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Epilepsy, stroke. Neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212985/nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-in-clinical-and-experimental-epilepsy
#1
REVIEW
Beatrice Mihaela Radu, Florin Bogdan Epureanu, Mihai Radu, Paolo Francesco Fabene, Giuseppe Bertini
Current antiepileptic drugs have limited efficacy and provide little or no benefits in 30% of the patients. Given that a role for brain inflammation in epilepsy has been repeatedly reported in recent years, the potential of anti-inflammatory drugs should be explored in depth, as they may provide new therapeutical approaches in preventing or reducing epileptogenesis. Here, we review preclinical (both in vivo and in vitro) and clinical epilepsy studies in which nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), i...
February 9, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203183/cerebral-venous-thrombosis-in-the-superior-sagittal-sinus-as-a-rare-cause-of-a-paroxysmal-kinetic-tremor
#2
Kei Murao, Shuji Arakawa, Yoshihiko Furuta, Masahiro Shijo, Tetsuro Ago, Takanari Kitazono
Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) has a broad spectrum of clinical presentation compared to arterial etiology. Seizure is one of the common symptoms and is more frequent than in other stroke types. Hence, transient neurological symptoms in CVT patients are usually due to epileptic seizures, while transient repetitive movement disorder is extremely rare except as a complication of epilepsy. We report a case of CVT in the superior sagittal sinus with a 1-year history of paroxysmal kinetic tremor without evident epilepsy...
September 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202819/-melas-mitochondrial-encephalomyopathy-lactic-acidosis-and-stroke-like-episodes
#3
Hidetomo Murakami, Kenjiro Ono
Mitochondrial disease is caused by a deficiency in the energy supply to cells due to mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is a mitochondrial disease that presents with stroke-like episodes such as acute onset of neurological deficits and characteristic imaging findings. Stroke-like episodes in MELAS have the following features: 1) neurological deficits due to localization of lesions in the brain, 2) episodes often accompany epilepsy, 3) lesions do not follow the vascular supply area, 4) lesions are more often seen in the posterior brain than in the anterior brain, 5) lesions spread to an adjacent area in the brain, and 6) neurological symptoms often disappear together with imaging findings, but later relapse...
February 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198092/the-burden-of-neurological-disease-in-the-united-states-a-summary-report-and-call-to-action
#4
EDITORIAL
Clifton L Gooch, Etienne Pracht, Amy R Borenstein
: The United States carries a substantial fiscal burden resulting from the nearly 100 million Americans with neurological disease. The combined annual costs of Alzheimer's and other dementias, low back pain, stroke, traumatic brain injury, migraine, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury and Parkinson's disease totals nearly 800 billion dollars and is rapidly rising due to the aging of the U.S. POPULATION: We provide a summary overview of the substantial current and future economic impact of neurological disease, and provide an action plan for reducing this burden through neurological research and enhanced clinical management of neurological disorders in the United States...
February 15, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190440/neurologic-complications-in-critically-ill-pregnant-patients
#5
W L Wright
Neurologic complications in a critically ill pregnant woman are uncommon but some of the complications (such as eclampsia) are unique to pregnancy and the puerperal period. Other neurologic complications (such as seizures in the setting of epilepsy) may worsen during pregnancy. Clinical signs and symptoms such as seizure, headache, weakness, focal neurologic deficits, and decreased level of consciousness require careful consideration of potential causes to ensure prompt treatment measures are instituted to prevent ongoing neurologic injury...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157749/arterial-ischemic-stroke-in-children-and-young-adults
#6
Warren D Lo, Riten Kumar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews risk factors, recurrence risk, evaluation, management, and outcomes of arterial ischemic stroke in children and young adults. RECENT FINDINGS: The risk for recurrence and mortality appear to be low for neonatal and childhood stroke. Most children have relatively mild deficits, but those who have greater neurologic deficits, poststroke epilepsy, or strokes early in life are at risk for lower overall cognitive function. Stroke recurrence and long-term mortality after stroke in young adults are greater than originally thought...
February 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108639/prevalence-of-epilepsy-seizures-as-a-comorbidity-of-neurologic-disorders-in-nursing-homes
#7
Angela K Birnbaum, Ilo E Leppik, Kenneth Svensden, Lynn E Eberly
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of epilepsy/seizure (epi/sz) comorbid with other neurologic disorders in elderly nursing home residents and to examine demographic and regional variability and associations with clinical characteristics. METHODS: We studied 5 cross-sectional cohorts of all residents in any Medicare/Medicaid-certified nursing home in the United States on July 15 of each year from 2003 to 2007. Epi/sz was identified by ICD-9 codes (345.xx or 780...
January 20, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102150/ultra-rare-genetic-variation-in-common-epilepsies-a-case-control-sequencing-study
#8
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Despite progress in understanding the genetics of rare epilepsies, the more common epilepsies have proven less amenable to traditional gene-discovery analyses. We aimed to assess the contribution of ultra-rare genetic variation to common epilepsies. METHODS: We did a case-control sequencing study with exome sequence data from unrelated individuals clinically evaluated for one of the two most common epilepsy syndromes: familial genetic generalised epilepsy, or familial or sporadic non-acquired focal epilepsy...
February 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094088/usefulness-of-multiparametric-computerized-tomography-findings-in-the-differential-diagnosis-of-stroke-mimics-of-epileptic-origin-a-preliminary-study
#9
R López Ruiz, S Quintas, P Largo, M de Toledo, M T Carreras, A Gago-Veiga, R Manzanares, J Vivancos
OBJECTIVE: Thirty percent of the patients for whom code stroke is activated have stroke mimics, the most common being epilepsy. Our purpose was to evaluate the usefulness of multiparametric CT for differentiating between seizure-related symptoms and vascular events. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study; data were gathered prospectively during one year. We studied multiparametric CT images of patients admitted following code stroke activation and finally diagnosed with epilepsy...
January 13, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088536/targeting-sonic-hedgehog-signaling-in-neurological-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Sita Sharan Patel, Sunil Tomar, Diksha Sharma, Neeraj Mahindroo, Malairaman Udayabanu
Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling influences neurogenesis and neural patterning during the development of central nervous system. Dysregulation of Shh signaling in brain leads to neurological disorders like autism spectrum disorder, depression, dementia, stroke, Parkinson's diseases, Huntington's disease, locomotor deficit, epilepsy, demyelinating disease, neuropathies as well as brain tumors. The synthesis, processing and transport of Shh ligand as well as the localization of its receptors and signal transduction in the central nervous system has been carefully reviewed...
January 11, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087825/incidence-and-predictors-of-epilepsy-after-pediatric-arterial-ischemic-stroke
#11
Lori L Billinghurst, Lauren A Beslow, Nicholas S Abend, Michael Uohara, Laura Jastrzab, Daniel J Licht, Rebecca N Ichord
OBJECTIVE: To determine the cumulative incidence and clinical predictors of remote symptomatic seizures and epilepsy after pediatric arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 218 participants with neonatal AIS (NAIS), presumed perinatal AIS (PPAIS), and childhood AIS (CAIS) from a single-center prospective consecutive cohort enrolled from 2006 to 2014. Medical records were reviewed for timing, semiology, and treatment of acute symptomatic seizures, remote symptomatic seizures (RSS), and epilepsy...
January 13, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087259/clinical-manifestations-outcomes-and-etiologies-of-perinatal-stroke-in-taiwan-comparisons-between-ischemic-and-hemorrhagic-stroke-based-on-10-year-experience-in-a-single-institute
#12
Chien-Chung Lee, Jainn-Jim Lin, Kuang-Lin Lin, Wai-Ho Lim, Kai-Hsiang Hsu, Jen-Fu Hsu, Ren-Huei Fu, Ming-Chou Chiang, Shih-Ming Chu, Reyin Lien
BACKGROUND: Perinatal stroke is a common cause of established neurological sequelae. Although several risk factors have been identified, many questions regarding causes and clinical outcomes remain unanswered. This study investigated the clinical manifestations and outcomes of perinatal stroke and identified its etiologies in Taiwan. METHODS: We searched the reports of head magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography performed between January 2003 and December 2012...
November 19, 2016: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042767/advantages-of-structure-based-drug-design-approaches-in-neurological-disorders
#13
Murali Aarthy, Umesh Panwar, Chandrabose Selvaraj, Sanjeev Kumar Singh
The nerve impulse that function during abnormal or due in illness may due to several genetic factors, metabolic, biological conditions or environmental components denominated as Neuro-biological disorders. This illness occurs mostly due to the innumerable biological modifications that alters the mechanistic condition of the brain. As per current update, more than a millions of people around the world are suffering through various kinds of neurological disorders. In case, 50 million people with Epilepsy, 35 million with dementia, mainly included Alzheimer's disease and the rest of other cases with Parkinson's, Migraine and Stroke...
2, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031221/molecular-magnetic-resonance-imaging-discloses-endothelial-activation-after-transient-ischaemic-attack
#14
Aurélien Quenault, Sara Martinez de Lizarrondo, Olivier Etard, Maxime Gauberti, Cyrille Orset, Benoît Haelewyn, Helen C Segal, Peter M Rothwell, Denis Vivien, Emmanuel Touzé, Carine Ali
SEE SUN ET AL DOI101093/AWW306 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: About 20% of patients with ischaemic stroke have a preceding transient ischaemic attack, which is clinically defined as focal neurological symptoms of ischaemic origin resolving spontaneously. Failure to diagnose transient ischaemic attack is a wasted opportunity to prevent recurrent disabling stroke. Unfortunately, diagnosis can be difficult, due to numerous mimics, and to the absence of a specific test. New diagnostic tools are thus needed, in particular for radiologically silent cases, which correspond to the recommended tissue-based definition of transient ischaemic attack...
January 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988257/parametric-characterization-of-neural-activity-in-the-locus-coeruleus-in-response-to-vagus-nerve-stimulation
#15
Daniel R Hulsey, Jonathan R Riley, Kristofer W Loerwald, Robert L Rennaker, Michael P Kilgard, Seth A Hays
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has emerged as a therapy to treat a wide range of neurological disorders, including epilepsy, depression, stroke, and tinnitus. Activation of neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC) is believed to mediate many of the effects of VNS in the central nervous system. Despite the importance of the LC, there is a dearth of direct evidence characterizing neural activity in response to VNS. A detailed understanding of the brain activity evoked by VNS across a range of stimulation parameters may guide selection of stimulation regimens for therapeutic use...
March 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974377/sleep-apnoea-and-the-neurologist
#16
REVIEW
Shuli Cheng, Catherine D Stark, Richard J Stark
There is increasing awareness and interest in the complex and extensive inter-relationships between sleep disorders and neurological disorders. This review focuses on the clinical interactions between obstructive sleep apnoea and stroke, headaches, epilepsy, cognition and idiopathic Parkinson's disease. We highlight to the neurologist the importance of taking a sleep history and considering the diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea.
January 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932945/monoaminergic-and-histaminergic-strategies-and-treatments-in-brain-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Giuseppe Di Giovanni, Dubravka Svob Strac, Montse Sole, Mercedes Unzeta, Keith F Tipton, Dorotea Mück-Šeler, Irene Bolea, Laura Della Corte, Matea Nikolac Perkovic, Nela Pivac, Ilse J Smolders, Anna Stasiak, Wieslawa A Fogel, Philippe De Deurwaerdère
The monoaminergic systems are the target of several drugs for the treatment of mood, motor and cognitive disorders as well as neurological conditions. In most cases, advances have occurred through serendipity, except for Parkinson's disease where the pathophysiology led almost immediately to the introduction of dopamine restoring agents. Extensive neuropharmacological studies first showed that the primary target of antipsychotics, antidepressants, and anxiolytic drugs were specific components of the monoaminergic systems...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900731/the-validity-and-reliability-of-the-korean-version-of-the-stigma-scale-for-chronic-illness-8-items-ssci-8-in-patients-with-neurological-disorders
#18
Sung-Hee Yoo, Sung Reul Kim, Hyang Sook So, Hyang-In Cho Chung, Duck Hee Chae, Myeong-Kyu Kim, Byeong C Kim, Man-Seok Park, Seung-Han Lee, Tai-Seung Nam, Helena Correia, David Cella
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to develop a Korean version of the Stigma Scale for Chronic Illness 8-items (SSCI-8) and then assess its reliability and construct validity among patients with neurological conditions. METHOD: Patients diagnosed with stroke, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis were recruited. Reliability was assessed for internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to extract potential factors of Korean SSCI-8...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870400/sex-differences-in-the-anticonvulsant-activity-of-neurosteroids
#19
REVIEW
Doodipala Samba Reddy
Epilepsy is one of the leading causes of chronic neurological morbidity worldwide. Acquired epilepsy may result from a number of conditions, such as brain injury, anoxia, tumors, stroke, neurotoxicity, and prolonged seizures. Sex differences have been observed in many seizure types; however, some sex-specific seizure disorders are much more prevalent in women. Despite some inconsistencies, substantial data indicates that sensitivity to seizure stimuli differs between the sexes. Men generally exhibit greater seizure susceptibility than women, whereas many women with epilepsy experience a cyclical occurrence of seizures that tends to center around the menstrual period, which has been termed catamenial epilepsy...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855635/prevalence-and-incidence-of-neurological-disorders-among-adult-ugandans-in-rural-and-urban-mukono-district-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Mark Kaddumukasa, Leviticus Mugenyi, Martin N Kaddumukasa, Edward Ddumba, Michael Devereaux, Anthony Furlan, Martha Sajatovic, Elly Katabira
BACKGROUND: The burden of neurological diseases is increasing in developing countries. However, there is a prominent scarcity of literature on the incidence of neurological diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was therefore undertaken to determine the prevalence and incidence of neurological diseases in this setting to serve as a baseline for planning and care for neurological disorders in Uganda. METHODS: The study was conducted within rural and urban Mukono district, east of Kampala city of Uganda, central region...
November 17, 2016: BMC Neurology
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