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Epilepsy, stroke. Neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315370/control-of-mitochondrial-physiology-and-cell-death-by-the-bcl-2-family-proteins-bax-and-bok
#1
Beatrice D'Orsi, Julia Mateyka, Jochen H M Prehn
Neuronal cell death is often triggered by events that involve intracellular increases in Ca(2+). Under resting conditions, the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration is tightly controlled by a number of extrusion and sequestering mechanisms involving the plasma membrane, mitochondria, and ER. These mechanisms act to prevent a disruption of neuronal ion homeostasis. As these processes require ATP, excessive Ca(2+) overloading may cause energy depletion, mitochondrial dysfunction, and may eventually lead to Ca(2+)-dependent cell death...
March 14, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303498/validation-of-a-preclinical-drug-screening-platform-for-pharmacoresistant-epilepsy
#2
Melissa L Barker-Haliski, Kristina Johnson, Peggy Billingsley, Jennifer Huff, Laura J Handy, Rizvana Khaleel, Zhenmei Lu, Matthew J Mau, Timothy H Pruess, Carlos Rueda, Gerald Saunders, Tristan K Underwood, Fabiola Vanegas, Misty D Smith, Peter J West, Karen S Wilcox
The successful identification of promising investigational therapies for the treatment of epilepsy can be credited to the use of numerous animal models of seizure and epilepsy for over 80 years. In this time, the maximal electroshock test in mice and rats, the subcutaneous pentylenetetrazol test in mice and rats, and more recently the 6 Hz assay in mice, have been utilized as primary models of electrically or chemically-evoked seizures in neurologically intact rodents. In addition, rodent kindling models, in which chronic network hyperexcitability has developed, have been used to identify new agents...
March 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281491/status-epilepticus-refractory-and-super-refractory
#3
REVIEW
Deepanshu Dubey, Jayantee Kalita, Usha K Misra
Status epilepticus (SE) is an important neurological emergency. It is defined as seizures lasting for 5 minutes or more or recurrent seizures without recovery of consciousness to baseline between the attacks. Refractory SE (RSE) is defined as SE persisting despite sufficient dose of benzodiazepines and at least one antiepileptic drug (AED), irrespective of time. Super refractory SE (SRSE) is defined as SE that continues for 24 hours or more after the use of anesthetic therapy, including cases that recur on weaning of the anesthestic agent...
2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275952/the-anticonvulsant-screening-program-of-the-national-institute-of-neurological-disorders-and-stroke-nih-history-and-contributions-to-clinical-care-in-the-twentieth-century-and-beyond
#4
Roger J Porter, Harvey J Kupferberg
The anticonvulsant screening program (ASP) of the national institute of neurological disorders and stroke (NINDS), National Institutes of Health has made substantial contributions to the drug armamentarium of the clinical neurologist. This program, originally a part of the overall Drug Development Program of the Epilepsy Branch, has been fortunate to have talented leadership, both at NINDS in Maryland and at the major contract site, the University of Utah-over a remarkable period of more than 40 years. Future discoveries by the ASP (now renamed the Epilepsy Therapy Screening) can be expected to make additional contributions to improving the health of persons with epilepsy...
March 9, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274814/the-role-of-aquaporin-4-in-synaptic-plasticity-memory-and-disease
#5
REVIEW
Jacqueline A Hubbard, Jenny I Szu, Devin K Binder
Since the discovery of aquaporins, it has become clear that the various mammalian aquaporins play critical physiological roles in water and ion balance in multiple tissues. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the principal aquaporin expressed in the central nervous system (CNS, brain and spinal cord), has been shown to mediate CNS water homeostasis. In this review, we summarize new and exciting studies indicating that AQP4 also plays critical and unanticipated roles in synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Next, we consider the role of AQP4 in Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica (NMO), epilepsy, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and stroke...
March 6, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245815/fast-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopic-imaging-techniques-in-human-brain-applications-in-multiple-sclerosis
#6
REVIEW
Oun Al-Iedani, Jeannette Lechner-Scott, Karen Ribbons, Saadallah Ramadan
Multi voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is an important imaging tool that combines imaging and spectroscopic techniques. MRSI of the human brain has been beneficially applied to different clinical applications in neurology, particularly in neurooncology but also in multiple sclerosis, stroke and epilepsy. However, a major challenge in conventional MRSI is the longer acquisition time required for adequate signal to be collected. Fast MRSI of the brain in vivo is an alternative approach to reduce scanning time and make MRSI more clinically suitable...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239781/validation-of-the-promis-%C3%A2-measures-of-self-efficacy-for-managing-chronic-conditions
#7
Ann L Gruber-Baldini, Craig Velozo, Sergio Romero, Lisa M Shulman
PURPOSE: The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System(®) (PROMIS(®)) was designed to develop, validate, and standardize item banks to measure key domains of physical, mental, and social health in chronic conditions. This paper reports the calibration and validation testing of the PROMIS Self-Efficacy for Managing Chronic Conditions measures. METHODS: PROMIS Self-Efficacy for Managing Chronic Conditions item banks comprise five domains, Self-Efficacy for Managing: Daily Activities, Symptoms, Medications and Treatments, Emotions, and Social Interactions...
February 26, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229395/transcranial-magnetic-and-direct-current-stimulation-in-children
#8
REVIEW
Mustafa Q Hameed, Sameer C Dhamne, Roman Gersner, Harper L Kaye, Lindsay M Oberman, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Alexander Rotenberg
Promising results in adult neurologic and psychiatric disorders are driving active research into transcranial brain stimulation techniques, particularly transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), in childhood and adolescent syndromes. TMS has realistic utility as an experimental tool tested in a range of pediatric neuropathologies such as perinatal stroke, depression, Tourette syndrome, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). tDCS has also been tested as a treatment for a number of pediatric neurologic conditions, including ASD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy, and cerebral palsy...
February 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212985/nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-in-clinical-and-experimental-epilepsy
#9
REVIEW
Beatrice Mihaela Radu, Florin Bogdan Epureanu, Mihai Radu, Paolo Francesco Fabene, Giuseppe Bertini
Current antiepileptic drugs have limited efficacy and provide little or no benefits in 30% of the patients. Given that a role for brain inflammation in epilepsy has been repeatedly reported in recent years, the potential of anti-inflammatory drugs should be explored in depth, as they may provide new therapeutical approaches in preventing or reducing epileptogenesis. Here, we review preclinical (both in vivo and in vitro) and clinical epilepsy studies in which nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), i...
February 9, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203183/cerebral-venous-thrombosis-in-the-superior-sagittal-sinus-as-a-rare-cause-of-a-paroxysmal-kinetic-tremor
#10
Kei Murao, Shuji Arakawa, Yoshihiko Furuta, Masahiro Shijo, Tetsuro Ago, Takanari Kitazono
Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) has a broad spectrum of clinical presentation compared to arterial etiology. Seizure is one of the common symptoms and is more frequent than in other stroke types. Hence, transient neurological symptoms in CVT patients are usually due to epileptic seizures, while transient repetitive movement disorder is extremely rare except as a complication of epilepsy. We report a case of CVT in the superior sagittal sinus with a 1-year history of paroxysmal kinetic tremor without evident epilepsy...
September 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202819/-melas-mitochondrial-encephalomyopathy-lactic-acidosis-and-stroke-like-episodes
#11
Hidetomo Murakami, Kenjiro Ono
Mitochondrial disease is caused by a deficiency in the energy supply to cells due to mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is a mitochondrial disease that presents with stroke-like episodes such as acute onset of neurological deficits and characteristic imaging findings. Stroke-like episodes in MELAS have the following features: 1) neurological deficits due to localization of lesions in the brain, 2) episodes often accompany epilepsy, 3) lesions do not follow the vascular supply area, 4) lesions are more often seen in the posterior brain than in the anterior brain, 5) lesions spread to an adjacent area in the brain, and 6) neurological symptoms often disappear together with imaging findings, but later relapse...
February 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198092/the-burden-of-neurological-disease-in-the-united-states-a-summary-report-and-call-to-action
#12
EDITORIAL
Clifton L Gooch, Etienne Pracht, Amy R Borenstein
The United States carries a substantial fiscal burden resulting from the nearly 100 million Americans with neurological disease. The combined annual costs of Alzheimer's and other dementias, low back pain, stroke, traumatic brain injury, migraine, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury and Parkinson's disease totals nearly 800 billion dollars and is rapidly rising due to the aging of the U.S. POPULATION: We provide a summary overview of the substantial current and future economic impact of neurological disease, and provide an action plan for reducing this burden through neurological research and enhanced clinical management of neurological disorders in the United States...
February 15, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190440/neurologic-complications-in-critically-ill-pregnant-patients
#13
W L Wright
Neurologic complications in a critically ill pregnant woman are uncommon but some of the complications (such as eclampsia) are unique to pregnancy and the puerperal period. Other neurologic complications (such as seizures in the setting of epilepsy) may worsen during pregnancy. Clinical signs and symptoms such as seizure, headache, weakness, focal neurologic deficits, and decreased level of consciousness require careful consideration of potential causes to ensure prompt treatment measures are instituted to prevent ongoing neurologic injury...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157749/arterial-ischemic-stroke-in-children-and-young-adults
#14
Warren D Lo, Riten Kumar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews risk factors, recurrence risk, evaluation, management, and outcomes of arterial ischemic stroke in children and young adults. RECENT FINDINGS: The risk for recurrence and mortality appear to be low for neonatal and childhood stroke. Most children have relatively mild deficits, but those who have greater neurologic deficits, poststroke epilepsy, or strokes early in life are at risk for lower overall cognitive function. Stroke recurrence and long-term mortality after stroke in young adults are greater than originally thought...
February 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108639/prevalence-of-epilepsy-seizures-as-a-comorbidity-of-neurologic-disorders-in-nursing-homes
#15
Angela K Birnbaum, Ilo E Leppik, Kenneth Svensden, Lynn E Eberly
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of epilepsy/seizure (epi/sz) comorbid with other neurologic disorders in elderly nursing home residents and to examine demographic and regional variability and associations with clinical characteristics. METHODS: We studied 5 cross-sectional cohorts of all residents in any Medicare/Medicaid-certified nursing home in the United States on July 15 of each year from 2003 to 2007. Epi/sz was identified by ICD-9 codes (345.xx or 780...
February 21, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102150/ultra-rare-genetic-variation-in-common-epilepsies-a-case-control-sequencing-study
#16
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Despite progress in understanding the genetics of rare epilepsies, the more common epilepsies have proven less amenable to traditional gene-discovery analyses. We aimed to assess the contribution of ultra-rare genetic variation to common epilepsies. METHODS: We did a case-control sequencing study with exome sequence data from unrelated individuals clinically evaluated for one of the two most common epilepsy syndromes: familial genetic generalised epilepsy, or familial or sporadic non-acquired focal epilepsy...
February 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094088/usefulness-of-multiparametric-computerized-tomography-findings-in-the-differential-diagnosis-of-stroke-mimics-of-epileptic-origin-a-preliminary-study
#17
R López Ruiz, S Quintas, P Largo, M de Toledo, M T Carreras, A Gago-Veiga, R Manzanares, J Vivancos
OBJECTIVE: Thirty percent of the patients for whom code stroke is activated have stroke mimics, the most common being epilepsy. Our purpose was to evaluate the usefulness of multiparametric CT for differentiating between seizure-related symptoms and vascular events. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study; data were gathered prospectively during one year. We studied multiparametric CT images of patients admitted following code stroke activation and finally diagnosed with epilepsy...
January 13, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088536/targeting-sonic-hedgehog-signaling-in-neurological-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Sita Sharan Patel, Sunil Tomar, Diksha Sharma, Neeraj Mahindroo, Malairaman Udayabanu
Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling influences neurogenesis and neural patterning during the development of central nervous system. Dysregulation of Shh signaling in brain leads to neurological disorders like autism spectrum disorder, depression, dementia, stroke, Parkinson's diseases, Huntington's disease, locomotor deficit, epilepsy, demyelinating disease, neuropathies as well as brain tumors. The synthesis, processing and transport of Shh ligand as well as the localization of its receptors and signal transduction in the central nervous system has been carefully reviewed...
January 11, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087825/incidence-and-predictors-of-epilepsy-after-pediatric-arterial-ischemic-stroke
#19
Lori L Billinghurst, Lauren A Beslow, Nicholas S Abend, Michael Uohara, Laura Jastrzab, Daniel J Licht, Rebecca N Ichord
OBJECTIVE: To determine the cumulative incidence and clinical predictors of remote symptomatic seizures and epilepsy after pediatric arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 218 participants with neonatal AIS (NAIS), presumed perinatal AIS (PPAIS), and childhood AIS (CAIS) from a single-center prospective consecutive cohort enrolled from 2006 to 2014. Medical records were reviewed for timing, semiology, and treatment of acute symptomatic seizures, remote symptomatic seizures (RSS), and epilepsy...
February 14, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087259/clinical-manifestations-outcomes-and-etiologies-of-perinatal-stroke-in-taiwan-comparisons-between-ischemic-and-hemorrhagic-stroke-based-on-10-year-experience-in-a-single-institute
#20
Chien-Chung Lee, Jainn-Jim Lin, Kuang-Lin Lin, Wai-Ho Lim, Kai-Hsiang Hsu, Jen-Fu Hsu, Ren-Huei Fu, Ming-Chou Chiang, Shih-Ming Chu, Reyin Lien
BACKGROUND: Perinatal stroke is a common cause of established neurological sequelae. Although several risk factors have been identified, many questions regarding causes and clinical outcomes remain unanswered. This study investigated the clinical manifestations and outcomes of perinatal stroke and identified its etiologies in Taiwan. METHODS: We searched the reports of head magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography performed between January 2003 and December 2012...
November 19, 2016: Pediatrics and Neonatology
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