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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913187/behavioral-and-neurochemical-characterization-of-the-mlh-mutant-mice-lacking-otoconia
#1
Marianna Manes, Mariana de Souza Aranha Garcia-Gomes, Thaísa Meira Sandini, J Zaccarelli-Magalhães, J C Florio, Sandra Regina Alexandre-Ribeiro, Danilo Wadt, Maria Martha Bernardi, Silvia Maria Gomes Massironi, Claudia Madalena Cabrera Mori
Otoconia are crucial for the correct processing of positional information and orientation. Mice lacking otoconia cannot sense the direction of the gravity vector and cannot swim properly. This study aims to characterize the behavior of mergulhador (mlh), otoconia-deficient mutant mice. Additionally, the central catecholamine levels were evaluated to investigate possible correlations between behaviors and central neurotransmitters. A sequence of behavioral tests was used to evaluate the parameters related to the general activity, sensory nervous system, psychomotor system, and autonomous nervous system, in addition to measuring the acquisition of spatial and declarative memory, anxiety-like behavior, motor coordination, and swimming behavior of the mlh mutant mice...
June 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912970/the-influence-of-adolescent-nicotine-exposure-on-ethanol-intake-and-brain-gene-expression
#2
Constanza P Silva, William J Horton, Michael J Caruso, Aswathy Sebastian, Laura C Klein, Istvan Albert, Helen M Kamens
Nicotine and alcohol are often co-abused. Adolescence is a vulnerable period for the initiation of both nicotine and alcohol use, which can lead to subsequent neurodevelopmental and behavioral alterations. It is possible that during this vulnerable period, use of one drug leads to neurobiological alterations that affect subsequent consumption of the other drug. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of nicotine exposure during adolescence on ethanol intake, and the effect of these substances on brain gene expression...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912848/identify-abnormalities-in-resting-state-brain-function-between-first-episode-drug-naive-major-depressive-disorder-and-remitted-individuals-a-3-year-retrospective-study
#3
Chunxia Yang, Aixia Zhang, Aixiang Jia, Jack X Ma, Ning Sun, Yanfang Wang, Xinrong Li, Zhifen Liu, Sha Liu, Yong Xu, Kerang Zhang
This study aims to identify and characterize neurobiological markers for major depressive disorder (MDD) from resting-state brain functional MRI. We examined the abnormality in the regional homogeneity (ReHo) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in first-episode, drug-naive major depressive disorder (fMDD), and remitted major depressive disorder (rMDD) and correlated these fluctuations with clinical markers of MDD. We conducted a retrospective study and reviewed the medical records of 43 patients with fMDD...
June 15, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912297/distinct-roles-for-the-cerebellum-angular-gyrus-and-middle-temporal-gyrus-in-action-feedback-monitoring
#4
Bianca M van Kemenade, B Ezgi Arikan, Kornelius Podranski, Olaf Steinsträter, Tilo Kircher, Benjamin Straube
Action-feedback monitoring is essential to ensure meaningful interactions with the external world. This process involves generating efference copy-based sensory predictions and comparing these with the actual action-feedback. As neural correlates of comparator processes, previous fMRI studies have provided heterogeneous results, including the cerebellum, angular and middle temporal gyrus. However, these studies usually comprised only self-generated actions. Therefore, they might have induced not only action-based prediction errors, but also general sensory mismatch errors...
April 18, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911000/vhl-associated-optic-nerve-hemangioblastoma-treated-with-stereotactic-radiosurgery
#5
Hiroshi Kanno, Seiki Osano, Masamichi Shinonaga
Central nervous system hemangioblastomas are generally restricted to the cerebellum, spinal cord, and brainstem. Supratentorial hemangioblastomas are uncommon, and optic nerve hemangioblastomas are extremely rare, with fewer than 25 reports including this case. In this report, we present the case of a 36-year-old woman with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease who presented with progressive diminution of vision in the left eye due to a retrobulbar optic nerve hemangioblastoma. The patient had a history of cerebellar/spinal hemangioblastomas and pancreatic cysts, and her father and brother were patients with VHL disease...
2018: Journal of Kidney Cancer and VHL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910762/correlation-of-longitudinal-gray-matter-volume-changes-and-motor-recovery-in-patients-after-pontine-infarction
#6
Peipei Wang, Xiuqin Jia, Miao Zhang, Yanxiang Cao, Zhilian Zhao, Yi Shan, Qingfeng Ma, Tianyi Qian, Jingjuan Wang, Jie Lu, Kuncheng Li
The mechanisms of motor functional recovery after pontine infarction (PI) remain unclear. Here, we assessed longitudinal changes in gray matter volume (GMV) and examined the relationship between GMV and clinical outcome. Fifteen patients with unilateral PI underwent magnetic resonance imaging and neurological exams five times during a period of 6 months. Another 15 healthy participants were enrolled as the normal control (NC) group and were examined with the same protocol. The MR exam included routine protocol and a 3D T1-weighted magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo scan...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909450/zebrin-ii-is-ectopically-expressed-in-microglia-in-the-cerebellum-of-neurogenin-2-null-mice
#7
Maryam Rahimi-Balaei, Xiaodan Jiao, Shahin Shabanipour, Rajiv Dixit, Carol Schuurmans, Hassan Marzban
Zebrin II/aldolase C expression in the normal cerebellum is restricted to a Purkinje cell subset and is the canonical marker for stripes and zones. This spatial restriction has been confirmed in over 30 species of mammals, birds, fish, etc. In a transgenic mouse model in which the Neurogenin 2 gene has been disrupted (Neurog2 -/- ), the cerebellum is smaller than normal and Purkinje cell dendrites are disordered, but the basic zone and stripe architecture is preserved. Here, we show that in the Neurog2 -/- mouse, in addition to the normal Purkinje cell expression, zebrin II is also expressed in a population of cells with a morphology characteristic of microglia...
May 16, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908973/response-learning-stimulates-dendritic-spine-growth-on-dorsal-striatal-medium-spiny-neurons
#8
Brandy A Briones, Vincent D Tang, Amanda E Haye, Elizabeth Gould
Increases in the number and/or the size of dendritic spines, sites of excitatory synapses, have been linked to different types of learning as well as synaptic plasticity in several brain regions, including the hippocampus, sensory cortex, motor cortex, and cerebellum. By contrast, a previous study reported that training on a maze task that requires the dorsal striatum has no effect on medium spiny neuron dendritic spines in the dorsal striatum. These findings might suggest brain region-specific differences in levels of plasticity as well as different cellular processes underlying different types of learning...
June 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908563/cerebellar-liponeurocytoma-a-rare-entity-a-case-report
#9
Oliver Gembruch, Andreas Junker, Yahya Ahmadipour, Ulrich Sure, Elias Lemonas
BACKGROUND: Cerebellar liponeurocytoma is a rare tumor of the central nervous system occurring mainly in the posterior fossa, which shows neuronal and variable astrocytic differentiation with foci of lipomatous differentiation. Liponeurocytoma develops in adult patients and is defined in the World Health Organization classification of 2016 as a rare benign grade II tumor. CASE PRESENTATION: A 39-year-old Italian man presented to our department suffering from headache and nausea...
June 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908311/longitudinal-study-of-neonatal-brain-tissue-volumes-in-preterm-infants-and-their-ability-to-predict-neurodevelopmental-outcome
#10
REVIEW
L Gui, S Loukas, F Lazeyras, P S Hüppi, D E Meskaldji, C Borradori Tolsa
Premature birth has been associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, the relation between such outcomes and brain growth in the neonatal period has not yet been fully elucidated. This study investigates longitudinal brain development between birth and term-equivalent age (TEA) by quantitative imaging in a cohort of premature infants born between 26 and 36 weeks gestational age (GA), to provide insight into the relation of brain growth with later neurodevelopmental outcomes. Longitudinal T2-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI) of 84 prematurely born infants acquired shortly after birth and TEA were automatically segmented into cortical gray matter (CGM), unmyelinated white matter (UWM), subcortical gray matter (SGM), cerebellum (CB) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)...
June 13, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908310/individual-differences-in-aesthetic-engagement-are-reflected-in-resting-state-fmri-connectivity-implications-for-stress-resilience
#11
Paula G Williams, Kimberley T Johnson, Brian J Curtis, Jace B King, Jeffrey S Anderson
OBJECTIVE: Individual differences in aesthetic engagement-the propensity to be moved by art, nature, and beauty-are associated with positive health outcomes, as well as stress resilience. The purpose of the current study was to identify potential neural substrate mechanisms underlying individual differences in aesthetic engagement and reported proneness to aesthetic chill. METHODS: Data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) 1200 Subjects Release were utilized...
June 13, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907375/fndc5-expression-in-purkinje-neurons-of-adult-male-rats-with-acute-spinal-cord-injury-following-treatment-with-methylprednisolone
#12
Sajad Hassanzadeh, Seyed Behnamedin Jameie, Mehdi Mehdizadeh, Mansooreh Soleimani, Zeinab Namjoo, Maryam Soleimani
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious and complex medical condition that can happen to anyone. At present, therapy mainly focuses on rehabilitation and pharmacological treatment, such as methylprednisolone (MP). Supra-spinal changes in certain structures, such as the cerebellum, that receive many afferents from the spinal cord might be one reason for unsuccessful therapeutic outcomes. Recently, the expression of FNDC5 was reported in cerebellar Purkinje cells as a possible neuroprotective agent. In the present study, we considered the expression of FNDC5 in Purkinje cells following SCI with and without MP administration in adult rats with SCI...
May 7, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905912/oxidation-resistance-1-modulates-glycolytic-pathways-in-the-cerebellum-via-an-interaction-with-glucose-6-phosphate-isomerase
#13
Mattéa J Finelli, Teresa Paramo, Elisabete Pires, Brent J Ryan, Richard Wade-Martins, Philip C Biggin, James McCullagh, Peter L Oliver
Glucose metabolism is essential for the brain: it not only provides the required energy for cellular function and communication but also participates in balancing the levels of oxidative stress in neurons. Defects in glucose metabolism have been described in neurodegenerative disease; however, it remains unclear how this fundamental process contributes to neuronal cell death in these disorders. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms driving the selective neurodegeneration in an ataxic mouse model lacking oxidation resistance 1 (Oxr1) and discovered an unexpected function for this protein as a regulator of the glycolytic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI/Gpi1)...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905673/blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-after-smoke-inhalation-injury-with-and-without-skin-burn
#14
Anita C Randolph, Satoshi Fukuda, Koji Ihara, Perenlei Enkhbaatar, Maria-Adelaide Micci
Only a handful of published reports exist today that describe neurological complications following smoke inhalation injury. In this study, we characterize acute pathophysiological changes in the brain of sheep exposed to smoke inhalation, with- and without third-degree skin burn that models the injuries sustained by human victims of fire accidents. Blood-brain barrier integrity and hemorrhage were analyzed throughout the brain using specific histological stains: Hematoxylin & Eosin, Luxol fast blue, Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), and Martius, Scarlet and Blue (MSB)...
June 13, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905652/dynamic-sodium-imaging-at-ultra-high-field-reveals-progression-in-a-preclinical-migraine-model
#15
Nastaren Abad, Jens T Rosenberg, David C Hike, Michael G Harrington, Samuel C Grant
Under the hypothesis that increased extracellular sodium induces sustained neuronal excitability with the onset and progression of migraine, this study evaluates dynamic in vivo Na fluxes in the brain of a preclinical rodent analogue of migraine. Ultra-high field Na MRI at 21.1 T has demonstrated potential to quantify sodium concentrations with good spatial and temporal resolution following the onset of central sensitization. Sprague-Dawley male rats with implanted intraperitoneal (IP) lines were studied by MRI before and after an in situ injection of 10 mg/kg of nitroglycerin (NTG) versus vehicle and saline controls...
June 12, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904830/migraine-and-cerebrovascular-disease-still-a-dangerous-connection
#16
Elio Clemente Agostoni, Marco Longoni
Migraine is a common type of headache in young adults, with an estimated prevalence of 4% before puberty and as high as 25% in women by their mid to late 30s. About one third of migraineurs experience transient neurological symptoms known as auras, which characterize a variant known as migraine with aura. Many evidences have shown an increased risk of vascular events in patients affected by migraine, particularly among women and among migraine patients with aura. Potential underlying mechanisms include endothelial dysfunction, hypercoagulability, platelet aggregation, vasospasm, cardiovascular risk factors, paradoxical embolism, spreading depolarization, shared genetic risk, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and immobilization...
June 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903827/sleep-apnoea-in-the-asymptomatic-elderly-a-real-issue-for-the-brain
#17
Sébastien Celle, Claire Boutet, Cédric Annweiler, Jean-Claude Barthélémy, Frédéric Roche
The link between sleep apnoea and brain structure is unclear; although dysfunction of the hippocampus, middle temporal gyrus and brainstem/cerebellum have been observed previously. However, this link has been little explored in elderly subjects. The aim of this study was to explore the link between sleep apnoea and the brain in an elderly population.226 asymptomatic elderly subjects (age mean±sd 75.3±0.9 years, range 72.3-77.8 years) from the PROOF (Evaluation of Ageing, Autonomic Nervous System Activity and Cardiovascular Events) cohort study were explored using linear voxel-based or cortical thickness with apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI; mean±sd 15...
June 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903454/physiology-of-the-cerebellum
#18
Egidio D'Angelo
The cerebellum is a central brain structure deeply integrated into major loops with the cerebral cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord. The cerebellum shows a complex regional organization consisting of modules with sagittal orientation. The cerebellum takes part in motor control and its lesions cause a movement incoordination syndrome called ataxia. Recent observations also imply involvement of the cerebellum in cognition and executive control, with an impact on pathologies like dyslexia and autism. The cerebellum operates as a forward controller learning to predict the precise timing of correlated events...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903453/topography-of-the-cerebellum-in-relation-to-social-brain-regions-and-emotions
#19
Maria Leggio, Giusy Olivito
In the last few decades, an increasing number of studies have focused on better characterizing the cerebellar functions beyond motor control, including emotional and social domains. Anatomic and functional evidence strongly contributes to delineating the cerebellar functional subdivisions and their integration with cerebral functional networks strictly related to emotional regulation and social functioning, thus suggesting a model of cerebellar organization that resembles that of the cerebral cortex. Overcoming the traditional segregation of cerebrocerebellar networks in sensorimotor/cognitive functional modules, during emotional/social processes, the cerebellar activity reflects a domain-specific mentalizing functionality that is strongly connected with corresponding mentalizing networks in the cerebrum...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903452/functional-topography-of-the-human-cerebellum
#20
Catherine J Stoodley, Jeremy D Schmahmann
Accumulating evidence points to a critical role for the human cerebellum in both motor and nonmotor behaviors. A core tenet of this new understanding of cerebellar function is the existence of functional subregions within the cerebellum that differentially support motor, cognitive, and affective behaviors. This cerebellar functional topography - based on converging evidence from neuroanatomic, neuroimaging, and clinical studies - is evident in both adult and pediatric populations. The sensorimotor homunculi in the anterior lobe and lobule VIII established in early tract tracing and electrophysiologic studies are evident in both task-based and resting-state human functional imaging studies...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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