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Ecdysteroids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032156/suppressor-of-cytokine-signaling-2-12-regulates-antimicrobial-peptides-and-ecdysteroid-signaling-pathways-in-bombyx-mori-dazao
#1
Muhammad Nadeem Abbas, Bao-Jian Zhu, Saima Kausar, Li-Shang Dai, Yu-Xuan Sun, Ji Wu Tian, Chao-Liang Liu
Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) are a potent negative regulator of diverse cytokine-related responses to maintain various physiological processes in animals. Here, we obtained the SOCS2-12 gene sequence of Bombyx mori (Dazao) (BmSOCS2-12) from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) to study its expression profile in different tissues, as well as in the immune tissues following larval exposure to pathogens. Further, we investigated the role of BmSOCS2-12 in producing antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and as a regulator of ecdysteroid signaling transduction...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021633/structure-and-function-of-the-alternatively-spliced-isoforms-of-the-ecdysone-receptor-gene-in-the-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#2
Xiaowen Chen, Jun Wang, Wucheng Yue, Shu Huang, Jiao Chen, Yipei Chen, Chenghui Wang
Alternative splicing is an essential molecular mechanism that increase the protein diversity of a species to regulate important biological processes. Ecdysone receptor (EcR), an essential nuclear receptor, is essential in the molting, growth, development, reproduction, and regeneration of crustaceans. In this study, the whole sequence of EcR gene from Eriocheir sinensis was obtained. The sequence was 45,481 bp in length with 9 exons. Moreover, four alternatively spliced EcR isoforms (Es-EcR-1, Es-EcR-2, Es-EcR-3 and Es-EcR-4) were identified...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021278/dual-roles-of-glutathione-in-ecdysone-biosynthesis-and-antioxidant-function-during-the-larval-development-in-drosophila
#3
Sora Enya, Chikana Yamamoto, Hajime Mizuno, Tsuyoshi Esaki, Hsin-Kuang Lin, Masatoshi Iga, Kana Morohashi, Yota Hirano, Hiroshi Kataoka, Tsutomu Masujima, Yuko Shimada-Niwa, Ryusuke Niwa
Ecdysteroids, including the biologically active hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), play essential roles in controlling many developmental and physiological events in insects. Ecdysteroid biosynthesis is achieved by a series of specialized enzymes encoded in the Halloween genes. Recently, a new class of Halloween gene, noppera-bo (nobo), encoding a glutathione S-transferase (GST) in dipteran and lepidopteran species, has been identified and characterized. GSTs are well known to conjugate substrates with the reduced form of glutathione (GSH), a bioactive tripeptide composed of glutamate, cysteine, and glycine...
October 11, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987007/honey-bee-foraging-induces-upregulation-of-early-growth-response-protein-1-hormone-receptor-38-and-candidate-downstream-genes-of-the-ecdysteroid-signalling-pathway
#4
A S Singh, A Shah, A Brockmann
In honey bees, continuous foraging at an artificial feeder induced a sustained upregulation of the immediate early genes early growth response protein 1 (Egr-1) and hormone receptor 38 (Hr38). This gene expression response was accompanied by an upregulation of several Egr-1 candidate downstream genes: ecdysone receptor (EcR), dopamine/ecdysteroid receptor (DopEcR), dopamine decarboxylase and dopamine receptor 2. Hr38, EcR and DopEcR are components of the ecdysteroid signalling pathway, which is highly probably involved in learning and memory processes in honey bees and other insects...
October 7, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971798/cloning-and-characterization-of-an-echinococcus-granulosus-ecdysteroid-hormone-nuclear-receptor-hr3-like-gene
#5
Mei Yang, Jun Li, Jun Wu, Hui Wang, Baoping Guo, Chuanchuan Wu, Xi Shou, Ning Yang, Zhuangzhi Zhang, Donald P McManus, Fuchun Zhang, Wenbao Zhang
Cystic echinococcosis is an important parasitic zoonosis caused by the dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. Little is known about adult worm development at the molecular level. Transcription analysis showed that the E. granulosus hormone receptor 3-like (EgHR3) gene was expressed in protoscoleces and adult worms, indicating its role in early adult development. In this study, we cloned and characterized EgHR3 showing that its cDNA contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1890 bp encoding a 629 amino acid protein, which has a DNA-binding domain (DBD) and a ligand-binding domain (LBD)...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935164/elevated-expression-of-neuropeptide-signaling-genes-in-the-eyestalk-ganglia-and-y-organ-of-gecarcinus-lateralis-individuals-that-are-refractory-to-molt-induction
#6
Natalie L Pitts, Hanna M Schulz, Stephanie R Oatman, Donald L Mykles
Molting is induced in decapod crustaceans via multiple leg autotomy (MLA) or eyestalk ablation (ESA). MLA removes five or more walking legs, which are regenerated and become functional appendages at ecdysis. ESA eliminates the primary source of molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), which suppress the production of molting hormones (ecdysteroids) from the molting gland or Y-organ (YO). Both MLA and ESA are effective methods for molt induction in Gecarcinus lateralis. However, some G...
December 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916758/role-of-the-venus-kinase-receptor-in-the-female-reproductive-physiology-of-the-desert-locust-schistocerca-gregaria
#7
Cynthia Lenaerts, Jolien Palmans, Elisabeth Marchal, Rik Verdonck, Jozef Vanden Broeck
Venus kinase receptors (VKR) are a subfamily of invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases, which have only recently been discovered. They contain an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain and an extracellular Venus FlyTrap domain. VKRs have been functionally and pharmacologically characterized in only two invertebrate species, namely the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni and the mosquito Aedes aegypti, where they play a crucial role in oogenesis. Here, we report the characterization of a VKR in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893182/the-dynamic-landscape-of-gene-regulation-during-bombyx-mori-oogenesis
#8
Qiang Zhang, Wei Sun, Bang-Yong Sun, Yang Xiao, Ze Zhang
BACKGROUND: Oogenesis in the domestic silkworm (Bombyx mori) is a complex process involving previtellogenesis, vitellogenesis and choriogenesis. During this process, follicles show drastic morphological and physiological changes. However, the genome-wide regulatory profiles of gene expression during oogenesis remain to be determined. RESULTS: In this study, we obtained time-series transcriptome data and used these data to reveal the dynamic landscape of gene regulation during oogenesis...
September 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872696/the-light-cycle-controls-the-hatching-rhythm-in-bombyx-mori-via-negative-feedback-loop-of-the-circadian-oscillator
#9
Hui Tao, Xue Li, Jian-Feng Qiu, Heng-Jiang Liu, Da-Yan Zhang, Feng Chu, Yanghu Sima, Shi-Qing Xu
Hatching behavior is a key target in silkworm (Bombyx mori) rearing, especially for the control of Lepidoptera pests. According to previous research, hatching rhythms appear to be controlled by a clock mechanism that restricts or "gates" hatching to a particular time. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Under 12-h light:12-h dark photoperiod (LD) conditions, the transcriptional levels of the chitinase5 (Cht5) and hatching enzyme-like (Hel) genes, as well as the enzymatic activities of their gene products, oscillated in time with ambient light cycles, as did the transcriptional levels of the cryptochrome 1, cryptochrome 2, period (per), and timeless genes, which are key components of the negative feedback loop of the circadian rhythm...
October 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867986/ecdysteroids-production-in-plant-in-vitro-cultures
#10
REVIEW
Barbara Thiem, Małgorzata Kikowska, Michał P Maliński, Dariusz Kruszka, Marta Napierała, Ewa Florek
Ecdysteroids are secondary metabolites, widely distributed in the animal and plant kingdoms. They have a wide range of pharmacological effects in vertebrates, including mammals, most of which are beneficial for humans. Therefore, they have become compounds of interest for the pharmaceutical industry due to their adaptogenic, anabolic, hypoglycaemic, hypocholesterolaemic and antimicrobial activities, which are still being researched. Nowadays, ecdysteroids are present as active ingredients in bodybuilding supplements...
2017: Phytochemistry Reviews: Proceedings of the Phytochemical Society of Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866256/evaluation-of-ecdysteroid-antisera-for-a-competitive-enzyme-immunoassay-and-extraction-procedures-for-the-measurement-of-mosquito-ecdysteroids
#11
David A McKinney, Michael R Strand, Mark R Brown
Ecdysteroid hormones regulate several aspects of insect development and reproduction. The predominant ecdysteroids produced by insects including mosquitoes are ecdysone (E) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). The ability to measure E and 20E titers is essential for many studies, but few sensitive, low cost options are currently available for doing so. To address this deficiency, we developed a new enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA). In the first part of the study, we compared the affinity of two new antisera named EAB25 and EAB27 to other available ecdysteroid antisera...
November 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860304/multiple-mirnas-jointly-regulate-the-biosynthesis-of-ecdysteroid-in-the-holometabolous-insects-chilo-suppressalis
#12
Kang He, Yang Sun, Huamei Xiao, Chang Ge, Fei Li, Zhaojun Han
The accurate rise and fall of active hormones is important for insect development. The ecdysteroids must be cleared in a timely manner. However, the mechanism of supressing the ecdysteroid biosynthesis at the right time remains unclear. Here, we sequenced a small RNA library of Chilo suppressalis and identified 300 miRNAs in this notorious rice insect pest. Microarray analysis yielded 54 differentially expressed miRNAs during metamorphosis development. Target prediction and in vitro dual luciferase assays confirmed that seven miRNAs (two conserved and five novel miRNAs) jointly targeted three Halloween genes in the ecdysteroid biosynthesis pathway...
August 31, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854664/hyperecdysonism-in-the-formosan-subterranean-termite-and-eastern-subterranean-termite-isoptera-rhinotermitidae
#13
Nan-Yao Su, Erin J Monteagudo
Effects of ecdysone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), and an ecdysone agonist, halofenozide, were tested against the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, and the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), in a 12-d no choice assay. Approximately 22-26% of R. flavipes and C. formosanus exhibited symptoms of hyperecdysonism, that is, "jackknife" position, when exposed to ecdysone and 20E at 1,000 ppm, respectively. High mortalities were recorded for both termite species in ecdysone and 20E at 100 and 1,000 ppm, but only at 10,000 ppm for halofenizide...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842223/an-essential-role-of-rieske-domain-oxygenase-neverland-in-the-molting-cycle-of-black-tiger-shrimp-penaeus-monodon
#14
Ponsit Sathapondecha, Sakol Panyim, Apinunt Udomkit
Molting is an important process for development and growth in arthropods. In crustaceans, molt is regulated by ecdysteroids or molting hormones that are synthesized in Y-organs. However, ecdysteroid biosynthesis pathway in crustaceans and its participating enzymes have not been well studied so far. In this study, a Rieske domain oxygenase, the enzyme that acts as cholesterol 7,8-dehydrogenase by converting cholesterol to 7-dehydrocholesterol in the first step of the ecdysteroid biosynthesis was characterized in black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon...
August 24, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803209/20-hydroxyecdysone-attenuates-cardiac-remodeling-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#15
Sukanya Phungphong, Anusak Kijtawornrat, Sirinut Chaiduang, Vitoon Saengsirisuwan, Tepmanas Bupha-Intr
BACKGROUND: Ecdysteroids, a group of steroid hormones found in insects and many plants, have been shown to prevent various changes in mammalian tissues after female sex hormone deprivation. PURPOSE: To examine whether an ecdysteroid, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE), exhibits regulatory or protective roles in the cardiovascular system. STUDY DESIGN/METHOD: Blood pressure and cardiac function were evaluated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) during and after daily treatment with 20-HE for six weeks...
October 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783121/isolation-and-purification-of-three-ecdysteroids-from-the-stems-of-diploclisia-glaucescens-by-high-speed-countercurrent-chromatography-and-their-anti-inflammatory-activities-in-vitro
#16
Lei Fang, Jialian Li, Jie Zhou, Xiao Wang, Lanping Guo
High-speed counter-current chromatography was used to separate and purify ecdysteroids for the first time from the stems of Diploclisia glaucescens using a two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate-n-butanol-ethanol-water (3:0.2:0.8:3, v/v). Three ecdysteroids were obtained from 260 mg of ethyl acetate extract of the residue obtained after evaporation of the crude ethanolicextractof D. glaucescens in one-step separation, which were identified as paristerone (I, 30.5 mg), ecdysterone (II, 7.2 mg), and capitasterone (III, 8...
August 7, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782527/glue-protein-production-can-be-triggered-by-steroid-hormone-signaling-independent-of-the-developmental-program-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#17
Yuya Kaieda, Ryota Masuda, Ritsuo Nishida, MaryJane Shimell, Michael B O'Connor, Hajime Ono
Steroid hormones regulate life stage transitions, allowing animals to appropriately follow a developmental timeline. During insect development, the steroid hormone ecdysone is synthesized and released in a regulated manner by the prothoracic gland (PG) and then hydroxylated to the active molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), in peripheral tissues. We manipulated ecdysteroid titers, through temporally controlled over-expression of the ecdysteroid-inactivating enzyme, CYP18A1, in the PG using the GeneSwitch-GAL4 system in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster...
October 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733163/rnai-mediated-knockdown-of-spook-reduces-ecdysteroid-titers-and-causes-precocious-metamorphosis-in-the-desert-locust-schistocerca-gregaria
#18
Ryohei Sugahara, Seiji Tanaka, Takahiro Shiotsuki
The Halloween gene SPOOK (SPO) is involved in the production of the active metabolite of ecdysteroid, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), in insects. A previous study showed that RNAi-mediated knockdown of SPO in Schistocerca gregaria last instar nymphs markedly reduced the hemolymph 20E titer, but did not affect metamorphosis. In the present study, the effects of SPO interference on development were re-examined in this locust. Injections of SPO double-stranded RNA (dsSPO) into nymphs at mid and late instars significantly delayed nymphal development and interfered with molting...
September 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711770/multigenerational-effects-evaluation-of-the-flame-retardant-tris-2-butoxyethyl-phosphate-tboep-using-daphnia-magna
#19
Maeva Giraudo, Maxime Dubé, Mélanie Lépine, Pierre Gagnon, Mélanie Douville, Magali Houde
Tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) is an organophosphate ester used as substitute following the phase-out of brominated flamed retardants. Because of its high production volume and its use in a broad range of applications, this chemical is now frequently detected in the environment and biota. However, limited information is available on the long-term effects of TBOEP in aquatic organisms. In this study, Daphnia magna were exposed over three 21d generations to an environmentally relevant concentration of TBOEP (10μg/L) and effects were evaluated at the gene transcription, protein, and life-history (i...
September 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690150/serotonin-induces-ecdysteroidogenesis-and-methyl-farnesoate-synthesis-in-the-mud-crab-scylla-serrata
#20
B P Girish, C H Swetha, P Sreenivasula Reddy
In the current study, we have examined the role of serotonin in regulating the levels of methyl farnesoate and ecdysteroids in the giant mud crab Scylla serrata and validated that serotonin indeed is a reproductive hormone. Administration of serotonin elevated circulatory levels of methyl farnesoate and ecdysteroids in crabs. Since methyl farnesoate and ecdysteroid act through retinoid X receptor (RXR) and ecdysteroid receptor (EcR) respectively and these receptors are involved in the regulation of reproduction in crustaceans, we have determined the mRNA levels of RXR and EcR in hepatopancreas and ovary after serotonin administration...
September 2, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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