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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441555/rapid-evolution-of-the-cerebellum-in-humans-and-other-great-apes
#1
Robert A Barton, Chris Venditti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441051/diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-brain-of-neurologically-normal-dogs
#2
Megan J MacLellan, Christopher P Ober, Daniel A Feeney, Carl R Jessen
OBJECTIVE To acquire MRI diffusion data (apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC] and fractional anisotropy [FA] values, including separate measures for gray and white matter) at 3.0 T for multiple locations of the brain of neurologically normal dogs. ANIMALS: 13 neurologically normal dogs recruited from a group of patients undergoing tibial plateau leveling osteotomy. PROCEDURES: MRI duration ranged from 20 to 30 minutes, including obtaining preliminary images to exclude pathological changes (T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery transverse and dorsal images) and diffusion-weighted images...
May 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440867/the-epileptology-of-koolen-de-vries-syndrome-electro-clinico-radiologic-findings-in-31-patients
#3
Kenneth A Myers, Simone A Mandelstam, Georgia Ramantani, Elisabeth J Rushing, Bert B de Vries, David A Koolen, Ingrid E Scheffer
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to describe the spectrum of epilepsy phenotypes in Koolen-de Vries syndrome (KdVS), a genetic syndrome involving dysmorphic features, intellectual disability, hypotonia, and congenital malformations, that occurs secondary to 17q21.31 microdeletions and heterozygous mutations in KANSL1. METHODS: We were invited to attend a large gathering of individuals with KdVS and their families. While there, we recruited individuals with KdVS and seizures, and performed thorough phenotyping...
April 25, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440450/comprehensive-analysis-of-a-microrna-expression-profile-in-pediatric-medulloblastoma
#4
Junqiang Dai, Qiao Li, Zhitong Bing, Yinian Zhang, Liang Niu, Hang Yin, Guoqiang Yuan, Yawen Pan
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor of the central nervous system among children. Medulloblastoma is an embryonal tumor, of which little is known about the pathogenesis. Several efforts have been made to understand the molecular aspects of its tumorigenic pathways; however, these are poorly understood. microRNA (miRNA), a type of non‑coding short RNA, has been proven to be associated with a number of physiological processes and pathological processes of serious diseases, including brain tumors...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439961/involvement-of-the-cerebellum-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#5
K Seidel, M Bouzrou, N Heidemann, R Krüger, L Schöls, Wfa den Dunnen, H-W Korf, U Rüb
Patient brains with Parkinson's disease or Dementia with Lewy bodies show aggregation of alpha-synuclein in pre-cerebellar brainstem structures. Furthermore, patients exhibit resting tremor, unstable gait and impaired balance which may be associated with cerebellar dysfunction. Therefore, we screened the cerebella of 12 patients with alpha-synucleinopathies for neuropathological changes. Cerebellar nuclei and neighboring white matter displayed numerous aggregates, while lobules were mildly affected. Cerebellar aggregation pathology may suggest a prion-like spread originating from affected precerebellar structures and the high homogeneity between patients with Dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease shows that both diseases likely belong to the same neuropathological spectrum...
April 25, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439722/dna-methylation-age-acceleration-is-associated-with-disease-duration-and-age-at-onset-in-c9orf72-patients
#6
Ming Zhang, Maria Carmela Tartaglia, Danielle Moreno, Christine Sato, Paul McKeever, Anna Weichert, Julia Keith, Janice Robertson, Lorne Zinman, Ekaterina Rogaeva
The repeat expansion in C9orf72 is the most common cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. C9orf72 patients present with a wide range in disease duration and age of onset. The strongest risk factor for both syndromes is aging, which was linked to DNA methylation (DNAm) age based on the cumulative assessment of the methylation levels of 353 CpGs included on the genome-wide 450k BeadChip. DNAm age may reflect biological age better than chronological age. We conducted a genome-wide blood DNA methylation study of 46 unrelated C9orf72 patients...
April 24, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439461/quantitative-assessment-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-1-expression-in-neurons-and-glia
#7
Lisha Choubey, Jantzen C Collette, Karen Müller Smith
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors (FGFRs) have numerous functions in the developing and adult central nervous system (CNS). For example, the FGFR1 receptor is important for proliferation and fate specification of radial glial cells in the cortex and hippocampus, oligodendrocyte proliferation and regeneration, midline glia morphology and soma translocation, Bergmann glia morphology, and cerebellar morphogenesis. In addition, FGFR1 signaling in astrocytes is required for postnatal maturation of interneurons expressing parvalbumin (PV)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438707/contributions-of-the-parietal-cortex-to-increased-efficiency-of-planning-based-action-selection
#8
Jennifer Randerath, Kenneth Valyear, Benjamin A Philip, Scott H Frey
Response selection is foundational to adaptive behavior, and considerable attention has been devoted to investigating this behavior under conditions in which the mapping between stimuli and responses is fixed. Results from prior studies implicate the left supramarginal gyrus (SMg), premotor and prefrontal cortices, as well as the cerebellum in this essential function. Yet, many goal-directed motor behaviors have multiple solutions with flexible mappings between stimuli and responses whose solutions are believed to involve prospective planning...
April 21, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438531/altered-gray-and-white-matter-microstructure-in-cushing-s-disease-a-diffusional-kurtosis-imaging-study
#9
Hong Jiang, Na-Ying He, Yu-Hao Sun, Fang-Fang Jian, Liu-Guan Bian, Jian-Kang Shen, Fu-Hua Yan, Si-Jian Pan, Qing-Fang Sun
Exposure to chronic hypercortisolism has multiple adverse effects on brain biology in humans. Cushing's disease (CD) represents a unique and natural human model for examining the effects of hypercortisolism on the brain. This cross-sectional study used Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging (DKI) to investigate the microstructure alterations in both white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) of CD patients and to determine the relationship of these changes with clinical characteristics. DKI images were obtained from 15 active CD patients...
April 21, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436342/comparison-of-neural-substrates-of-temporal-discounting-between-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#10
C O Carlisi, L Norman, C M Murphy, A Christakou, K Chantiluke, V Giampietro, A Simmons, M Brammer, D G Murphy, D Mataix-Cols, K Rubia
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share abnormalities in hot executive functions such as reward-based decision-making, as measured in the temporal discounting task (TD). No studies, however, have directly compared these disorders to investigate common/distinct neural profiles underlying such abnormalities. We wanted to test whether reward-based decision-making is a shared transdiagnostic feature of both disorders with similar neurofunctional substrates or whether it is a shared phenotype with disorder-differential neurofunctional underpinnings...
April 24, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436201/brain-responses-to-mechanical-rectal-stimuli-in-patients-with-faecal-incontinence-an-fmri-study
#11
Naseem Mirbagheri, Sean Hatton, Kheng-Seong Ng, Jim Lagopoulos, Marc A Gladman
AIM: Continence is dependent on anorectal/brain interactions. Consequently, aberrations of the brain-gut axis may be important in the pathophysiology of faecal incontinence (FI) in certain patients. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of recording brain responses to rectal mechanical stimuli in patients with FI using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). METHOD: A prospective, cohort pilot study was performed to assess brain responses during rectal stimulation in 14 patients (4 male, mean [SD] age 62 [15] years)...
April 24, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435670/type-1-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-signaling-in-cerebellar-purkinje-cells-in-health-and-disease
#12
REVIEW
Masanobu Kano, Takaki Watanabe
The cerebellum is a brain structure involved in coordination, control, and learning of movements, as well as certain aspects of cognitive function. Purkinje cells are the sole output neurons from the cerebellar cortex and therefore play crucial roles in the overall function of the cerebellum. The type-1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1) is a key "hub" molecule that is critically involved in the regulation of synaptic wiring, excitability, synaptic response, and synaptic plasticity of Purkinje cells. In this review, we aim to highlight how mGluR1 controls these events in Purkinje cells...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435127/neural-impact-of-low-level-alcohol-use-on-response-inhibition-an-fmri-investigation-in-young-adults
#13
Taylor Hatchard, Ola Mioduszewski, Carley Fall, Aziza Byron-Alhassan, Peter Fried, Andra M Smith
It is widely known that alcohol consumption adversely affects human health, particularly in the immature developing brains of adolescents and young adults, which may also have a long-lasting impact on executive functioning. The present study investigated the neural activity of 28 young adults from the Ottawa Prenatal Prospective Study (OPPS) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The purpose of this study was to discover the impact of regular low-level alcohol consumption on response inhibition as the participants performed a Go/No-Go task...
April 20, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434864/sensorimotor-representations-in-cerebellar-granule-cells-in-larval-zebrafish-are-dense-spatially-organized-and-non-temporally-patterned
#14
Laura D Knogler, Daniil A Markov, Elena I Dragomir, Vilim Štih, Ruben Portugues
A fundamental question in neurobiology is how animals integrate external sensory information from their environment with self-generated motor and sensory signals in order to guide motor behavior and adaptation. The cerebellum is a vertebrate hindbrain region where all of these signals converge and that has been implicated in the acquisition, coordination, and calibration of motor activity. Theories of cerebellar function postulate that granule cells encode a variety of sensorimotor signals in the cerebellar input layer...
April 14, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434708/dual-phase-18-f-florbetapir-positron-emission-tomography-in-patients-with-primary-progressive-aphasia-alzheimer-s-disease-and-healthy-controls-a-preliminary-study
#15
Hung-Chou Kuo, Ing-Tsung Hsiao, Chia-Ju Hsieh, Chu-Yun Huang, Kuo-Lun Huang, Yau-Yau Wai, Wen-Li Chuang, Mei-Ping Kung, Yi-Chuan Chu, Tzu-Chen Yen, Kun-Ju Lin, Chin-Chang Huang
BACKGROUND: To determine whether dual-phase (18)F-florbetapir positron emission tomography imaging with perfusion-like and amyloid deposition information can distinguish among primary progressive aphasia (PPA), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: Patients diagnosed with PPA, including four semantic dementia (SD) and two progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), as well as one logopenic variant (LV) of PPA, were studied. All PPA patients, and age-/sex-matched patients with probable AD (n=8) and HCs (n=8) were subjected to dual-phase (18)F-florbetapir imaging...
April 20, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434276/exposure-to-mobile-phone-900-1800%C3%A2-mhz-during-pregnancy-tissue-oxidative-stress-after-childbirth
#16
Mohammad Hossein Bahreyni Toossi, Hamid Reza Sadeghnia, Maryam Mohammad Mahdizadeh Feyzabadi, Mahmoud Hosseini, Mahdiyeh Hedayati, Razieh Mosallanejad, Farimah Beheshti, Zeynab Alizadeh Rahvar
BACKGROUND: The present study has investigated the effects of mobile phone (900-1800 MHz)-induced electromagnetic radiation on redox status in the heart, liver, kidney, cerebellum, and hippocampus of dams and the offspring mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pregnant Balb/C were divided into two groups including the control and the experimental group. The experimental group was exposed to mobile phone (900-1800 MHz), during pregnancy (2 h/d for 20 d). The dams and the offspring of both groups were sacrificed and tissues of interest were harvested immediately after delivery...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434264/exploring-effects-of-remote-ischemic-preconditioning-in-a-pig-model-of-hypothermic-circulatory-arrest
#17
Johanna Herajärvi, Tuomas Anttila, Elitsa Y Dimova, Tuomas Laukka, Mikko Myllymäki, Henri Haapanen, Benjamin A Olenchock, Hannu Tuominen, Ulla Puistola, Peeter Karihtala, Kai Kiviluoma, Peppi Koivunen, Vesa Anttila, Tatu Juvonen
OBJECTIVES: During aortic and cardiac surgery, risks for mortality and morbidity are inevitable. Surgical setups involving deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) are effective to achieve organ protection against ischemic injury. The aim of this study was to identify humoural factors mediating additive protective effects of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) in a porcine model of DHCA. DESIGN: Twenty-two pigs were randomized into the RIPC group (n = 11) and the control group (n = 11)...
April 24, 2017: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal: SCJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432340/phenome-wide-association-study-for-cyp2a6-alleles-rs113288603-is-associated-with-hearing-loss-symptoms-in-elderly-smokers
#18
Renato Polimanti, Kevin P Jensen, Joel Gelernter
To identify novel phenotypic associations related to Cytochrome P450 Family 2 Subfamily A Member 6 (CYP2A6), we investigated the human phenome in a total of 11,271 individuals. Initially, we conducted a phenome-wide association study in 3,401 nicotine-exposed elderly subjects considering 358 phenotypic traits. We identified a significant association between CYP2A6 rs113288603 and hearing loss symptoms (p = 5.75 × 10(-5)). No association was observed in a sample of 3,245 nicotine-unexposed individuals from the same discovery cohort, consistent with the conclusion that the finding is related to CYP2A6 involvement in nicotine metabolism...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431742/the-sleeping-cerebellum
#19
REVIEW
Cathrin B Canto, Yoshiyuki Onuki, Bastiaan Bruinsma, Ysbrand D van der Werf, Chris I De Zeeuw
We sleep almost one-third of our lives and sleep plays an important role in critical brain functions like memory formation and consolidation. The role of sleep in cerebellar processing, however, constitutes an enigma in the field of neuroscience; we know little about cerebellar sleep-physiology, cerebro-cerebellar interactions during sleep, or the contributions of sleep to cerebellum-dependent memory consolidation. Likewise, we do not understand why cerebellar malfunction can lead to changes in the sleep-wake cycle and sleep disorders...
April 18, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431605/global-brain-atrophy-and-metabolic-dysfunction-in-lgi1-encephalitis-a-prospective-multimodal-mri-study
#20
Monika Szots, Morten Blaabjerg, Gergely Orsi, Pernille Iversen, Daniel Kondziella, Camilla G Madsen, Ellen Garde, Peter O Magnusson, Peter Barsi, Ferenc Nagy, Hartwig R Siebner, Zsolt Illes
BACKGROUND: Chronic cognitive deficits are frequent in leucin-rich glioma-inactivated 1 protein (LGI1) encephalitis. We examined structural and metabolic brain abnormalities following LGI1 encephalitis and correlated findings with acute and follow-up clinical outcomes. METHODS: Nine patients underwent prospective multimodal 3 Tesla MRI 33.1±18months after disease onset, including automated volumetry, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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