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Epilepsy, stroke. Neurology

Karl Roessler, Burkhard S Kasper, Roland Coras, Soheil Arinrad, Michael Scholz, Hajo H Hamer, Ingmar Blümcke, Michael Buchfelder
BACKGROUND: Temporal lobe resection (TLR) including amygdalo-hippocampectomy (AHE) is the most frequent performed procedure in epilepsy surgery. Due to close anatomical relationship of the mesial temporal structures and the midbrain and choroidal fissure, the risk of severe complications like postoperative stroke is up to 2.5%. METHODS: We developed a modification of the classical technique for AHE by early entering the choroidal fissure for identification of crus cerebri, posterior cerebri artery and oculomotor nerve via the anterior part of the fronto- mesial temporal horn cleft...
March 7, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Woo Suk Tae, Byung Joo Ham, Sung Bom Pyun, Shin Hyuk Kang, Byung Jo Kim
Diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) is a noninvasive medical imaging tool used to investigate the structure of white matter. The signal contrast in DTI is generated by differences in the Brownian motion of the water molecules in brain tissue. Postprocessed DTI scalars can be used to evaluate changes in the brain tissue caused by disease, disease progression, and treatment responses, which has led to an enormous amount of interest in DTI in clinical research. This review article provides insights into DTI scalars and the biological background of DTI as a relatively new neuroimaging modality...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurology
Natalia Chmielewska, Janusz Szyndler, Karolina Makowska, Dawid Wojtyna, Piotr Maciejak, Adam Płaźnik
The role of blood brain barrier (BBB) is to preserve a precisely regulated environment for proper neuronal signaling. In many of the central nervous system (CNS) pathologies, the function of BBB is altered. Thus, there is a necessity to evaluate a fast, noninvasive and reliable method for monitoring of BBB condition. It seems that revealing the peripheral diagnostic biomarker whose release pattern (concentration, dynamics) will be correlated with clinical symptoms of neurological disorders offers significant hope...
February 13, 2018: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
Chiara Zucchella, Angela Federico, Alice Martini, Michele Tinazzi, Michelangelo Bartolo, Stefano Tamburin
Neuropsychological testing is a key diagnostic tool for assessing people with dementia and mild cognitive impairment, but can also help in other neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease, stroke, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury and epilepsy. While cognitive screening tests offer gross information, detailed neuropsychological evaluation can provide data on different cognitive domains (visuospatial function, memory, attention, executive function, language and praxis) as well as neuropsychiatric and behavioural features...
February 22, 2018: Practical Neurology
Francesco Brigo, Simona Lattanzi, Giorgia Giussani, Laura Tassi, Nicola Pietrafusa, Carlo Andrea Galimberti, Raffaele Nardone, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Oriano Mecarelli
Wikipedia is the most commonly accessed source of health information by both healthcare professionals and the lay public worldwide. We aimed to evaluate information-seeking behavior of Internet users searching the Italian Wikipedia for articles related to epilepsy and its treatment. Using Pageviews Analysis, we assessed the total and mean monthly views of articles from the Italian Wikipedia devoted to epilepsy, epileptic syndromes, seizure type, and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) from January 1, 2015 to October 31, 2017...
February 14, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
F Brigo, S Lattanzi, N Bragazzi, R Nardone, M Moccia, L Lavorgna
BACKGROUND: Wikipedia is a frequently-accessed online source of health-related information. In this study we evaluated the number of views of the Italian Wikipedia articles related to multiple sclerosis (MS) and its treatment. METHODS: Using Pageviews Analysis we assessed the total views, and mean monthly and daily views of the Italian Wikipedia articles on MS and its treatments from 1 January 2015 to 31 October 2017. We compared the views of the article on MS with those for Alzheimer´s disease, epilepsy, migraine and stroke, and adjusted results for crude disease prevalence...
February 5, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Dongni Johansson, Kristina Malmgren, Margit Alt Murphy
OBJECTIVES: Wearable technology is increasingly used to monitor neurological disorders. The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize knowledge from quantitative and qualitative clinical researches using wearable sensors in epilepsy, Parkinson's disease (PD), and stroke. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed and Scopus spanning from 1995 to January 2017. A synthesis of the main findings, reported adherence to wearables and missing data from quantitative studies, is provided...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Priscille Couture, Thibaud Chazal, Charlotte Rosso, Julien Haroche, Anne Léger, Baptiste Hervier, Sandrine Deltour, Zahir Amoura, Fleur Cohen Aubart
OBJECTIVES: Takayasu arteritis (TA) is a giant cell arteritis usually affecting young women and characterized by inflammatory and ischemic signs of large vessel involvement, including extracranial cerebral arteries. The impact of stroke on TA prognosis has not been well evaluated. METHODS: We performed a retrospective multicenter review of patients with definite TA who experienced at least one stroke and compared the findings to 17 matched patients with TA diagnosis without neurological involvement...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Syed A Quadri, Muhammad Waqas, Inamullah Khan, Muhammad Adnan Khan, Sajid S Suriya, Mudassir Farooqui, Brian Fiani
Since Lynn and colleagues first described the use of focused ultrasound (FUS) waves for intracranial ablation in 1942, many strides have been made toward the treatment of several brain pathologies using this novel technology. In the modern era of minimal invasiveness, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) promises therapeutic utility for multiple neurosurgical applications, including treatment of tumors, stroke, epilepsy, and functional disorders. Although the use of HIFU as a potential therapeutic modality in the brain has been under study for several decades, relatively few neuroscientists, neurologists, or even neurosurgeons are familiar with it...
February 2018: Neurosurgical Focus
Vladislav Bezhentsev, Sergey Ivanov, Sandeep Kumar, Rajesh Goel, Vladimir Poroikov
Epilepsy is the fourth most common neurological disease after migraine, stroke, and Alzheimer's disease. Approximately one-third of all epilepsy cases are refractory to the existing anticonvulsants. Thus, there is an unmet need for newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) to manage refractory epilepsy (RE). Discovery of novel AEDs for the treatment of RE further retards for want of potential pharmacological targets, unavailable due to unclear etiology of this disease. In this regard, network pharmacology as an area of bioinformatics is gaining popularity...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology
A Young Kim, Eun Joo Baik
Regulation of glutamate metabolism via glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) might be the promising therapeutic approach for treating neurodegenerative disorders. In the central nervous system, glutamate functions both as a major excitatory neurotransmitter and as a key intermediate metabolite for neurons. GDH converts glutamate to α-ketoglutarate, which serves as a TCA cycle intermediate. Dysregulated GDH activity in the central nervous system is highly correlated with neurological disorders. Indeed, studies conducted with mutant mice and allosteric drugs have shown that deficient or overexpressed GDH activity in the brain can regulate whole body energy metabolism and affect early onset of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, temporal lobe epilepsy, and spinocerebellar atrophy...
January 22, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Amaly Nokkari, Hadi Abou-El-Hassan, Yehia Mechref, Stefania Mondello, Mark S Kindy, Ayad A Jaffa, Firas Kobeissy
Neurological disorders represent major health concerns in terms of comorbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite a tremendous increase in our understanding of the pathophysiological processes involved in disease progression and prevention, the accumulated knowledge so far resulted in relatively moderate translational benefits in terms of therapeutic interventions and enhanced clinical outcomes. Aiming at specific neural molecular pathways, different strategies have been geared to target the development and progression of such disorders...
January 16, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Jee-Yeon Hwang, R Suzanne Zukin
The restrictive element-1 silencing transcription factor)/NRSF (neuron-restrictive silencing factor (NRSF) is a transcriptional repressor which acts via epigenetic remodeling to silence target genes. Emerging evidence indicates that REST is a master transcriptional regulator of neuron-specific genes not only in neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation, but also in differentiated neurons during the critical period in postnatal brain development, where it plays a role in fine-tuning of genes involved in synaptic plasticity, and in normal aging, where it promotes neuroprotection by repressing genes involved in oxidative stress and β-amyloid toxicity...
January 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
M Angela O'Neal
The concern about what is best practice when caring for women with neurologic disease is a common clinical scenario. Therefore, knowledge about women's health issues and their intersection with neurologic disorders is imperative. This review will discuss the appropriate gender based considerations in epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, migraine, autoimmune disease, sleep, stroke and paraneoplastic disorders.
December 27, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
Queeny Ip, Daniel C Malone, Jenny Chong, Robin B Harris, David M Labiner
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and incidence of epilepsy among beneficiaries of Arizona Medicare aged 65 and over. METHODS: An analysis of Medicare administrative claims data for 2009-2011 for the State of Arizona was conducted. Epilepsy was defined as a beneficiary who had either≥one claim with diagnostic code of 345.xx (epilepsy) or at least two claims with diagnosis code of 780.3x (seizure) ≥30days apart. Stroke-related and psychiatric comorbidities were determined by diagnostic codes...
January 2018: Epilepsy Research
Vivienne A Russell
Neuroscience began with neuroanatomy and neurosurgery in Egypt more than 5000 years ago. Knowledge grew over time and specialized neurosurgery centers were established in north Africa in the eleventh century. However, it was not until the twentieth century that neuroscience research became established in sub-Saharan Africa. In most African countries, clinical research focused on understanding the rationale and improving treatment of epilepsy, infections, nutritional neuropathies, stroke and tumors. Significant advances were made...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Olivier Walusinski
Yawning, laughing, and crying are normal physiological behaviors of humans in good health. As with all physiological behaviors, their deregulation can reveal disorders. Pathological yawning occurs in salvos of 10-20 successive yawns, and the number of yawns per day can exceed one hundred. After listing the functional etiologies, we will give the clinical keys for differentiating the most serious causes: iatrogenic, tumors, strokes, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and intracranial hypertension. Sudden, uncontrollable episodes of emotional display involving pathological laughing and crying (PLC) may be encountered in various neurological diseases: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple system atrophy (cerebellar), cerebrovascular disease, traumatic brain injuries, mass lesions in the cerebellopontine junction, and epilepsy...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Marco T Medina, Marco Medina-Montoya
Zika virus infection represents a new neuropathological agent with association to a wide spectrum of neurological complications: a) Congenital Zika Syndrome by affecting the neural stem cells of the human fetal brain; b) Guillain-Barré Syndrome by an autoimmune response against peripheral myelin and/or axonal components or probable direct inflammatory reaction; c) Encephalitis/meningoencephalitis and myelitis by a direct viral inflammatory process on the central nervous system; d) Sensory neuropathy by infecting directly the peripheral neurons and causing substantial cell death and pathogenic transcriptional dysregulation; e) Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis and optic neuropathy; f) Seizures and Epilepsy and g) childhood arterial ischemic stroke by probable inflammatory reaction and endothelial injury...
December 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Andres M Kanner, Helen Scharfman, Nathalie Jette, Evdokia Anagnostou, Christophe Bernard, Carol Camfield, Peter Camfield, Karen Legg, Ilan Dinstein, Peter Giacobbe, Alon Friedman, Bernd Pohlmann-Eden
Epilepsy is a neurologic condition which often occurs with other neurologic and psychiatric disorders. The relation between epilepsy and these conditions is complex. Some population-based studies have identified a bidirectional relation, whereby not only patients with epilepsy are at increased risk of suffering from some of these neurologic and psychiatric disorders (migraine, stroke, dementia, autism, depression, anxiety disorders, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and psychosis), but also patients with these conditions are at increased risk of suffering from epilepsy...
December 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Lauren C Harte-Hargrove, Jacqueline A French, Asla Pitkänen, Aristea S Galanopoulou, Vicky Whittemore, Helen E Scharfman
The major objective of preclinical translational epilepsy research is to advance laboratory findings toward clinical application by testing potential treatments in animal models of seizures and epilepsy. Recently there has been a focus on the failure of preclinical discoveries to translate reliably, or even to be reproduced in different laboratories. One potential cause is a lack of standardization in preclinical data collection. The resulting difficulties in comparing data across studies have led to high cost and missed opportunity, which in turn impede clinical trials and advances in medical care...
November 2017: Epilepsia
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