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Ecdysteroids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439482/ecdysonelactones-ecdysteroids-from-the-tropical-eastern-pacific-zoantharian-antipathozoanthus-hickmani
#1
Paul O Guillen, Kevin Calabro, Karla B Jaramillo, Cristobal Dominguez, Grégory Genta-Jouve, Jenny Rodriguez, Olivier P Thomas
Despite a large occurrence, especially over the Pacific Ocean, the chemical diversity of marine invertebrates belonging to the order Zoantharia is largely underexplored. For the two species of the genus Antipathozoanthus no chemical study has been reported so far. The first chemical investigation of Antipathozoanthus hickmani collected at the Marine Protected Area "El Pelado", Santa Elena, Ecuador, led to the isolation of four new ecdysteroid derivatives named ecdysonelactones. The structures of ecdysonelactones A-D ( 1 - 4 ) were determined based on their spectroscopy data, including 1D and 2D NMR and HRMS...
February 11, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410082/cholesterol-internalization-and-metabolism-in-insect-prothoracic-gland-a-steroidogenic-organ-via-lipoproteins
#2
Fumihiko Igarashi, Mari H Ogihara, Masatoshi Iga, Hiroshi Kataoka
Dietary sterols including cholesterol and phytosterols are essential substrates for insect steroid hormone (ecdysteroid) synthesis in the prothoracic glands (PGs). In a silkworm Bombyx mori, one of the model species of insects, the steroidogenesis has been well demonstrated that cholesterol biotransformation into ecdysone in the PG cells. Because insects lack the ability to synthesize cellular sterol de novo, lipoprotein, lipophorin (Lp), has been thought to be the major cholesterol supply source; however, details of cholesterol behavior from Lp to the PG cells has not been analyzed till date...
January 31, 2018: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385123/rapid-autophagic-regression-of-the-milk-gland-during-involution-is-critical-for-maximizing-tsetse-viviparous-reproductive-output
#3
Joshua B Benoit, Veronika Michalkova, Elise M Didion, Yanyu Xiao, Aaron A Baumann, Geoffrey M Attardo, Serap Aksoy
Tsetse flies are important vectors of human and animal trypanosomiasis. Ability to reduce tsetse populations is an effective means of disease control. Lactation is an essential component of tsetse's viviparous reproductive physiology and requires a dramatic increase in the expression and synthesis of milk proteins by the milk gland organ in order to nurture larval growth. In between each gonotrophic cycle, tsetse ceases milk production and milk gland tubules undergo a nearly two-fold reduction in width (involution)...
January 31, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362416/creb-binding-protein-plays-key-roles-in-juvenile-hormone-action-in-the-red-flour-beetle-tribolium-castaneum
#4
Jingjing Xu, Amit Roy, Subba Reddy Palli
Juvenile hormones (JH) and ecdysteroids regulate many biological and metabolic processes. CREB-binding protein (CBP) is a transcriptional co-regulator with histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity. Therefore, CBP is involved in activation of many transcription factors that regulate expression of genes associated with postembryonic development in insects. However, the function of CBP in JH action in insects is not well understood. Hence, we studied the role of CBP in JH action in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum and the Tribolium cell line...
January 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359358/cytoplasmic-glutamine-synthetase-gene-expression-regulates-larval-development-in-bactrocera-dorsalis-hendel
#5
Meng-Yi Zhang, Dong Wei, Ran Li, Hong-Ting Jia, Yu-Wei Liu, Clauvis Nji Tizi Taning, Jin-Jun Wang, Guy Smagghe
In insects, glutamine synthetase (GS), a key enzyme in the synthesis of glutamine, has been reported to be associated with embryonic development, heat shock response, and fecundity regulation. However, little is known about the influence of GS on postembryonic development. In this study, we demonstrate that blocking the activity of GS in the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) with use of a GS-specific inhibitor (L-methionine S-sulfoximine), led to a significant delay in larval development, pupal weight loss, and inhibition of pupation...
January 23, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351018/the-behavior-and-reproductive-physiology-of-a-solitary-progressive-provisioning-vespid-wasp-evidence-for-a-solitary-cycle-origin-of-reproductive-castes
#6
Hans C Kelstrup, Klaus Hartfelder, Tiago Falcon Lopes, Theresa C Wossler
The emergence of queens and workers from solitary antecedents mark a major evolutionary transition in the history of life. The solitary progressive provisioning wasp Synagris cornuta, a member of the subfamily Eumeninae (basal to eusocial vespid wasps), alternates between behavioral states characterized as queenlike and worker-like. Akin to a queen in eusocial wasps, a S. cornuta female initiates construction of a cell into which she oviposits and then, similar to a worker, cares for the brood as it develops...
February 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348592/stingless-bee-larvae-require-fungal-steroid-to-pupate
#7
Camila R Paludo, Cristiano Menezes, Eduardo A Silva-Junior, Ayrton Vollet-Neto, Andres Andrade-Dominguez, Gleb Pishchany, Lily Khadempour, Fabio S do Nascimento, Cameron R Currie, Roberto Kolter, Jon Clardy, Mônica T Pupo
The larval stage of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona depilis must consume a specific brood cell fungus in order to continue development. Here we show that this fungus is a member of the genus Zygosaccharomyces and provides essential steroid precursors to the developing bee. Insect pupation requires ecdysteroid hormones, and as insects cannot synthesize sterols de novo, they must obtain steroids in their diet. Larval in vitro culturing assays demonstrated that consuming ergosterol recapitulates the developmental effects on S...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291440/nitrogen-containing-ecdysteroid-derivatives-vs-multi-drug-resistance-in-cancer-preparation-and-antitumor-activity-of-oximes-oxime-ethers-and-a-lactam
#8
Máté Vágvölgyi, Ana Martins, Ágnes Kulmány, István Zupkó, Tamás Gáti, András Simon, Gábor Tóth, Attila Hunyadi
Multidrug resistance is a widespread problem among various diseases and cancer is no exception. We had previously described the chemo-sensitizing activity of ecdysteroid derivatives with low polarity on drug susceptible and multi-drug resistant (MDR) cancer cells. We have also shown that these molecules have a marked selectivity towards the MDR cells. Recent studies on the oximation of various steroid derivatives indicated remarkable increase in their antitumor activity, but there is no related bioactivity data on ecdysteroid oximes...
December 12, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288754/microrna-14-regulates-larval-development-time-in-bombyx-mori
#9
Zulian Liu, Lin Ling, Jun Xu, Baosheng Zeng, Yongping Huang, Peng Shang, Anjiang Tan
MicroRNAs (miRNA) regulate multiple physiological processes including development and metamorphosis in insects. In the current study, we demonstrate that a conserved invertebrate miRNA-14 (miR-14) plays an important role in ecdysteroid regulated development in the silkworm Bombyx mori, a lepidopteran model insect. Ubiquitous transgenic overexpression of miR-14 using the GAL4/UAS system resulted in delayed silkworm larval development and smaller body size of larva and pupa with decrease in ecdysteriod titers...
February 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284404/multiple-functions-of-creb-binding-protein-during-postembryonic-development-identification-of-target-genes
#10
Amit Roy, Smitha George, Subba Reddy Palli
BACKGROUND: Juvenile hormones (JH) and ecdysteroids control postembryonic development in insects. They serve as valuable targets for pest management. Hence, understanding the molecular mechanisms of their action is of crucial importance. CREB-binding protein (CBP) is a universal transcriptional co-regulator. It controls the expression of several genes including those from hormone signaling pathways through co-activation of many transcription factors. However, the role of CBP during postembryonic development in insects is not well understood...
December 29, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247785/ecdysteroid-and-juvenile-hormone-biosynthesis-receptors-and-their-signaling-in-the-freshwater-microcrustacean-daphnia
#11
REVIEW
Hitoshi Miyakawa, Tomomi Sato, You Song, Knut E Tollefsen, Taisen Iguchi
The two essential insect hormones, ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones, are possessed not only by insects, but also widely by arthropods, and regulate various developmental and physiological processes. In contrast to the abundant information about molecular endocrine mechanisms in insects, the knowledge of non-insect arthropod endocrinology is still limited. In this review, we summarize recent reports about the molecular basis of these two major insect hormones in the freshwater microcrustacean Daphnia, a keystone taxon in limnetic ecology and a bioindicator in environmental studies...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208990/comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-of-tibetan-gynaephora-to-explore-the-genetic-basis-of-insect-adaptation-to-divergent-altitude-environments
#12
Qi-Lin Zhang, Li Zhang, Xing-Zhuo Yang, Xiao-Tong Wang, Xiao-Peng Li, Juan Wang, Jun-Yuan Chen, Ming-Long Yuan
Adaptation of insects to different altitudes remain largely unknown, especially those endemic to the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Here, we generated the transcriptomes of Gynaephora menyuanensis and G. alpherakii, inhabiting different high altitudes on the TP, and used these and the previously available transcriptomic and genomic sequences from low-altitude insects to explore potential genetic basis for divergent high-altitude adaptation in Gynaephora. An analysis of 5,869 orthologous genes among Gynaephora and other three low-altitude insects uncovered that fast-evolving genes and positively selected genes (PSGs) in the two Gynaephora species were enriched in energy metabolism and hypoxia response categories (e...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193521/assembly-of-insect-hormone-enthusiasts-at-nasu-highland-japan-report-of-the-3rd-international-insect-hormone-21st-ecdysone-workshop
#13
Ryusuke Niwa, Takashi Nishimura
The 3rd International Insect Hormone (21st Ecdysone) Workshop (IIHW2017) was held in July 2017 at Nasu Highland, Japan. In the 40 years of the workshop's history, this was the first to be held in an Asian country. A total of 109 insect hormone researchers from 18 countries (62 overseas and 47 domestic participants) attended IIHW2017. During the workshop, all participants stayed on-site at the venue's hotel; this was ideal for fostering communication between participants, in particular, interactions between principal investigators and young scientists...
November 29, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187506/cooperative-control-of-ecdysone-biosynthesis-in-drosophila-by-transcription-factors-s%C3%A3-ance-ouija-board-and-molting-defective
#14
Outa Uryu, Qiuxiang Ou, Tatsuya Komura-Kawa, Takumi Kamiyama, Masatoshi Iga, Monika Syrzycka, Keiko Hirota, Hiroshi Kataoka, Barry M Honda, Kirst King-Jones, Ryusuke Niwa
Insect ecdysteroids are steroid hormones that control many aspects of development and physiology. During larval development, ecdysone is synthesized in an endocrine organ called the prothoracic gland (PG) through a series of ecdysteroidogenic enzymes encoded by the Halloween genes. The expression of the Halloween genes is highly restricted and dynamic, indicating that their spatiotemporal regulation is mediated by their tight transcriptional control. In this study, we report that three ZAD-C2H2 zinc finger transcription factors-Séance (Séan), Ouija board (Ouib), and Molting defective (Mld)-cooperatively control ecdysone biosynthesis in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster Séan and Ouib act in cooperation with Mld to positively regulate the transcription of neverland and spookier, respectively, two Halloween genes...
November 29, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184560/volatile-metabolomic-composition-of-vitex-species-chemodiversity-insights-and-acaricidal-activity
#15
José G de Sena Filho, Ighor C Barreto, Avaldo O Soares Filho, Paulo C L Nogueira, Adenir V Teodoro, Ana V Cruz da Silva, Haroudo S Xavier, Allívia R C Rabbani, Daniel J Spakowicz, Jennifer M Duringer
The Vitex genus (Lamiaceae) produces a plethora of metabolites that include ecdysteroids and terpenoids, some of which have demonstrated insect repellent properties. The volatile composition of several members of this genus has not been chemically defined, as many taxa are endemic to remote ecosystems. In this study, leaves were collected from the northeast of Brazil from Vitex capitata, V. megapotamica, V. gardneriana, and V. rufescens plants and examined for their chemical profile via GC-MS/FID of essential oil extracts...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101690/ecotoxicological-efficiency-of-advanced-ozonation-processes-with-tio2-and-black-light-used-in-the-degradation-of-carbamazepine
#16
Ana Lourdes Oropesa, Fernando Juan Beltrán, António Miguel Floro, Juan José Pérez Sagasti, Patrícia Palma
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ecotoxicological efficiency of two advanced ozonation processes (AOzPs), the catalytic ozonation (O3/TiO2) and the photocatalytic ozonation (O3/TiO2/black light), in the remotion of carbamazepine. The ecotoxicological efficiency was assessed through the use of lethal and sublethal assays with species Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna. Results demonstrated that the AOzPs presented an efficiency of carbamazepine removal higher than 99% (carbamazepine < 2 μg/L) after 12 min of treatment...
November 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058980/regulatory-pathways-controlling-female-insect-reproduction
#17
Sourav Roy, Tusar T Saha, Zhen Zou, Alexander S Raikhel
The synthesis of vitellogenin and its uptake by maturing oocytes during egg maturation are essential for successful female reproduction. These events are regulated by the juvenile hormones and ecdysteroids, and the nutritional signaling pathway regulated by neuropeptides. Juvenile hormones act as gonadotropins, regulating vitellogenesis in most insects, but ecdysteroids control this process in Diptera and some Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. The complex crosstalk between the juvenile hormones, ecdysteroids, and nutritional signaling pathways differs distinctly depending on the reproductive strategies adopted by various insects...
October 20, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032156/suppressor-of-cytokine-signaling-2-12-regulates-antimicrobial-peptides-and-ecdysteroid-signaling-pathways-in-bombyx-mori-dazao
#18
Muhammad Nadeem Abbas, Bao-Jian Zhu, Saima Kausar, Li-Shang Dai, Yu-Xuan Sun, Ji Wu Tian, Chao-Liang Liu
Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) are a potent negative regulator of diverse cytokine-related responses to maintain various physiological processes in animals. Here, we obtained the SOCS2-12 gene sequence of Bombyx mori (Dazao) (BmSOCS2-12) from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) to study its expression profile in different tissues, as well as in the immune tissues following larval exposure to pathogens. Further, we investigated the role of BmSOCS2-12 in producing antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and as a regulator of ecdysteroid signaling transduction...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021633/structure-and-function-of-the-alternatively-spliced-isoforms-of-the-ecdysone-receptor-gene-in-the-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#19
Xiaowen Chen, Jun Wang, Wucheng Yue, Shu Huang, Jiao Chen, Yipei Chen, Chenghui Wang
Alternative splicing is an essential molecular mechanism that increase the protein diversity of a species to regulate important biological processes. Ecdysone receptor (EcR), an essential nuclear receptor, is essential in the molting, growth, development, reproduction, and regeneration of crustaceans. In this study, the whole sequence of EcR gene from Eriocheir sinensis was obtained. The sequence was 45,481 bp in length with 9 exons. Moreover, four alternatively spliced EcR isoforms (Es-EcR-1, Es-EcR-2, Es-EcR-3 and Es-EcR-4) were identified...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021278/dual-roles-of-glutathione-in-ecdysone-biosynthesis-and-antioxidant-function-during-the-larval-development-in-drosophila
#20
Sora Enya, Chikana Yamamoto, Hajime Mizuno, Tsuyoshi Esaki, Hsin-Kuang Lin, Masatoshi Iga, Kana Morohashi, Yota Hirano, Hiroshi Kataoka, Tsutomu Masujima, Yuko Shimada-Niwa, Ryusuke Niwa
Ecdysteroids, including the biologically active hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), play essential roles in controlling many developmental and physiological events in insects. Ecdysteroid biosynthesis is achieved by a series of specialized enzymes encoded in the Halloween genes. Recently, a new class of Halloween gene, noppera-bo (nobo), encoding a glutathione S-transferase (GST) in dipteran and lepidopteran species, has been identified and characterized. GSTs are well known to conjugate substrates with the reduced form of glutathione (GSH), a bioactive tripeptide composed of glutamate, cysteine, and glycine...
October 11, 2017: Genetics
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