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Wasl Al-Adsani, Ali Ahmad, Mohammad Al-Mousa
Background: Brucellosis is a bacterial infection, caused by the nonmotile gram-negative aerobic coccobacilli. The clinical manifestation of brucellosis is variable, ranging from mild disease to severe disease. The gold standard test to confirm the diagnosis of brucellosis is assaying blood, bone marrow, or other body fluids or by tissue culture. Preferred first-line treatment in adults with uncomplicated, nonlocalized disease consists of doxycycline-aminoglycoside combination. The recommended duration of treatment is 6 weeks...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Sowmya Kaimal, Jithendriya Madhukara
AIM: To collect data pertaining to oral drug provocation testing (DPT) in hospitalized patients with antiretroviral (ARV)/antitubercular agent-induced rashes. METHODS: Patients with cutaneous adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to ARV/antitubercular drugs and who underwent oral DPT during a 5-year period were included in this study. RESULTS: Data were collected from the records of 21 patients. Of the 21, 19 had HIV infection. The most commonly implicated drug was nevirapine (NVP), followed by cotrimoxazole and antitubercular agents...
January 2018: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
Raquel González, Clara Pons-Duran, Mireia Piqueras, John J Aponte, Feiko O Ter Kuile, Clara Menéndez
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for malaria for all women who live in moderate to high malaria transmission areas in Africa. However, parasite resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has been increasing steadily in some areas of the region. Moreover, HIV-infected women on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis cannot receive sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine because of potential drug interactions. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify alternative drugs for prevention of malaria in pregnancy...
March 21, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jennifer Kranz, Stefanie Schmidt, Cordula Lebert, Laila Schneidewind, Falitsa Mandraka, Mirjam Kunze, Sina Helbig, Winfried Vahlensieck, Kurt Naber, Guido Schmiemann, Florian M Wagenlehner
BACKGROUND: We aimed to update the 2010 evidence- and consensus-based national clinical guideline on the diagnosis and management of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) in adult patients. Results are published in 2 parts. Part 1 covers methods, the definition of patient groups, and diagnostics. This second publication focuses on treatment of acute episodes of cystitis and pyelonephritis as well as on prophylaxis of recurrent UTIs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An interdisciplinary group consisting of 17 representatives of 12 medical societies and a patient representative was formed...
March 14, 2018: Urologia Internationalis
Mohd Rizwan, Mohd Akhtar, Abul Kalam Najmi, Kuldeep Singh
AIM: This study was carried out to record the sensitivity/resistance pattern of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae towards antimicrobial drugs prescribed to urinary tract infection (UTI) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 68 bacteriologically proven simple UTI patients were included in the study, based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Subjects demographics, antibiotics prescribed, sensitivity pattern of antibiotics towards the urinary pathogens were recorded in drug utilization and documentation form...
March 12, 2018: Drug Research
Lisa Frigati, Moherdran Archary, Helena Rabie, Martina Penazzato, Nathan Ford
Early mortality and morbidity remain high in children initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Many children still present with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Tuberculosis, pneumonia, and severe bacterial infections are the main causes of hospital admission in HIV-infected children. In contrast to adults with advanced HIV disease, cryptococcal disease is not common in childhood, although there is a peak in infancy and adolescence. Interventions such as TB screening in symptomatic children, and isoniazid and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis should be implemented...
March 4, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Frank A Post, Alexander J Szubert, Andrew J Prendergast, Victoria Johnston, Hermione Lyall, Felicity Fitzgerald, Victor Musiime, Godfrey Musoro, Priscilla Chepkorir, Clara Agutu, Jane Mallewa, Chathurika Rajapakse, Helen Wilkes, James Hakim, Peter Mugyenyi, A Sarah Walker, Diana M Gibb, Sarah L Pett
Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, 20%-25% of people starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) have severe immunosuppression; approximately 10% die within 3 months. In the Reduction of EArly mortaLITY (REALITY) randomized trial, a broad enhanced anti-infection prophylaxis bundle reduced mortality vs cotrimoxazole. We investigate the contribution and timing of different causes of mortality/morbidity. Methods: Participants started ART with a CD4 count <100 cells/µL; enhanced prophylaxis comprised cotrimoxazole plus 12 weeks of isoniazid + fluconazole, single-dose albendazole, and 5 days of azithromycin...
March 4, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Lina María Castaño-Jaramillo, C Beltrán-Arroyave, L C Santander-Peláez, A M Vélez-Escobar, C G Garcés-Samudio, Mónica Trujillo-Honeysberg
BACKGROUND: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) are very common in children and Staphylococcus aureus is the main agent, with an increase of methicillin resistant strains (MRSA) in recent years. AIM: To identify the frequency of MRSA in skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) in children from a high complex hospital in Medellin, Colombia. METHODS: This is a descriptive, retrospective study, information was obtained from medical records. We included patients younger than 18 years with SSTI due to S...
October 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Etienne Nel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advances in our understanding of the treatment of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in a resource-limited environment are needed to improve outcome. RECENT FINDINGS: Ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTFs) made from local products and with reduced milk content lower costs and may be effective in older children. None of the therapeutic foods used to treat severely malnourished children correct long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiencies.Routine short-term antibiotic (amoxicillin) treatment, in the context of adequate healthcare supervision, does not improve the recovery rate...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Masomeh Dehshiri, Seyed Sajjad Khoramrooz, Mohammad Zoladl, Seyed Abdolmajid Khosravani, Najmeh Parhizgari, Mohammad Hossein Motazedian, Soheyla Jahedi, Asghar Sharifi
BACKGROUND: The extended- spectrum β-lactamase producing bacteria are widely spread worldwide. The productions of these enzymes cause bacterial resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to investigated the frequency of K. pneumonia encoding genes for CTX-M, TEM-1 and SHV-1 extended-spectrum beta lactamases enzymes isolated from urinary tract infection. METHODS: This study is cross-sectional study. All K. pneumonia isolates from urine samples, which had grown on media culture more than 105 were delivered to the medical microbiology laboratory...
February 13, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Adriele Dandara Levorato, Daniela Vanessa Moris, Ricardo de Souza Cavalcante, Tatiane Fernanda Sylvestre, Priscila Zacarias de Azevedo, Lídia Raquel de Carvalho, Rinaldo Poncio Mendes
A prospective study was performed in 200 paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) patients, 51 presenting the acute/subacute form (AF) and 149 the chronic form (CF), submitted to the evaluation of the hepatobiliary system at admission and during the follow-up treatment with cotrimoxazole (CMX) or itraconazole (ITC). This study aimed to better evaluate the involvement of the hepatobiliary system in PCM and the effect of these antifungal compounds on this system. Serum levels of direct bilirubin (DB), total bilirubin (TB), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were evaluated...
October 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Gemechu Ameya, Tsegaye Tsalla, Fasil Getu, Eyob Getu
BACKGROUND: Diarrheal diseases continue to be the major cause of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years. Salmonella and Shigella specious are the major enteric pathogen causing diarrhea among children worldwide. Examination of stool sample is the most sensitive method to diagnose diarrheal disease in children. This study aimed to determining the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and associated factor of Salmonella and Shigella infection among under five children...
February 1, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Elisa Demonchy, Johan Courjon, Estelle Ughetto, Matthieu Durand, Karine Risso, Rodolphe Garraffo, Pierre-Marie Roger
INTRODUCTION: The emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) infections requires therapeutic tool reassessment. We report the efficacy of a cefoxitin-based antibiotic therapy for ESBL-E prostatitis. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study including patients with ESBL-E prostatitis, resistant to cotrimoxazole and fluoroquinolones from January 2014 to March 2016. Cefoxitin was administered by continuous infusion for three weeks in the case of acute prostatitis or six weeks in the case of chronic prostatitis with intravenous fosfomycin for the first five days...
January 25, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Cristina El Haj, Oscar Murillo, Alba Ribera, Nuria Lloberas, Joan Gómez-Junyent, Fe Tubau, Pere Fontova, Carme Cabellos, Javier Ariza
BACKGROUND: Linezolid or cotrimoxazole plus rifampicin (RIF) are alternative oral treatments for staphylococcal prosthetic joint infections when fluoroquinolones are not possible to use, but there is limited evidence about its activity. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the efficacy of linezolid (LZD) and cotrimoxazole (SXT) alone and in combination with RIF against Staphylococcus aureus in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic biofilm model. METHODS: Using the CDC Biofilm Reactor® system, simulated regimens of LZD (600 mg q12h), SXT (160/800 mg q8h) and levofloxacin (LVX, 750 mg/day) alone and in combination with RIF (600 mg/day) were evaluated against one MSSA and one MRSA strain...
January 25, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Fouad Madhi, Camille Jung, Sandra Timsit, Corinne Levy, Sandra Biscardi, Mathie Lorrot, Emmanuel Grimprel, Laure Hees, Irina Craiu, Aurelien Galerne, François Dubos, Emmanuel Cixous, Véronique Hentgen, Stéphane Béchet, Stéphane Bonacorsi, Robert Cohen
OBJECTIVES: To assess the management of febrile urinary-tract infection (FUTIs) due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) in children, the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Group of the French Pediatric Society set up an active surveillance network in pediatric centers across France in 2014. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively analysed data from 2014 to 2016 for all children < 18 years old who received antibiotic treatment for FUTI due to ESBL-E in 24 pediatric centers...
2018: PloS One
Henry D J Hogg, We Fong Siah, Arthur Okonkwo, Manjusha Narayanan, Francisco C Figueiredo
OBJECTIVES: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunistic pathogen known to form biofilms on contact lens and case surfaces that may result in permanent visual loss in cases of microbial keratitis. Because of its multiple drug resistance and extremely low incidence, there is little consensus on treatment. We investigated the predisposing factors, management, and visual outcomes in a small case series of patients to better inform the management of this rarely reported keratitis. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of medical records was performed at a single tertiary referral center between 2011 and 2017...
January 22, 2018: Eye & Contact Lens
Florian Hitzenbichler, Michaela Simon, Thomas Holzmann, Michael Iberer, Markus Zimmermann, Bernd Salzberger, Frank Hanses
PURPOSE: Escherichia coli urine isolates from patients presenting to the emergency department at a German tertiary care hospital were retrospectively analyzed from January 2015-March 2017 to determine antibiotic resistance patterns and patient risk factors for resistance. METHODS: Uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) was defined as UTI in the otherwise healthy patient without relevant co-morbidities and complications. Patients were assumed to have UTI if diagnosis was made by the attending physician with conclusive dipstick results...
January 24, 2018: Infection
Syed Ahmed Taqi
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (cotrimoxazole or TMP/SMX) is commonly used for the treatment of urinary or lower respiratory tract infections. A comprehensive review is presented of the world literature on adverse reactions to TMP/SMX since its first use in 1968, when concern was expressed about possible hematologic toxicity. The adverse reactions to TMP/SMX occur in approximately 1%-3% of persons in general population. Here, we report a case of oral erythema multiforme (EM) secondary to TMP/SMX that presented with oral and lip ulcerations typical of EM without any skin lesions and highlights the importance of distinguishing them from other ulcerative disorders involving oral cavity...
January 2018: Annals of African Medicine
Nutan Thakur, Swapnil Jain, Harish Changotra, Rahul Shrivastava, Yashwant Kumar, Neelam Grover, Jitendraa Vashistt
BACKGROUND: Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) signifies as an important etiological agent of moderate-to-severe diarrhea. This study was primarily focused on molecular identification of DEC pathotypes; their association with serogroups and estimates of resistance profiles against different antibiotics regime. METHODS: Five hundred seventy-two stool specimens from diarrhea patients were investigated for DEC pathotypes. Molecular pathotypes were identified by amplification of virulence genes associated with distinct pathotypes followed by sequencing...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
G Chaby, L Valeyrie-Allanore, T A Duong, B Lebrun-Vignes, B Milpied, B Sassolas, F Tetart, P Wolkenstein, O Chosidow, L Fardet
BACKGROUD: The proportion of severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) that could be avoided if medication use was consistent with good medical practice is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the proportion of SCARs related to inappropriate medication use. METHODS: Retrospective study of all validated SCARs collected in a French registry between 2003 and 2016. For each case, all plausible drugs suspected to induce SCARs (i.e., not just the drug regarded as "the most probable") were considered regarding three causes of preventability: (1) prescription for an inappropriate indication, (2) unintentional rechallenge despite a previous allergy to the drug, or (3) self-medication with prescription medicines...
January 20, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
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