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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245059/proteomic-analysis-of-six-and-twelve-month-hippocampus-and-cerebellum-in-a-murine-down-syndrome-model
#1
Guido N Vacano, David S Gibson, Abdullah Arif Turjoman, Jeremy W Gawryluk, Jonathan D Geiger, Mark Duncan, David Patterson
This study was designed to investigate the brain proteome of the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome. We profiled the cerebellum and hippocampus proteomes of 6- and 12-month-old trisomic and disomic mice by difference gel electrophoresis. We quantified levels of 2082 protein spots and identified 272 (170 unique UniProt accessions) by mass spectrometry. Four identified proteins are encoded by genes trisomic in the Ts65Dn mouse. Three of these (CRYZL11, EZR, and SOD1) were elevated with p-value <0.05, and 2 proteins encoded by disomic genes (MAPRE3 and PHB) were reduced...
November 26, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244806/cellular-selectivity-of-aav-serotypes-for-gene-delivery-in-neurons-and-astrocytes-by-neonatal-intracerebroventricular-injection
#2
Sean L Hammond, Ashley N Leek, Evan H Richman, Ronald B Tjalkens
The non-pathogenic parvovirus, adeno-associated virus (AAV), is an efficient vector for transgene expression in vivo and shows promise for treatment of brain disorders in clinical trials. Currently, there are more than 100 AAV serotypes identified that differ in the binding capacity of capsid proteins to specific cell surface receptors that can transduce different cell types and brain regions in the CNS. In the current study, multiple AAV serotypes expressing a GFP reporter (AAV1, AAV2/1, AAVDJ, AAV8, AAVDJ8, AAV9, AAVDJ9) were screened for their infectivity in both primary murine astrocyte and neuronal cell cultures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244803/changes-in-brain-morphology-and-microstructure-in-relation-to-early-brain-activity-in-extremely-preterm-infants
#3
Maria Luisa Tataranno, Nathalie H P Claessens, Pim Moeskops, Mona C Toet, Karina J Kersbergen, Giuseppe Buonocore, Ivana Išgum, Alexander Leemans, Serena Counsell, Floris Groenendaal, Linda S de Vries, Manon J N L Benders
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation of early brain activity with structural (growth of the cortex and cerebellum) and white matter microstructural brain development. METHODS: 33 preterm neonates (gestational age 26±1 weeks) without major brain abnormalities were continuously monitored with electroencephalography (EEG) during the first 48 h of life. Rate of spontaneous activity transients per minute (SAT rate) and interSAT interval (ISI) in seconds per minute were calculated...
December 15, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244533/systematic-overview-of-neuroanatomical-differences-in-adhd-definitive-evidence
#4
Bruno Bastos Vieira de Melo, Maria João Trigueiro, Pedro Pereira Rodrigues
OBJECTIVES: This article seeks to identify neuroanatomical differences in ADHD through an overview of systematic reviews that report encephalic differences compared to a control group in volume, area, activation likelihood or chemical composition. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search using Cochrane guidelines and PRISMA criteria in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. RESULTS: Results revealed broad encephalic involvement that includes a functional frontal and cingulate hypoactivation and structural differences in corpus callosum, cerebellum and basal nuclei...
December 15, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244164/cortical-and-subcortical-brain-changes-in-children-and-adolescents-with-narcolepsy-type-1
#5
Manuela Tondelli, Fabio Pizza, Anna Elisabetta Vaudano, Giuseppe Plazzi, Stefano Meletti
Study Objectives: Neuroimaging studies on structural alterations in patients with type 1 narcolepsy (NT1) have shown controversial and heterogeneous results. The purpose of this study was to investigate microstructural brain changes in patients with NT1 close to disease onset. Methods: We examined cortical and subcortical grey matter volumes in 20 drug-naïve children and adolescents with NT1 compared with 19 healthy controls; whole-brain voxel-based morphometry, shape and volumetric analyses, and cortical thickness analysis were used...
December 13, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244020/association-between-structural-and-functional-brain-alterations-in-drug-free-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-multimodal-meta-analysis
#6
Xin Gao, Wenjing Zhang, Li Yao, Yuan Xiao, Lu Liu, Jieke Liu, Siyi Li, Bo Tao, Chandan Shah, Qiyong Gong, John A Sweeney, Su Lui
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have shown both structural and functional abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. Recently, studies have begun to explore the association between structural and functional grey matter abnormalities. By conducting a meta-analysis on morphometric and functional imaging studies of grey matter alterations in drug-free patients, the present study aims to examine the degree of overlap between brain regions with anatomic and functional changes in patients with schizophrenia...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243202/non-invasive-cerebellar-stimulation-a-promising-approach-for-stroke-recovery
#7
REVIEW
Maximilian J Wessel, Friedhelm C Hummel
Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) combined with behavioral training is a promising strategy to augment recovery after stroke. Current research efforts have been mainly focusing on primary motor cortex (M1) stimulation. However, the translation from proof-of-principle to clinical applications is not yet satisfactory. Possible reasons are the heterogeneous properties of stroke, generalization of the stimulation protocols, and hence the lack of patient stratification. One strategy to overcome these limitations could be the evaluation of alternative stimulation targets, like the cerebellum...
December 14, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242361/measuring-cerebral-and-cerebellar-glutathione-in-children-using-1h-mega-press-mrs
#8
F Raschke, R Noeske, R A Dineen, D P Auer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Glutathione is an important antioxidant in the human brain and therefore of interest in neurodegenerative disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of measuring glutathione in healthy nonsedated children by using the 1H Mescher-Garwood point-resolved spectroscopy (MEGA-PRESS) sequence at 3T and to compare glutathione levels between the medial parietal gray matter and the cerebellum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Glutathione was measured using MEGA-PRESS MRS (TR = 1...
December 14, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241708/contribution-of-cb1rs-in-anxiety-related-behaviors-but-not-locomotor-deficits-induced-by-methamphetamine
#9
Effat Ramshini, Gholamreza Sepehri, Meysam Ahmadi, Shokouh Arjmand, Mohammad Khaksari, Mohammad Shabani
Several lines of evidence have indicated that Methamphetamine (METH) exposure leads to neurodegenerative changes in the dopaminergic neurons and subsequently may predispose users to motor deficit. On the other hand, there is a reciprocal regulation between the endocannabinoid and the dopaminergic systems. Previous studies also showed that the endocannabinoids are involved in the signaling mechanisms of various brain regions related to motor and cognitive functions. The cerebellum seems as a rational target to investigate the action of cannabinoids on motor coordination because of the high concentration of the cannabinoid receptor in the molecular layer of it and other regions involved in motor activity...
December 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241176/surgery-of-intracranial-gliomas-in-children
#10
James A Balogun, James T Rutka
Gliomas are the most common type of brain cancer in the pediatric patients, constituting about 50% of all childhood intracranial tumors. This is a highly heterogeneous group, varying from the benign WHO histopathological grades I and II to malignant WHO grades III and IV. The histology and location are significant prognostic factors, which influence the decision for surgical intervention, as well as the extent of possible tumor removal. In low-grade gliomas, surgery remains the initial option and should be directed at gross total resection in favorable locations, such as the cerebral hemispheres and the cerebellum...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238972/the-functional-anatomy-of-the-cerebrocerebellar-circuit-a-review-and-new-concepts
#11
REVIEW
Vincenzo Benagiano, Anna Rizzi, Loredana Lorusso, Paolo Flace, Matteo Saccia, Raffaele Cagiano, Domenico Ribatti, Luisa Roncali, Glauco Ambrosi
The cerebrocerebellar circuit is a feedback circuit that bidirectionally connects the neocortex and the cerebellum. According to the classic view, the cerebrocerebellar circuit is specifically involved in the functional regulation of the motor areas of the neocortex. In recent years, studies carried out in experimental animals by morphological and physiological methods, and in humans by magnetic resonance imaging, have indicated that the cerebrocerebellar circuit is also involved in the functional regulation of the non-motor areas of the neocortex, including the prefrontal, associative, sensory and limbic areas...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237482/extraction-of-amplifiable-dna-from-embalmed-human-cadaver-tissue
#12
Lindsay Gielda, Stefanie Rigg
OBJECTIVE: The expansion of molecular techniques in medical diagnosis, forensics, and education requires the development of improved techniques of DNA extraction from fixed tissues. Cadaver tissues are not commonly used for genetic analysis due to DNA degradation resulting from the embalming fixation. Modification of existing techniques of tissue disruption combined with phenol-chloroform treatment was done to produce an efficient method of extracting amplifiable DNA of high quality and quantity from non-paraffin embedded embalmed cadaver tissue...
December 13, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236168/clinical-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-features-of-elderly-onset-dentatorubral-pallidoluysian-atrophy
#13
Atsuhiko Sugiyama, Noriko Sato, Yasuhiro Nakata, Yukio Kimura, Mikako Enokizono, Tomoko Maekawa, Madoka Kondo, Yuji Takahashi, Satoshi Kuwabara, Hiroshi Matsuda
Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is an autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia caused by CAG triplet expansion in atrophin 1 and is frequently associated with cerebral white matter lesions. To elucidate the clinical features of elderly onset DRPLA and the key radiological findings for differentiating DRPLA from physiological white matter lesions in healthy elderly subjects, we reviewed the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of ten patients with elderly onset genetically confirmed DRPLA (> 60 years) and compared their MRI findings with those of age- and sex-matched ten healthy subjects with asymptomatic cerebral white matter lesions...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235743/severe-cognitive-disorders-after-bilateral-infarction-in-the-cerebellum
#14
Atzmon Tsur, Marina Deeb, Nael Shakeer, Hossein Zangaria, Michal Agra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235506/differential-contributions-of-the-middle-frontal-gyrus-functional-connectivity-to-literacy-and-numeracy
#15
Maki S Koyama, David O'Connor, Zarrar Shehzad, Michael P Milham
Literacy and numeracy equally affect an individual's success in and beyond schools, but these two competencies tend to be separately examined, particularly in neuroimaging studies. The current resting-state fMRI study examined the neural correlates of literacy and numeracy in the same sample of healthy adults. We first used an exploratory "Multivariate Distance Matrix Regression" (MDMR) approach to examine intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC), highlighting the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) for both competencies...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234598/investigating-structural-and-perfusion-deficits-due-to-repeated-head-trauma-in-active-professional-fighters
#16
Virendra Mishra, Karthik Sreenivasan, Sarah J Banks, Xiaowei Zhuang, Zhengshi Yang, Dietmar Cordes, Charles Bernick
Repeated head trauma experienced by active professional fighters results in various structural, functional and perfusion damage. However, whether there are common regions of structural and perfusion damage due to fighting and whether these structural and perfusion differences are associated with neuropsychological measurements in active professional fighters is still unknown. To that end, T1-weighted and pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling MRI on a group of healthy controls and active professional fighters were acquired...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233718/right-anterior-cerebellum-bold-responses-reflect-age-related-changes-in-simon-task-sequential-effects
#17
D Aisenberg, A Sapir, A Close, A Henik, G d'Avossa
Participants are slower to report a feature, such as color, when the target appears on the side opposite the instructed response, than when the target appears on the same side. This finding suggests that target location, even when task-irrelevant, interferes with response selection. This effect is magnified in older adults. Lengthening the inter-trial interval, however, suffices to normalize the congruency effect in older adults, by re-establishing young-like sequential effects (Aisenberg, Sapir, d'Avossa, Henik, 2014)...
December 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233033/influence-of-age-on-arsenic-induced-behavioral-and-cholinergic-perturbations-amelioration-with-zinc-and-%C3%AE-tocopherol
#18
M R Kumar, G R Reddy
This study was planned to determine arsenic (As) (10 mg/kg body weight given through oral gavage) induced behavioral and cholinergic perturbations in three different age groups of rats; young (postnatal day 21), adult (3 months), and aged (18 months) at 7 days post-acute exposure ( n = 6 for each of the four groups of all three age points). Further, we also evaluated the ameliorative effect of essential metal zinc (Zn; 0.02% through drinking water) and an antioxidant, α-tocopherol (vitamin E; 125 mg/kg body weight through oral gavage) against As-induced neurotoxicity...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232968/altered-cerebellar-functional-connectivity-in-remitted-bipolar-disorder-a-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#19
Ying Wang, Shuming Zhong, Guanmao Chen, Tao Liu, Lianping Zhao, Yao Sun, Yanbin Jia, Li Huang
OBJECTIVES: Several recent studies have reported a strong association between the cerebellar structural and functional abnormalities and psychiatric disorders. However, there are no studies to investigate possible changes in cerebellar functional connectivity in bipolar disorder. This study aimed to examine the whole-brain functional connectivity pattern of patients with remitted bipolar disorder II, in particular in the cerebellum. METHODS: A total of 25 patients with remitted bipolar disorder II and 25 controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological tests...
December 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230189/structural-covariance-of-sensory-networks-the-cerebellum-and-amygdala-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Garrett J Cardon, Susan Hepburn, Donald C Rojas
Sensory dysfunction is a core symptom of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and abnormalities with sensory responsivity and processing can be extremely debilitating to ASD patients and their families. However, relatively little is known about the underlying neuroanatomical and neurophysiological factors that lead to sensory abnormalities in ASD. Investigation into these aspects of ASD could lead to significant advancements in our general knowledge about ASD, as well as provide targets for treatment and inform diagnostic procedures...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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