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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455391/focal-ischaemic-infarcts-expand-faster-in-cerebellar-cortex-than-cerebral-cortex-in-a-mouse-photothrombotic-stroke-model
#1
Nagarajesh Gorlamandala, Jasneet Parmar, Amanda J Craig, John M Power, Andrew J Moorhouse, Arun V Krishnan, Gary D Housley
It is generally accepted that the cerebellum is particularly vulnerable to ischaemic injury, and this may contribute to the high mortality arising from posterior circulation strokes. However, this has not been systematically examined in an animal model. This study compared the development and resolution of matched photothrombotic microvascular infarcts in the cerebellar and cerebral cortices in adult 129/SvEv mice of both sexes. The photothrombotic lesions were made using tail vein injection of Rose Bengal with a 532 nm laser projected onto a 2 mm diameter aperture over the target region of the brain (with skull thinning)...
February 17, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455223/sialidosis-type-i-presenting-with-a-novel-mutation-and-advanced-neuroimaging-features
#2
Murat Gultekin, Ruslan Bayramov, Cagatay Karaca, Niyazi Acer
Sialidosis is a rare lysosomal storage disease caused by neuraminidase gene (NEU1) mutation and a deficiency of the enzyme neuraminidase. The aim of this study was to examine the sialidosis type 1 brain using volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion tensor imaging and functional MRI in comparison to 3 controls. The patients gene analysis identified compound heterozygous mutation in the NEU1 that is shown to be associated with the sialidosis type 1. In this very rarely seen case, we found volume changes in different brain structures...
January 2018: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455171/visual-motor-integration-and-fine-motor-skills-at-6%C3%A2-years-of-age-and-associations-with-neonatal-brain-volumes-in-children-born-extremely-preterm-in-sweden-a-population-based-cohort-study
#3
Jenny Bolk, Nelly Padilla, Lea Forsman, Lina Broström, Kerstin Hellgren, Ulrika Åden
OBJECTIVES: This exploratory study aimed to investigate associations between neonatal brain volumes and visual-motor integration (VMI) and fine motor skills in children born extremely preterm (EPT) when they reached 6½ years of age. SETTING: Prospective population-based cohort study in Stockholm, Sweden, during 3 years. PARTICIPANTS: All children born before gestational age, 27 weeks, during 2004-2007 in Stockholm, without major morbidities and impairments, and who underwent MRI at term-equivalent age...
February 17, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454959/exophytic-cerebral-hemispheric-low-grade-glioma-an-unusual-growth-pattern-of-a-common-central-nervous-system-tumour
#4
Suyash Singh, Kuntal Kanti Das, Sushila Jaiswal, Raj Kumar
BACKGROUND: Exophytic growth (EG), where in the tumor mass grows beyond the neuraxial boundary formed by pia mater, remains a rare pattern of glioma growth. It has been described in gliomas at several locations like the brainstem, cerebellum, suprasellar area, spinal cord and the insula. However, EG in hemispheric grade 2 astrocytomas, particularly affecting the convexity subarachnoid space, as against the more spacious basal subarachnoid space, is exceedingly rare. To the best of our knowledge, there is only one such case reported in the English literature...
February 15, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452612/survival-strategies-for-mouse-cerebellar-purkinje-neurons-lacking-pmca2
#5
REVIEW
Christopher J Roome, Ruth M Empson
Expression of the fast calcium extrusion protein, PMCA2, in the cerebellum is amongst the highest found throughout the central nervous system, and unsurprisingly PMCA2 knockout mice exhibit cerebellar ataxia or loss of controlled movement. The sole output neurons of the cerebellar cortex, Purkinje neurons, are functionally compromised in these knockout mice, yet remarkably these neurons survive. In this mini-review we review and speculate on the importance of multiple PMCA2 dependent actions at cellular and synaptic sites within the cerebellar Purkinje neuron network...
January 10, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451896/hypomyelinating-disorders-in-china-the-clinical-and-genetic-heterogeneity-in-119-patients
#6
Haoran Ji, Dongxiao Li, Ye Wu, Quanli Zhang, Qiang Gu, Han Xie, Taoyun Ji, Huifang Wang, Lu Zhao, Haijuan Zhao, Yanling Yang, Hongchun Feng, Hui Xiong, Jinhua Ji, Zhixian Yang, Liping Kou, Ming Li, Xinhua Bao, Xingzhi Chang, Yuehua Zhang, Li Li, Huijuan Li, Zhengping Niu, Xiru Wu, Jiangxi Xiao, Yuwu Jiang, Jingmin Wang
OBJECTIVE: Hypomyelinating disorders are a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous diseases characterized by neurological deterioration with hypomyelination visible on brain MRI scans. This study was aimed to clarify the clinical and genetic features of HMDs in Chinese population. METHODS: 119 patients with hypomyelinating disorders in Chinese population were enrolled and evaluated based on their history, clinical manifestation, laboratory examinations, series of brain MRI with follow-up, genetic etiological tests including chromosomal analysis, multiplex ligation probe amplification, Sanger sequencing, targeted enrichment-based next-generation sequencing and whole exome sequencing...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451456/clival-meningocele-causing-bilateral-hearing-loss-in-a-child-due-to-superficial-siderosis-of-the-central-nervous-system-case-report
#7
Stephen J Johans, Kevin N Swong, Daniel J Burkett, Michael P Wemhoff, Sean M Lew, Chirag R Patel, Anand V Germanwala
Superficial siderosis (SS) of the CNS is a rare and often unrecognized condition. Caused by hemosiderin deposition from chronic, repetitive hemorrhage in the subarachnoid space, it results in parenchymal damage in the subpial layers of the brain and spinal cord. T2-weighted MRI shows the characteristic hypointensity of hemosiderin deposition, classically occurring around the cerebellum, brainstem, and spinal cord. Patients present with progressive gait ataxia and sensorineural hearing impairment. Although there have been several studies, case reports, and review articles over the years, the clear pathophysiology of subarachnoid space hemorrhage remains to be elucidated...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450804/long-term-development-of-embryonic-cerebellar-grafts-in-two-strains-of-lurcher-mice
#8
Jan Cendelin, Zdenka Purkartova, Jakub Kubik, Erik Ulbricht, Filip Tichanek, Yaroslav Kolinko
For many degenerative cerebellar diseases, currently, no effective treatment that would substantially restore cerebellar functions is available. Neurotransplantation could be a promising therapy for such cases. Nevertheless, there are still severe limitations for routine clinical use. The aim of the work was to assess volume and morphology and functional impact on motor skills of an embryonic cerebellar graft injected in the form of cell suspension in Lurcher mutant and wild-type mice of the B6CBA and C3H strains after a 6-month survival period...
February 15, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449954/metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5-tracer-18-f-fpeb-displays-increased-binding-potential-in-postcentral-gyrus-and-cerebellum-of-male-individuals-with-autism-a-pilot-pet-study
#9
S Hossein Fatemi, Dean F Wong, James R Brašić, Hiroto Kuwabara, Anil Mathur, Timothy D Folsom, Suma Jacob, George M Realmuto, José V Pardo, Susanne Lee
Background: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is first manifested during early childhood. Postmortem experiments have identified significantly elevated expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) in cerebellar vermis and prefrontal cortex of individuals with autism. Methods: In the current study we employed the mGluR5 tracer [ 18 F]-3-fluoro-5-[(pyridin-3-yl)ethynyl]benzonitrile ([ 18 F]-FPEB) to quantify mGluR5 binding in vivo in adults with autism vs...
2018: Cerebellum & Ataxias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449678/cytoskeleton-stability-is-essential-for-the-integrity-of-the-cerebellum-and-its-motor-and-affective-related-behaviors
#10
Rodrigo Muñoz-Castañeda, David Díaz, Leticia Peris, Annie Andrieux, Christophe Bosc, José M Muñoz-Castañeda, Carsten Janke, José R Alonso, Marie-Jo Moutin, Eduardo Weruaga
The cerebellum plays a key role in motor tasks, but its involvement in cognition is still being considered. Although there is an association of different psychiatric and cognitive disorders with cerebellar impairments, the lack of time-course studies has hindered the understanding of the involvement of cerebellum in cognitive and non-motor functions. Such association was here studied using the Purkinje Cell Degeneration mutant mouse, a model of selective and progressive cerebellar degeneration that lacks the cytosolic carboxypeptidase 1 (CCP1)...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449446/improving-accuracy-of-simultaneously-reconstructed-activity-and-attenuation-maps-using-deep-learning
#11
Donghwi Hwang, Kyeong Yun Kim, Seung Kwan Kang, Seongho Seo, Jin Chul Paeng, Dong Soo Lee, Jae Sung Lee
Simultaneous reconstruction of activity and attenuation using the maximum likelihood reconstruction of activity and attenuation (MLAA) augmented by time-of-flight (TOF) information is a promising method for positron emission tomography (PET) attenuation correction. However, it still suffers from several problems, including crosstalk artifacts, slow convergence speed, and noisy attenuation maps (μ-maps). In this work, we developed deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to overcome these MLAA limitations, and we verified their feasibility using a clinical brain PET data set...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449186/the-reorganization-of-functional-architecture-in-the-early-stages-of-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Noora Tuovinen, Klaus Seppi, Francesco de Pasquale, Christoph Müller, Michael Nocker, Michael Schocke, Elke R Gizewski, Christian Kremser, Gregor K Wenning, Werner Poewe, Atbin Djamshidian, Christoph Scherfler, Morinobu Seki
INTRODUCTION: The study aim was to identify longitudinal abnormalities of functional connectivity and its relation with motor disability in early to moderately advanced stages of Parkinson's disease patients. METHODS: 3.0T structural and resting-state functional MRI was performed in healthy subjects (n = 16) and Parkinson's disease patients (n = 16) with mean disease duration of 2.2 ± 1.2 years at baseline with a clinical follow-up of 1.5 ± 0.3 years. Resting-state fMRI analysis included region-to-region connectivity in correlation with UPDRS-III scores and computation of Global Efficiency and Degree Centrality...
February 8, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449183/altered-resting-state-voxel-level-whole-brain-functional-connectivity-in-depressed-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Hansheng Wang, Huiyue Chen, Jiahui Wu, Li Tao, Ya Pang, Min Gu, Fajin Lv, Tianyou Luo, Oumei Cheng, Ke Sheng, Jin Luo, Yida Hu, Weidong Fang
BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the most common non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), but its pathogenesis is still not very clear. Recently, degree centrality, a voxel-level whole-brain functional connectivity (FC) analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, has provided the most promising way to explore the neural network mechanisms underlying depressed PD. METHODS: Degree centrality, voxel-wise image and clinical symptoms correlation and secondary seed-based FC analyses were performed in twenty-seven drug-naïve, early stage depressed PD patients, 27 non-depressed PD patients and 27 healthy controls (HCs) to reveal voxel-level whole-brain FC changes in depressed PD...
February 9, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447907/wilhelm-his-lasting-insights-into-hindbrain-and-cranial-ganglia-development-and-evolution
#14
REVIEW
Joel C Glover, Karen L Elliott, Albert Erives, Victor V Chizhikov, Bernd Fritzsch
Wilhelm His (1831-1904) provided lasting insights into the development of the central and peripheral nervous system using innovative technologies such as the microtome, which he invented. 150 years after his resurrection of the classical germ layer theory of Wolff, von Baer and Remak, his description of the developmental origin of cranial and spinal ganglia from a distinct cell population, now known as the neural crest, has stood the test of time and more recently sparked tremendous advances regarding the molecular development of these important cells...
February 12, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447256/modulation-of-neural-circuits-underlying-temporal-production-by-facial-expressions-of-pain
#15
Daniela Ballotta, Fausta Lui, Carlo Adolfo Porro, Paolo Frigio Nichelli, Francesca Benuzzi
According to the Scalar Expectancy Theory, humans are equipped with a biological internal clock, possibly modulated by attention and arousal. Both emotions and pain are arousing and can absorb attentional resources, thus causing distortions of temporal perception. The aims of the present single-event fMRI study were to investigate: a) whether observation of facial expressions of pain interferes with time production; and b) the neural network subserving this kind of temporal distortions. Thirty healthy volunteers took part in the study...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446202/conditional-deletion-of-cadherin-13-perturbs-golgi-cells-and-disrupts-social-and-cognitive-behaviors
#16
Martesa Tantra, Lanboling Guo, Jinsook Kim, Norliyana Zainolabidin, George J Augustine, Volker Eulenburg, Albert I Chen
Inhibitory interneurons mediate the gating of synaptic transmission and modulate the activities of neural circuits. Disruption of the function of inhibitory networks in the forebrain is linked to impairment of social and cognitive behaviors, but the involvement of inhibitory interneurons in the cerebellum has not been assessed. We found that Cadherin 13 (Cdh13), a gene implicated in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, is specifically expressed in Golgi cells within the cerebelluar cortex...
February 15, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445510/a-neurologist-and-ataxia-using-eye-movements-to-learn-about-the-cerebellum
#17
REVIEW
David S Zee
The cerebellum, its normal functions and its diseases, and especially its relation to the control of eye movements, has been at the heart of my academic career. Here I review how this came about, with an emphasis on epiphanies, "tipping points" and the influences of mentors, colleagues and trainees. I set a path for young academicians, both clinicians and basic scientists, with some guidelines for developing a productive and rewarding career in neuroscience.
2018: Cerebellum & Ataxias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445232/the-cerebellum-of-patients-with-steatohepatitis-shows-lymphocyte-infiltration-microglial-activation-and-loss-of-purkinje-and-granular-neurons
#18
Tiziano Balzano, Jerónimo Forteza, Pilar Molina, Juan Giner, Ana Monzó, Jennifer Sancho-Jiménez, Amparo Urios, Carmina Montoliu, Vicente Felipo
Peripheral inflammation contributes to minimal hepatic encephalopathy in chronic liver diseases, which could be mediated by neuroinflammation. Neuroinflammation in cerebellum of patients with chronic liver diseases has not been studied in detail. Our aim was to analyze in cerebellum of patients with different grades of liver disease, from mild steatohepatitis to cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy: (a) neuronal density in Purkinje and granular layers; (b) microglial activation; (c) astrocyte activation; (d) peripheral lymphocytes infiltration; (e) subtypes of lymphocytes infiltrated...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444726/resting-state-thalamic-dysconnectivity-in-schizophrenia-and-relationships-with-symptoms
#19
J Ferri, J M Ford, B J Roach, J A Turner, T G van Erp, J Voyvodic, A Preda, A Belger, J Bustillo, D O'Leary, B A Mueller, K O Lim, S C McEwen, V D Calhoun, M Diaz, G Glover, D Greve, C G Wible, J G Vaidya, S G Potkin, D H Mathalon
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SZ) is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder associated with disrupted connectivity within the thalamic-cortico-cerebellar network. Resting-state functional connectivity studies have reported thalamic hypoconnectivity with the cerebellum and prefrontal cortex as well as thalamic hyperconnectivity with sensory cortical regions in SZ patients compared with healthy comparison participants (HCs). However, fundamental questions remain regarding the clinical significance of these connectivity abnormalities...
February 15, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444444/vertical-disconjugacy-during-reading-in-dyslexic-and-non-dyslexic-children
#20
Nathalie Goulème, Cynthia Lions, Christophe-Loïc Gérard, Hugo Peyre, Hung Thai-Van, Maria Pia Bucci
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to explore vertical binocular coordination in dyslexic and non-dyslexic children during saccades and post-saccadic fixation period while reading a text. METHODS: Binocular eye movements were recorded by an infrared system (Mobile T2® , SuriCog) in thirty-six dyslexic children from 7.3 to 13.6 years of age (mean age: 10.4 ± 0.3 years) who were asked to silently read a four-line text during binocular viewing. Data were compared to those of thirty-six age-matched non-dyslexic children...
February 11, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
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