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Epilepsy, stroke. Neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145182/pathological-yawning-laughing-and-crying
#1
Olivier Walusinski
Yawning, laughing, and crying are normal physiological behaviors of humans in good health. As with all physiological behaviors, their deregulation can reveal disorders. Pathological yawning occurs in salvos of 10-20 successive yawns, and the number of yawns per day can exceed one hundred. After listing the functional etiologies, we will give the clinical keys for differentiating the most serious causes: iatrogenic, tumors, strokes, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and intracranial hypertension. Sudden, uncontrollable episodes of emotional display involving pathological laughing and crying (PLC) may be encountered in various neurological diseases: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple system atrophy (cerebellar), cerebrovascular disease, traumatic brain injuries, mass lesions in the cerebellopontine junction, and epilepsy...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108750/new-spectrum-of-the-neurologic-consequences-of-zika
#2
EDITORIAL
Marco T Medina, Marco Medina-Montoya
Zika virus infection represents a new neuropathological agent with association to a wide spectrum of neurological complications: a) Congenital Zika Syndrome by affecting the neural stem cells of the human fetal brain; b) Guillain-Barré Syndrome by an autoimmune response against peripheral myelin and/or axonal components or probable direct inflammatory reaction; c) Encephalitis/meningoencephalitis and myelitis by a direct viral inflammatory process on the central nervous system; d) Sensory neuropathy by infecting directly the peripheral neurons and causing substantial cell death and pathogenic transcriptional dysregulation; e) Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis and optic neuropathy; f) Seizures and Epilepsy and g) childhood arterial ischemic stroke by probable inflammatory reaction and endothelial injury...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107450/epilepsy-as-a-network-disorder-1-what-can-we-learn-from-other-network-disorders-such-as-autistic-spectrum-disorder-and-mood-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Andres M Kanner, Helen Scharfman, Nathalie Jette, Evdokia Anagnostou, Christophe Bernard, Carol Camfield, Peter Camfield, Karen Legg, Ilan Dinstein, Peter Giacobe, Alon Friedman, Bernd Pohlmann-Eden
Epilepsy is a neurologic condition which often occurs with other neurologic and psychiatric disorders. The relation between epilepsy and these conditions is complex. Some population-based studies have identified a bidirectional relation, whereby not only patients with epilepsy are at increased risk of suffering from some of these neurologic and psychiatric disorders (migraine, stroke, dementia, autism, depression, anxiety disorders, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and psychosis), but also patients with these conditions are at increased risk of suffering from epilepsy...
October 26, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105074/common-data-elements-for-preclinical-epilepsy-research-standards-for-data-collection-and-reporting-a-task3-report-of-the-aes-ilae-translational-task-force-of-the-ilae
#4
Lauren C Harte-Hargrove, Jacqueline A French, Asla Pitkänen, Aristea S Galanopoulou, Vicky Whittemore, Helen E Scharfman
The major objective of preclinical translational epilepsy research is to advance laboratory findings toward clinical application by testing potential treatments in animal models of seizures and epilepsy. Recently there has been a focus on the failure of preclinical discoveries to translate reliably, or even to be reproduced in different laboratories. One potential cause is a lack of standardization in preclinical data collection. The resulting difficulties in comparing data across studies have led to high cost and missed opportunity, which in turn impede clinical trials and advances in medical care...
November 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058341/multichannel-wearable-fnirs-eeg-system-for-long-term-clinical-monitoring
#5
Ali Kassab, Jérôme Le Lan, Julie Tremblay, Phetsamone Vannasing, Mahya Dehbozorgi, Philippe Pouliot, Anne Gallagher, Frédéric Lesage, Mohamad Sawan, Dang Khoa Nguyen
Continuous brain imaging techniques can be beneficial for the monitoring of neurological pathologies (such as epilepsy or stroke) and neuroimaging protocols involving movement. Among existing ones, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and electroencephalography (EEG) have the advantage of being noninvasive, nonobstructive, inexpensive, yield portable solutions, and offer complementary monitoring of electrical and local hemodynamic activities. This article presents a novel system with 128 fNIRS channels and 32 EEG channels with the potential to cover a larger fraction of the adult superficial cortex than earlier works, is integrated with 32 EEG channels, is light and battery-powered to improve portability, and can transmit data wirelessly to an interface for real-time display of electrical and hemodynamic activities...
October 23, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986865/nmda-receptors-in-the-central-nervous-system
#6
Kasper B Hansen, Feng Yi, Riley E Perszyk, Frank S Menniti, Stephen F Traynelis
NMDA-type glutamate receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate a major component of excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS). They are widely distributed at all stages of development and are critically involved in normal brain functions, including neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. NMDA receptors are also implicated in the pathophysiology of numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, mood disorders, and schizophrenia...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946588/changing-the-culture-of-neurodisability-through-language-and-sensitivity-of-providers-creating-a-safe-place-for-lgbtqia-people
#7
Alexander Moreno, Ari Laoch, Nathan D Zasler
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest in sexual and gender diversity in neurorehabilitation. Healthcare professionals wanting to improve their practice know the importance of understanding the needs and expectations of specific communities. OBJECTIVE: To critically review the literature about neurological disorders in people who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, asexual, and people with other sexual orientations and forms of gender expression (LGBTQIA+)...
2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931491/global-regional-and-national-burden-of-neurological-disorders-during-1990-2015-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#8
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Comparable data on the global and country-specific burden of neurological disorders and their trends are crucial for health-care planning and resource allocation. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study provides such information but does not routinely aggregate results that are of interest to clinicians specialising in neurological conditions. In this systematic analysis, we quantified the global disease burden due to neurological disorders in 2015 and its relationship with country development level...
November 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920887/the-chronic-and-evolving-neurological-consequences-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
REVIEW
Lindsay Wilson, William Stewart, Kristen Dams-O'Connor, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Lindsay Horton, David K Menon, Suzanne Polinder
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can have lifelong and dynamic effects on health and wellbeing. Research on the long-term consequences emphasises that, for many patients, TBI should be conceptualised as a chronic health condition. Evidence suggests that functional outcomes after TBI can show improvement or deterioration up to two decades after injury, and rates of all-cause mortality remain elevated for many years. Furthermore, TBI represents a risk factor for a variety of neurological illnesses, including epilepsy, stroke, and neurodegenerative disease...
October 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882919/a-randomised-controlled-cross-over-double-blind-pilot-study-protocol-on-thc-cbd-oromucosal-spray-efficacy-as-an-add-on-therapy-for-post-stroke-spasticity
#10
Lucio Marinelli, Maurizio Balestrino, Laura Mori, Luca Puce, Gian Marco Rosa, Laura Giorello, Antonio Currà, Francesco Fattapposta, Carlo Serrati, Carlo Gandolfo, Giovanni Abbruzzese, Carlo Trompetto
INTRODUCTION: Stroke is the most disabling neurological disorder and often causes spasticity. Transmucosal cannabinoids (tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol (THC:CBD), Sativex) is currently available to treat spasticity-associated symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis. Cannabinoids are being considered useful also in the treatment of pain, nausea and epilepsy, but may bear and increased risk for cardiovascular events. Spasticity is often assessed with subjective and clinical rating scales, which are unable to measure the increased excitability of the monosynaptic reflex, considered the hallmark of spasticity...
September 7, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853521/-hemispherotomy-for-treatment-of-refractory-epilepsy-in-children
#11
Jonathan Roth, Sari Nagar, Shlomi Constantini, Itzhak Fried
INTRODUCTION: Hemispherotomies are an extreme treatment for epilepsy. As opposed to focal resections, in hemispherotomies the entire hemisphere is disconnected from the remaining nervous system, including functional regions and fibers. Despite this, hemispherotomy is recommended for certain indications, with good epilepsy and functional outcomes. AIMS: To summarize the experience of hemispherotomy performed at a tertiary national center. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted including all patients operated on between 2001 and 2014...
August 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808783/post-stroke-seizures-are-clinically-underestimated
#12
Carla Bentes, Hugo Martins, Ana Rita Peralta, Carlos Casimiro, Carlos Morgado, Ana Catarina Franco, Ana Catarina Fonseca, Ruth Geraldes, Patrícia Canhão, Teresa Pinho E Melo, Teresa Paiva, José M Ferro
Cerebrovascular disease is the leading cause of epilepsy in adults, although post-stroke seizures reported frequency is variable and few studies used EEG in their identification. To describe and compare EEG and clinical epileptic manifestations frequency in patients with an anterior circulation ischaemic stroke. Prospective study of acute anterior circulation ischaemic stroke patients, consecutively admitted to a Stroke Unit over 24 months and followed-up for 1 year. All patients underwent standardized clinical and diagnostic assessment...
September 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807784/gabapentin-prevents-cortical-spreading-depolarization-induced-disinhibition
#13
Masoud Mesgari, Johanna Krüger, Christopher Theo Riemer, Maryam Khaleghi Ghadiri, Stjepana Kovac, Ali Gorji
Cortical spreading depolarization (CSD) has an important role in brain diseases such as stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, migraine with aura, and epilepsy. Several anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are used to treat paroxysmal brain diseases and are thus known to suppress CSD. One of these AEDs is gabapentin (GBP) which has been traditionally used for treatment of some CSD-related neurological diseases. We applied intra- and extracellular recordings to investigate the effect of CSD on inhibitory post synaptic potentials (IPSPs) and synaptic properties of rodent neocortex after application of GBP...
August 12, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799142/what-to-do-in-failed-hemispherotomy-our-clinical-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
REVIEW
Andrea Bartoli, Y El Hassani, B Jenny, S Momjian, C M Korff, M Seeck, S Vulliemoz, K Schaller
Hemispherotomy is an established surgical technique to cure or palliate selected, mostly young patients suffering from refractory epilepsy. However, a few patients continue to have seizures despite the surgical hemispherical disconnection. We present a case series of patients who underwent redo hemispherotomy after a first unsuccessful hemispherical disconnection and provide a roadmap for subsequent workup and treatment. The institutional database of epilepsy surgery was reviewed. Twenty-four patients who underwent hemispherotomies for refractory epilepsy were identified between 2007 and 2016...
August 10, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794441/tgf%C3%AE-signaling-is-associated-with-changes-in-inflammatory-gene-expression-and-perineuronal-net-degradation-around-inhibitory-neurons-following-various-neurological-insults
#15
Soo Young Kim, Vladimir V Senatorov, Christapher S Morrissey, Kristina Lippmann, Oscar Vazquez, Dan Z Milikovsky, Feng Gu, Isabel Parada, David A Prince, Albert J Becker, Uwe Heinemann, Alon Friedman, Daniela Kaufer
Brain damage due to stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI), both leading causes of serious long-term disability, often leads to the development of epilepsy. Patients who develop post-injury epilepsy tend to have poor functional outcomes. Emerging evidence highlights a potential role for blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction in the development of post-injury epilepsy. However, common mechanisms underlying the pathological hyperexcitability are largely unknown. Here, we show that comparative transcriptome analyses predict remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM) as a common response to different types of injuries...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791985/knowledge-of-medical-students-about-epilepsy-need-for-a-change
#16
B A Ezeala-Adikaibe, T Okpara, O S Ekenze, O Onodugo, N P Ezeala-Adikaibe, T Nnaji, G Onyebueke
PURPOSE: Though most doctors in their professional life will provide care for people with epilepsy, many will not get further training in their professional life. There may be other barriers, perceived or not, to providing care to people living with epilepsy by doctors which need to be approached in the medical undergraduate curriculum and medical continuing education. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge gaps of medical students on basic issues regarding epilepsy that could be useful in preparing training material for the students and continuous medical education for doctors working in the community...
July 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777178/sleep-disordered-breathing
#17
Nancy R Foldvary-Schaefer, Tina E Waters
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sleep-disordered breathing encompasses a broad spectrum of sleep-related breathing disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), central sleep apnea, as well as sleep-related hypoventilation and hypoxemia. Diagnostic criteria have been updated in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition and the American Academy of Sleep Medicine Manual for Scoring Sleep and Associated Events. Neurologic providers should have basic knowledge and skills to identify at-risk patients, as these disorders are associated with substantial morbidity, the treatment of which is largely reversible...
August 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716274/head-ct-findings-at-a-public-hospital-in-rural-haiti
#18
Yannis K Valtis, Maggie F Cochran, Louine Martineau, Bregenet Lamour, Jeffrey B Mendel, Aaron L Berkowitz
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging is often unavailable in low-income countries, creating challenges for precise diagnosis of neurologic disease in individual patients, and impeding acquisition of precise neuroepidemiologic data for program and policy development. METHODS: We analyzed reports from 3614 head CTs performed between July 2013 and January 2016 at Hôpital Universitaire de Mirebalais, a public academic hospital in rural Haiti, extracting patients' age, study indication, and radiologic findings...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681724/the-association-between-bullous-pemphigoid-and-neurological-disorders-a-systematic-review
#19
Nima Milani-Nejad, Myron Zhang, Jessica Kaffenberger
Studies suggest an association between neurological disorders and bullous pemphigoid. The goal of this systematic review was to characterize the occurrence of neurological disorders in patients with bullous pemphigoid. We performed a systematic review of the current English literature from 1984 to June 1(st), 2015 for documented cases of coexistent BP and neurological disorders. The literature search resulted in 53 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. Patients with bullous pemphigoid had an increased risk of stroke (OR: 4...
July 5, 2017: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663005/music-based-interventions-in-neurological-rehabilitation
#20
REVIEW
Aleksi J Sihvonen, Teppo Särkämö, Vera Leo, Mari Tervaniemi, Eckart Altenmüller, Seppo Soinila
During the past ten years, an increasing number of controlled studies have assessed the potential rehabilitative effects of music-based interventions, such as music listening, singing, or playing an instrument, in several neurological diseases. Although the number of studies and extent of available evidence is greatest in stroke and dementia, there is also evidence for the effects of music-based interventions on supporting cognition, motor function, or emotional wellbeing in people with Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, or multiple sclerosis...
August 2017: Lancet Neurology
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