-and-inpatients-at-the-korle-bu-teaching-hospital-in-ghana
#3
Eric S Donkor, Samuel Darkwah, Albert Akpalu
Infections of the urinary tract constitute an important post-stroke complication but in Africa, little is known about such infections in relation to stroke patients. The aim of the study was to investigate the epidemiology of bacteriuria among stroke patients at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH) in Ghana including the prevalence, incidence, risk factors and aetiological agents. This was a longitudinal study involving 55 outpatients and 16 inpatients of stroke from the physiotherapy clinic and stroke admission ward of KBTH respectively...
June 2, 2017: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063894/multiple-parasitic-and-viral-infections-in-a-patient-living-with-hiv-aids-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#4
K Deepika, Nonika Rajkumari, A S Liji, Subhash Chandra Parija, Abdoul Hamide
Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are more prone for gastrointestinal infections causing diarrhoea, particularly with parasites. Parasitic infections have been regularly reported in such patients. A female patient confirmed positive for HIV 1 on antiretroviral therapy came with complaints of chronic diarrhoea for the past 7 months. Her initial CD4 count was 89 cells/μl of blood, and antibodies to cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 virus were found to be positive in the patient's serum, but there was no HIV-associated retinopathy...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048966/text-messaging-for-improving-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-no-effects-after-1-year-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial-among-adolescents-and-young-adults
#5
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Sebastian Linnemayr, Haijing Huang, Jill Luoto, Andrew Kambugu, Harsha Thirumurthy, Jessica E Haberer, Glenn Wagner, Barbara Mukasa
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of Short Message Service (SMS) reminder messages on antiretroviral and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis adherence among HIV-positive youths as well as the relative effectiveness of SMS with and without a response option. METHODS: Eligible HIV-positive patients aged 15 to 22 years at 2 HIV clinics in Kampala, Uganda, participated in a year-long parallel individual-randomized controlled trial and were assigned in a 1-to-1-to-1 ratio to a weekly SMS message group, weekly SMS message with response option group, or a usual-care control group...
December 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021946/predictors-of-pneumococcal-carriage-and-the-effect-of-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccination-in-the-western-australian-aboriginal-population
#6
Deirdre A Collins, Anke Hoskins, Thomas Snelling, Kalpani Senasinghe, Jacinta Bowman, Natalie A Stemberger, Amanda J Leach, Deborah Lehmann
BACKGROUND: The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced to prevent invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Western Australian (WA) Aboriginal people in 2001. PCV13 replaced PCV7 in July 2011, covering six additional pneumococcal serotypes; however, IPD rates remained high in Aboriginal people in WA. Upper respiratory tract pneumococcal carriage can precede IPD, and PCVs alter serotype distribution. METHODS: To assess the impact of PCV13 introduction, identify emerging serotypes, and assess risk factors for carriage, nasopharyngeal swabs and information on demographic characteristics, health, medication and living conditions from Aboriginal children and adults across WA from August 2008 to November 2014 were collected...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021723/bacterial-infections-in-burn-wound-patients-at-a-tertiary-teaching-hospital-in-accra-ghana
#7
O A Forson, E Ayanka, M Olu-Taiwo, P J Pappoe-Ashong, P J Ayeh-Kumi
Intact human skin surface is essential for protection against infection, preservation of body fluid homeostasis and thermoregulation. Burn injury compromises the skin barrier and enables bacterial infection, hence delaying burn wound healing. This study aimed to determine the microbial profile of burn wounds, and resistance patterns of microbes with respect to the source of the injured patient's wound. Fifty wound swab samples were collected from fifty burn patients at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra (KBTH)...
June 30, 2017: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018810/renaissance-of-conventional-first-line-antibiotics-in-salmonella-enterica-clinical-isolates-assessment-of-mics-for-therapeutic-antimicrobials-in-enteric-fever-cases-from-nepal
#8
Puspa Raj Khanal, Deepa Satyal, Anjeela Bhetwal, Anjila Maharjan, Shreena Shakya, Snehika Tandukar, Narayan Prasad Parajuli
Enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica is a life-threatening systemic illness of gastrointestinal tract especially in tropical countries. Antimicrobial therapy is generally indicated but resistance towards commonly used antibiotics has limited their therapeutic usefulness. Therefore, we aimed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern by minimum inhibitory concentration method of common therapeutic regimens against Salmonella enterica from enteric fever clinical cases. Salmonella enterica clinical isolates recovered from the patients with suspected enteric fever whose blood samples were submitted to microbiology laboratory of Manmohan Memorial Community Hospital, Kathmandu, from March 2016 to August 2016, were studied...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992981/extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-from-urinary-tract-infections-evolution-of-antimicrobial-resistance-and-treatment-options
#9
Gemma Jiménez-Guerra, Víctor Heras-Cañas, Lucía Del Carmen Béjar Molina, Antonio Sorlózano-Puerto, José María Navarro-Marí, José Gutiérrez-Fernández
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A study of the susceptibility to antimicrobials of the extended spectrum beta-lactamase phenotypes (ESBL) in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. was performed to discover the evolution of this type of resistance from urinary tract infections. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A retrospective study was carried out between 2012 and 2016. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, tobramycin, cefoxitin, fosfomycin, nitrofurantoin, co-trimoxazole, and carbapenems was analyzed using MicroScan(®) system...
October 7, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991913/diagnosis-disclosure-to-adolescents-living-with-hiv-in-rural-kenya-improves-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-and-immunologic-outcomes-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#10
Gregg Joseph Montalto, Fredrick K Sawe, Argwings Miruka, Jonah Maswai, Ignatius Kiptoo, Appolonia Aoko, Chrispine Oreyo, Eunice Obiero, Sheila Korir, Stephen K Bii, Katherine X Song, Anjali N Kunz
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Emphasis on adolescent HIV has increased worldwide as antiretroviral treatment has greatly extended life expectancies of HIV-positive children. Few evidence-based guidelines exist on the optimal time to disclose to an adolescent living with HIV (ALHIV); little is known about the medical effects of disclosure. This study looked to determine whether disclosure is associated with improved medical outcomes in ALHIV. Prior work has tended to be qualitative, cross-sectional, and with an emphasis on psychosocial outcomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990398/assessing-the-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-on-antibiotics-among-the-general-public-attending-the-outpatient-pharmacy-units-of-hospitals-in-bhutan-a-cross-sectional-survey
#11
Tshokey Tshokey, Deepika Adhikari, Thupten Tshering, Sangay Wangmo, Kinley Wangdi
We assessed the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices on antibiotics through a questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey among the general public in Bhutan. Of the 692 participants, 52.6% (364) were females with a mean age of 34.2 years. More than half of the respondents showed unsatisfactory knowledge varying significantly from 23.1% to 69.6%. Cotrimoxazole (septran) was the least known while amoxicillin was the most known antibiotics assessed. Two-thirds of the responsents (267) knew that inappropriate use of antibiotics could lead to antimicrobial resistance and 89% (319) were aware of the need to complete the antibiotic courses...
October 1, 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985732/cost-effectiveness-of-malaria-preventive-treatment-for-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-in-sub-saharan-africa
#12
Sung Eun Choi, Margaret L Brandeau, Eran Bendavid
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa: at least 1 million pregnancies among HIV-infected women are complicated by co-infection with malaria annually, leading to increased risk of premature delivery, severe anaemia, delivery of low birth weight infants, and maternal death. Current guidelines recommend either daily cotrimoxazole (CTX) or intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) for HIV-infected pregnant women to prevent malaria and its complications...
October 6, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984267/cotrimoxazole-induced-methemoglobinemia
#13
Nita Radhakrishnan, Ruchi Rai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978597/melioidosis-presenting-as-septicaemia-and-facial-nerve-palsy
#14
Tessa Antony, Swathy Moorthy, Anbumani Narayanaswamy, Preetam Arthur
A 43-year-old farmer presented with acute onset pneumonia, septicaemia and peripheral facial nerve palsy (left side). Burkholderia pseudomallei was isolated from the blood culture of the patient. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous meropenem and oral cotrimoxazole for 2 weeks followed by maintenance therapy with cotrimoxazole. The case is reported to increase awareness among the clinicians and microbiologists regarding melioidosis.
October 4, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971876/risk-factors-that-influence-the-empirical-treatment-of-patients-with-acute-pyelonephritis-a-cohort-study
#15
Pau Bosch-Nicolau, Vicenç Falcó, Belén Viñado, Antonia Andreu, Oscar Len, Benito Almirante, Carles Pigrau
Objectives. The aim of the current study is to compare community-acquired acute pyelonephritis (CA-APN) with healthcare-associated acute pyelonephritis (HCA-APN), describe outcomes and identify variables that could predict antimicrobial susceptibility.Methods. We conducted an observational study that included all consecutive episodes of acute pyelonephritis (APN) in adults during 2014 at a Spanish university-hospital. From each episode demographic data, co-morbidities, clinical presentation, microbiological data, antimicrobial therapy, and outcome were recorded...
October 2, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968447/evidence-of-superficial-knowledge-regarding-antibiotics-and-their-use-results-of-two-cross-sectional-surveys-in-an-urban-informal-settlement-in-kenya
#16
Sylvia Omulo, Samuel M Thumbi, Svetlana Lockwood, Jennifer R Verani, Godfrey Bigogo, Geoffrey Masyongo, Douglas R Call
We assessed knowledge and practices related to antibiotic use in Kibera, an urban informal settlement in Kenya. Surveys was employed at the beginning (entry) and again at the end (exit) of a 5-month longitudinal study of AMR. Two-hundred households were interviewed at entry, of which 149 were also interviewed at exit. The majority (>65%) of respondents in both surveys could name at least one antibiotic, with amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole jointly accounting for 85% and 77% of antibiotics mentioned during entry and exit, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968393/correlates-of-multi-drug-non-susceptibility-in-enteric-bacteria-isolated-from-kenyan-children-with-acute-diarrhea
#17
Rebecca L Brander, Judd L Walson, Grace C John-Stewart, Jacqueline M Naulikha, Janet Ndonye, Nancy Kipkemoi, Doreen Rwigi, Benson O Singa, Patricia B Pavlinac
BACKGROUND: Reduced antimicrobial susceptibility threatens treatment efficacy in sub-Saharan Africa, where data on the burden and correlates of antibiotic resistance among enteric pathogens are limited. METHODS: Fecal samples from children aged 6 mos-15 yrs presenting with acute diarrhea in western Kenya were cultured for bacterial pathogens. HIV-uninfected children with identified Shigella or Salmonella species or pathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC, ETEC, EAEC or EIEC) were included in this cross-sectional sub-study...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966493/clinical-manifestations-of-nocardiosis-study-of-risk-factors-and-outcomes-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#18
Teena Wadhwa, Usha Baveja, Navin Kumar, Deepak Govil, Sharmila Sengupta
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the predisposing risk factors, clinical presentations, laboratory parameters, and treatments taken and outcomes in patients of nocardiosis in the span of 5 years in a tertiary care hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The patients whose specimens showed Nocardia like organism in Gram-staining, Kinyoun staining and characteristic colonies in culture were included in the retrospective analysis study. Retrospective analysis of associated risk factors, clinical presentations, and radiological findings was performed...
October 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956537/epidemiology-and-treatment-of-the-commonest-form-of-listeriosis-meningitis-and-bacteraemia
#19
Pasquale Pagliano, Ferhat Arslan, Tiziana Ascione
Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive bacillus and facultative intracellular bacterium whose transmission occurs mainly through the consumption of contaminated food. Listeriosis has an incidence estimated at around three-six cases per million per year and the most common forms of the infection are neurolisteriosis, bacteraemia, and maternal-neonatal infection. Those affected by listeriosis are at the extremes age of the life or report specific risk factors, such as malignancies, causing a defect of cellular immunity...
September 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947405/risk-factors-for-mortality-in-patients-with-tuberculosis-and-hiv-in-douala-cameroon
#20
N E Essomba, P G Ngaba, M P Halle, Y Afane-Voundi, Y Coppieters
Despite prevention efforts, and free treatment, TB-HIV co-infection still occurs in Cameroon. The objective of this work is to present the risk factors for mortality in patients co-infected with TB and HIV in Douala from 2009 to 2014. This transversal, analytic, and retrospective study took place from November 2014 to May 2015 in the Laquintinie Hospital in Douala. A review of our records identified patients aged at least 15 years, with this co-infection who received TB treatment, with or without antiretroviral agents...
August 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
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