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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678731/age-related-rise-in-lactate-and-its-correlation-with-lactate-dehydrogenase-ldh-status-in-post-mitochondrial-fractions-isolated-from-different-regions-of-brain-in-mice
#1
Siddhartha Datta, Nilkanta Chakrabarti
Rise in brain lactate is the hallmark of ageing. Separate studies report that ageing is associated with elevation of lactate level and alterations of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-A/B mRNA-expression-ratio in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. However, age related lactate rise in brain and its association with LDH status and their brain regional variations are still elusive. In the present study, level of lactate, LDH (A and B) activity and LDH-A expression were evaluated in post-mitochondrial fraction of tissues isolated from four different brain regions (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, substantia nigra and cerebellum) of young and aged mice...
April 17, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678166/why-does-my-patient-s-basilar-artery-continue-to-grow-a-four-year-case-study-of-a-patient-with-symptoms-of-vertebrobasilar-dolichoectasia
#2
Dao Pei Zhang, Yan Fang Peng, Qian Kun Ma, Min Zhao, Huai Liang Zhang, Suo Yin
BACKGROUND: Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD) is a clinical entity associated with ischemic stroke, compression of cranial nerves or brainstem, and hydrocephalus. There have been relatively few studies following the progression of VBD in patients presenting with a variety of diverse clinical features. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report a case study of a male with progressive VBD who was followed from November 2012 to December 2016. The patient had diagnosed hypertension for several years and suffered from left peripheral facial paralysis, recurrent ischemic attacks in the brainstem and cerebellum, obstructive hydrocephalus and frequent pneumonia...
April 20, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677121/prophylactic-neuroprotection-of-total-glucosides-of-paeoniae-radix-alba-against-semen-strychni-induced-neurotoxicity-in-rats-suppressing-oxidative-stress-and-reducing-the-absorption-of-toxic-components
#3
Shujuan Li, Yanjie Chu, Ruowen Zhang, Linjia Sun, Xiaohui Chen
Strychnos alkaloids (SAs) are the main toxic constituents in Semen Strychni, a traditional Chinese medicine, which is known for its fatal neurotoxicity. Hence, the present study was carried out to evaluate the neurotoxicity induced by SAs and the pre-protective effects of the total glucosides of Paeoniae Radix Alba (TGP). An SA brain damage model was firstly established. The neurotoxicity induced by SAs and the pre-protective effects of TGP were confirmed by physical and behavioral testing, biochemical assay, and histological examination...
April 20, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676512/occupational-functional-plasticity-revealed-by-brain-entropy-a-resting-state-fmri-study-of-seafarers
#4
Nizhuan Wang, Huijun Wu, Min Xu, Yang Yang, Chunqi Chang, Weiming Zeng, Hongjie Yan
Recently, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been increasingly used to assess brain function. Brain entropy is an effective model for evaluating the alteration of brain complexity. Specifically, the sample entropy (SampEn) provides a feasible solution for revealing the brain's complexity. Occupation is one key factor affecting the brain's activity, but the neuropsychological mechanisms are still unclear. Thus, in this article, based on fMRI and a brain entropy model, we explored the functional complexity changes engendered by occupation factors, taking the seafarer as an example...
April 20, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675472/low-input-and-multiplexed-microfluidic-assay-reveals-epigenomic-variation-across-cerebellum-and-prefrontal-cortex
#5
Sai Ma, Yuan-Pang Hsieh, Jian Ma, Chang Lu
Extensive effort is under way to survey the epigenomic landscape of primary ex vivo tissues to establish normal reference data and to discern variation associated with disease. The low abundance of some tissue types and the isolation procedure required to generate a homogenous cell population often yield a small quantity of cells for examination. This difficulty is further compounded by the need to profile a myriad of epigenetic marks. Thus, technologies that permit both ultralow input and high throughput are desired...
April 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675389/altered-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-of-the-primary-visual-cortex-in-youth-patients-with-comitant-exotropia-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#6
Pei-Wen Zhu, Xin Huang, Lei Ye, Nan Jiang, Yu-Lin Zhong, Qing Yuan, Fu-Qing Zhou, Yi Shao
AIM: To evaluate the differences in the functional connectivity (FC) of the primary visual cortex (V1) between the youth comitant exotropia (CE) patients and health subjects using resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. METHODS: Totally, 32 CEs (25 males and 7 females) and 32 healthy control subjects (HCs) (25 males and 7 females) were enrolled in the study and underwent the MRI scanning. Two-sample t -test was used to examine differences in FC maps between the CE patients and HCs...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674414/volumetric-brain-mri-study-in-fetuses-with-congenital-heart-disease
#7
H Olshaker, R Ber, D Hoffman, E Derazne, R Achiron, E Katorza
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It is well-established that a high prevalence of infants with congenital heart defects surviving to childhood have neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The etiology is not clear. In this study, we aimed to find prenatal neuroanatomic changes in fetuses with congenital heart disease to better understand the pathophysiology behind these sequelae. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of 46 fetal brain MR imaging scans was performed at a tertiary medical center during a 4-year period...
April 19, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673951/revealing-the-cerebello-ponto-hypothalamic-pathway-in-the-human-brain
#8
Arash Kamali, Niloofar Karbasian, Pejman Rabiei, Andres Cano, Roy F Riascos, Nitin Tandon, Octavio Arevalo, Laura Ocasio, Kyan Younes, Mahsa Khayat-Khoei, Saeedeh Mirbagheri, Khader M Hasan
The cerebellum is shown to be involved in some limbic functions of the human brain such as emotion and affect. The major connection of the cerebellum with the limbic system is known to be through the cerebello-hypothalamic pathways. The consensus is that the projections from the cerebellar nuclei to the limbic system, and particularly the hypothalamus, or from the hypothalamus to the cerebellar nuclei, are through multisynaptic pathways in the bulbar reticular formation. The detailed anatomy of the pathways responsible for mediating these responses, however, is yet to be determined...
April 16, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673307/the-pathology-of-wobbly-hedgehog-syndrome
#9
Josué Díaz-Delgado, Derick B Whitley, Ralph W Storts, Jill J Heatley, Sharman Hoppes, Brian F Porter
Wobbly hedgehog syndrome (WHS) is a leading cause of neurologic disease in African pygmy hedgehogs (APHs; Atelerix albiventris). This study describes the signalment, clinical signs, gross, microscopic, and ultrastructural lesions of WHS in a cohort of 12 pet APHs. Microscopically, lesions consisted of status spongiosus of the white matter, typically bilateral and symmetrical, with myelin degeneration and loss that was accompanied by neuronal/axonal degeneration plus reactive microgliosis and mild, focal astrocytosis and astrogliosis...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673116/intrinsic-spontaneous-brain-activity-predicts-individual-variability-in-associative-memory-in-older-adults
#10
Zhiwei Zheng, Rui Li, Fengqiu Xiao, Rongqiao He, Shouzi Zhang, Juan Li
Older adults demonstrate notable individual differences in associative memory. Here, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) was used to investigate whether intrinsic brain activity at rest could predict individual differences in associative memory among cognitively healthy older adults. Regional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) analysis and a correlation-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) approach were used to analyze data acquired from 102 cognitively normal elderly who completed the paired-associative learning test (PALT) and underwent fMRI scans...
April 19, 2018: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672624/anatomical-distribution-of-cerebral-microbleeds-and-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-vertebrobasilar-dolichoectasia
#11
Alex Förster, Ralf Wenz, Máté Elöd Maros, Johannes Böhme, Mansour Al-Zghloul, Angelika Alonso, Christoph Groden, Holger Wenz
OBJECTIVES: Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD) is a dilatative arteriopathy associated with intracerebral hemorrhage. In the present study, we sought to evaluate the frequency and anatomical distribution of cerebral microbleeds (cMBs) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in VBD. METHODS: From a MRI database 94 VBD patients were identified and analyzed with special emphasis on cMBs and ICH on T2*-weighted gradient echo images (GRE) in relation to the established diagnostic MRI criteria of VBD (diameter, height, and lateral position)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670567/gaba-a-receptor-availability-changes-underlie-symptoms-in-isolated-cervical-dystonia
#12
Brian D Berman, Rebecca Tran Pollard, Erika Shelton, Ramesh Karki, Peter M Smith-Jones, Yubin Miao
GABAA receptor availability changes within sensorimotor regions have been reported in some isolated forms of dystonia. Whether similar abnormalities underlie symptoms in cervical dystonia is not known. In the present study, a total of 15 cervical dystonia patients and 15 age- and sex-matched controls underwent 11 C-flumazenil PET/CT scanning. The density of available GABAA receptors was estimated using a Simplified Reference Tissue Model 2. Group differences were evaluated using a two-sample T -test, and correlations with dystonia severity, as measured by the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale, and disease duration were evaluated using a regression analysis...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670152/improvement-of-cerebellar-ataxic-gait-by-injecting-cbln1-into-the-cerebellum-of-cbln1-null-mice
#13
Eri Takeuchi, Aya Ito-Ishida, Michisuke Yuzaki, Dai Yanagihara
Patients and rodents with cerebellar damage display ataxic gaits characterized by impaired coordination of limb movements. Here, gait ataxia in mice with a null mutation of the gene for the cerebellin 1 precursor protein (cbln1-null mice) was investigated by kinematic analysis of hindlimb movements during locomotion. The Cbln1 protein is predominately produced and secreted from cerebellar granule cells. The cerebellum of cbln1-null mice is characterized by an 80% reduction in the number of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses compared with wild-type mice...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668986/hits-clip-in-various-brain-areas-reveals-new-targets-and-new-modalities-of-rna-binding-by-fragile-x-mental-retardation-protein
#14
Thomas Maurin, Kevin Lebrigand, Sara Castagnola, Agnès Paquet, Marielle Jarjat, Alexandra Popa, Mauro Grossi, Florence Rage, Barbara Bardoni
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of inherited intellectual disability, is due to the functional deficiency of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding protein involved in translational regulation of many messenger RNAs, playing key roles in synaptic morphology and plasticity. To date, no effective treatment for FXS is available. We searched for FMRP targets by HITS-CLIP during early development of multiple mouse brain regions (hippocampus, cortex and cerebellum) at a time of brain development when FMRP is most highly expressed and synaptogenesis reaches a peak...
April 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668384/cell-type-specific-plasticity-at-parallel-fiber-synapses-onto-purkinje-cells-in-the-posterior-caudal-lobe-of-the-mormyrid-fish-cerebellum
#15
Yueping Zhang, Gerhard Magnus, Victor Z Han
It has been demonstrated that there are two morphological subtypes of Purkinje cells (PCs) - fan-shaped Purkinje cells (fPCs) and multipolar Purkinje cells (mPCs) - in the posterior caudal lobe of the mormyrid fish cerebellum, but whether these cell types are also functionally distinct is unknown. Here, we have used electrophysiological and pharmacological tools in a slice preparation to demonstrate that pairing parallel fiber (PF) and climbing fiber (CF) inputs at a low frequency induces long-term depression (LTD) in fPCs, but long-term potentiation (LTP) in mPCs...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667267/the-cerebellum-after-trauma-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-cerebellum-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-its-dissociative-subtype
#16
Daniela Rabellino, Maria Densmore, Jean Théberge, Margaret C McKinnon, Ruth A Lanius
The cerebellum plays a key role not only in motor function but also in affect and cognition. Although several psychopathological disorders have been associated with overall cerebellar dysfunction, it remains unclear whether different regions of the cerebellum contribute uniquely to psychopathology. Accordingly, we compared seed-based resting-state functional connectivity of the anterior cerebellum (lobule IV-V), of the posterior cerebellum (Crus I), and of the anterior vermis across posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n = 65), its dissociative subtype (PTSD + DS; n = 37), and non-trauma-exposed healthy controls (HC; n = 47)...
April 17, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666881/pathological-factors-contributing-to-crossed-cerebellar-diaschisis-in-cerebral-gliomas-a-study-combining-perfusion-diffusion-and-structural-mr-imaging
#17
Xiaoxue Liu, Jianrui Li, Qiang Xu, Dante Mantini, Peng Wang, Yuan Xie, Yifei Weng, Chiyuan Ma, Kangjian Sun, Zhiqiang Zhang, Guangming Lu
PURPOSE: To investigate imaging features of crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) in cerebral gliomas, and its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. METHODS: Thirty-three pre-surgical patients with cerebral gliomas and 33 healthy controls underwent arterial spin-labeling, diffusion tensor imaging, and high-resolution T1-weighted imaging using MRI, in order to estimate cerebral blood flow (CBF), white matter integrity, and lesion volume, respectively. Asymmetry indices of CBF in the cerebellum were used for evaluating the level of CCD in the patients...
April 17, 2018: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665671/molecular-mechanisms-of-synaptic-specificity-spotlight-on-hippocampal-and-cerebellar-synapse-organizers
#18
Dongseok Park, Sungwon Bae, Taek Han Yoon, Jaewon Ko
Synapses and neural circuits form with exquisite specificity during brain development to allow the precise and appropriate flow of neural information. Although this property of synapses and neural circuits has been extensively investigated for more than a century, molecular mechanisms underlying this property are only recently being unveiled. Recent studies highlight several classes of cell-surface proteins as organizing hubs in building structural and functional architectures of specific synapses and neural circuits...
April 18, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665106/conditional-deletion-of-neurog1-in-the-cerebellum-of-postnatal-mice-delays-inhibitory-interneuron-maturation
#19
Edwin A Obana, Qiong Zhou, Orion Furmanski, Martin L Doughty
The transcriptional programs that drive the generation of diverse GABAergic neuron populations from their common progenitor pools in the developing cerebellum remain unclear. Neurog1 is a pro-neural basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor expressed in GABAergic progenitor cells in the ventricular zone (VZ) of embryos and subsequently in the presumptive white matter (pWM) tracts of developing postnatal mice. Genetic inducible fate-mapping labels Purkinje cells and all inhibitory interneuron cell types of the cerebellar cortex...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664449/neurometabolic-disorders-and-congenital-malformations-of-the-central-nervous-system
#20
Ahmed Y BoAli, Majid Alfadhel, Brahim Tabarki
Both malformations of the central nervous system and neurometabolic disorders are common, mainly in highly consanguineous populations. Both metabolic pathways and developmental pathways are closely related and interact with each other. Neurometabolic disorders can lead to disturbances in brain development through multiple mechanisms that include deficits in energy metabolism, critical nutrient deficiency, accumulation of neurotoxic substrates, abnormality in cell membrane constituents, and interference in cell-to-cell signaling pathways...
April 2018: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
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