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Ecdysteroids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208990/comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-of-tibetan-gynaephora-to-explore-the-genetic-basis-of-insect-adaptation-to-divergent-altitude-environments
#1
Qi-Lin Zhang, Li Zhang, Xing-Zhuo Yang, Xiao-Tong Wang, Xiao-Peng Li, Juan Wang, Jun-Yuan Chen, Ming-Long Yuan
Adaptation of insects to different altitudes remain largely unknown, especially those endemic to the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Here, we generated the transcriptomes of Gynaephora menyuanensis and G. alpherakii, inhabiting different high altitudes on the TP, and used these and the previously available transcriptomic and genomic sequences from low-altitude insects to explore potential genetic basis for divergent high-altitude adaptation in Gynaephora. An analysis of 5,869 orthologous genes among Gynaephora and other three low-altitude insects uncovered that fast-evolving genes and positively selected genes (PSGs) in the two Gynaephora species were enriched in energy metabolism and hypoxia response categories (e...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193521/assembly-of-insect-hormone-enthusiasts-at-nasu-highland-japan-report-of-the-3rd-international-insect-hormone-21st-ecdysone-workshop
#2
Ryusuke Niwa, Takashi Nishimura
The 3rd International Insect Hormone (21st Ecdysone) Workshop (IIHW2017) was held in July 2017 at Nasu Highland, Japan. In the 40 years of the workshop's history, this was the first to be held in an Asian country. A total of 109 insect hormone researchers from 18 countries (62 overseas and 47 domestic participants) attended IIHW2017. During the workshop, all participants stayed on-site at the venue's hotel; this was ideal for fostering communication between participants, in particular, interactions between principal investigators and young scientists...
November 29, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187506/cooperative-control-of-ecdysone-biosynthesis-in-drosophila-by-transcription-factors-s%C3%A3-ance-ouija-board-and-molting-defective
#3
Outa Uryu, Qiuxiang Ou, Tatsuya Komura-Kawa, Takumi Kamiyama, Masatoshi Iga, Monika Syrzycka, Keiko Hirota, Hiroshi Kataoka, Barry M Honda, Kirst King-Jones, Ryusuke Niwa
Insect ecdysteroids are steroid hormones that control many aspects of development and physiology. During larval development, ecdysone is synthesized in an endocrine organ called the prothoracic gland (PG) through a series of ecdysteroidogenic enzymes encoded by the Halloween genes. The expression of the Halloween genes is highly restricted and dynamic, indicating that their spatiotemporal regulation is mediated by their tight transcriptional control. In this study, we report that three ZAD-C2H2 zinc finger transcription factors-Séance (Séan), Ouija board (Ouib), and Molting defective (Mld)-cooperatively control ecdysone biosynthesis in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster Séan and Ouib act in cooperation with Mld to positively regulate the transcription of neverland and spookier, respectively, two Halloween genes...
November 29, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184560/volatile-metabolomic-composition-of-vitex-species-chemodiversity-insights-and-acaricidal-activity
#4
José G de Sena Filho, Ighor C Barreto, Avaldo O Soares Filho, Paulo C L Nogueira, Adenir V Teodoro, Ana V Cruz da Silva, Haroudo S Xavier, Allívia R C Rabbani, Daniel J Spakowicz, Jennifer M Duringer
The Vitex genus (Lamiaceae) produces a plethora of metabolites that include ecdysteroids and terpenoids, some of which have demonstrated insect repellent properties. The volatile composition of several members of this genus has not been chemically defined, as many taxa are endemic to remote ecosystems. In this study, leaves were collected from the northeast of Brazil from Vitex capitata, V. megapotamica, V. gardneriana, and V. rufescens plants and examined for their chemical profile via GC-MS/FID of essential oil extracts...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101690/ecotoxicological-efficiency-of-advanced-ozonation-processes-with-tio2-and-black-light-used-in-the-degradation-of-carbamazepine
#5
Ana Lourdes Oropesa, Fernando Juan Beltrán, António Miguel Floro, Juan José Pérez Sagasti, Patrícia Palma
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ecotoxicological efficiency of two advanced ozonation processes (AOzPs), the catalytic ozonation (O3/TiO2) and the photocatalytic ozonation (O3/TiO2/black light), in the remotion of carbamazepine. The ecotoxicological efficiency was assessed through the use of lethal and sublethal assays with species Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna. Results demonstrated that the AOzPs presented an efficiency of carbamazepine removal higher than 99% (carbamazepine < 2 μg/L) after 12 min of treatment...
November 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058980/regulatory-pathways-controlling-female-insect-reproduction
#6
Sourav Roy, Tusar T Saha, Zhen Zou, Alexander S Raikhel
The synthesis of vitellogenin and its uptake by maturing oocytes during egg maturation are essential for successful female reproduction. These events are regulated by the juvenile hormones and ecdysteroids, and the nutritional signaling pathway regulated by neuropeptides. Juvenile hormones act as gonadotropins, regulating vitellogenesis in most insects, but ecdysteroids control this process in Diptera and some Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. The complex crosstalk between the juvenile hormones, ecdysteroids, and nutritional signaling pathways differs distinctly depending on the reproductive strategies adopted by various insects...
October 20, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032156/suppressor-of-cytokine-signaling-2-12-regulates-antimicrobial-peptides-and-ecdysteroid-signaling-pathways-in-bombyx-mori-dazao
#7
Muhammad Nadeem Abbas, Bao-Jian Zhu, Saima Kausar, Li-Shang Dai, Yu-Xuan Sun, Ji Wu Tian, Chao-Liang Liu
Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) are a potent negative regulator of diverse cytokine-related responses to maintain various physiological processes in animals. Here, we obtained the SOCS2-12 gene sequence of Bombyx mori (Dazao) (BmSOCS2-12) from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) to study its expression profile in different tissues, as well as in the immune tissues following larval exposure to pathogens. Further, we investigated the role of BmSOCS2-12 in producing antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and as a regulator of ecdysteroid signaling transduction...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021633/structure-and-function-of-the-alternatively-spliced-isoforms-of-the-ecdysone-receptor-gene-in-the-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#8
Xiaowen Chen, Jun Wang, Wucheng Yue, Shu Huang, Jiao Chen, Yipei Chen, Chenghui Wang
Alternative splicing is an essential molecular mechanism that increase the protein diversity of a species to regulate important biological processes. Ecdysone receptor (EcR), an essential nuclear receptor, is essential in the molting, growth, development, reproduction, and regeneration of crustaceans. In this study, the whole sequence of EcR gene from Eriocheir sinensis was obtained. The sequence was 45,481 bp in length with 9 exons. Moreover, four alternatively spliced EcR isoforms (Es-EcR-1, Es-EcR-2, Es-EcR-3 and Es-EcR-4) were identified...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021278/dual-roles-of-glutathione-in-ecdysone-biosynthesis-and-antioxidant-function-during-the-larval-development-in-drosophila
#9
Sora Enya, Chikana Yamamoto, Hajime Mizuno, Tsuyoshi Esaki, Hsin-Kuang Lin, Masatoshi Iga, Kana Morohashi, Yota Hirano, Hiroshi Kataoka, Tsutomu Masujima, Yuko Shimada-Niwa, Ryusuke Niwa
Ecdysteroids, including the biologically active hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), play essential roles in controlling many developmental and physiological events in insects. Ecdysteroid biosynthesis is achieved by a series of specialized enzymes encoded in the Halloween genes. Recently, a new class of Halloween gene, noppera-bo (nobo), encoding a glutathione S-transferase (GST) in dipteran and lepidopteran species, has been identified and characterized. GSTs are well known to conjugate substrates with the reduced form of glutathione (GSH), a bioactive tripeptide composed of glutamate, cysteine, and glycine...
October 11, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987007/honey-bee-foraging-induces-upregulation-of-early-growth-response-protein-1-hormone-receptor-38-and-candidate-downstream-genes-of-the-ecdysteroid-signalling-pathway
#10
A S Singh, A Shah, A Brockmann
In honey bees, continuous foraging at an artificial feeder induced a sustained upregulation of the immediate early genes early growth response protein 1 (Egr-1) and hormone receptor 38 (Hr38). This gene expression response was accompanied by an upregulation of several Egr-1 candidate downstream genes: ecdysone receptor (EcR), dopamine/ecdysteroid receptor (DopEcR), dopamine decarboxylase and dopamine receptor 2. Hr38, EcR and DopEcR are components of the ecdysteroid signalling pathway, which is highly probably involved in learning and memory processes in honey bees and other insects...
October 7, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971798/cloning-and-characterization-of-an-echinococcus-granulosus-ecdysteroid-hormone-nuclear-receptor-hr3-like-gene
#11
Mei Yang, Jun Li, Jun Wu, Hui Wang, Baoping Guo, Chuanchuan Wu, Xi Shou, Ning Yang, Zhuangzhi Zhang, Donald P McManus, Fuchun Zhang, Wenbao Zhang
Cystic echinococcosis is an important parasitic zoonosis caused by the dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. Little is known about adult worm development at the molecular level. Transcription analysis showed that the E. granulosus hormone receptor 3-like (EgHR3) gene was expressed in protoscoleces and adult worms, indicating its role in early adult development. In this study, we cloned and characterized EgHR3 showing that its cDNA contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1890 bp encoding a 629 amino acid protein, which has a DNA-binding domain (DBD) and a ligand-binding domain (LBD)...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935164/elevated-expression-of-neuropeptide-signaling-genes-in-the-eyestalk-ganglia-and-y-organ-of-gecarcinus-lateralis-individuals-that-are-refractory-to-molt-induction
#12
Natalie L Pitts, Hanna M Schulz, Stephanie R Oatman, Donald L Mykles
Molting is induced in decapod crustaceans via multiple leg autotomy (MLA) or eyestalk ablation (ESA). MLA removes five or more walking legs, which are regenerated and become functional appendages at ecdysis. ESA eliminates the primary source of molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), which suppress the production of molting hormones (ecdysteroids) from the molting gland or Y-organ (YO). Both MLA and ESA are effective methods for molt induction in Gecarcinus lateralis. However, some G...
December 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916758/role-of-the-venus-kinase-receptor-in-the-female-reproductive-physiology-of-the-desert-locust-schistocerca-gregaria
#13
Cynthia Lenaerts, Jolien Palmans, Elisabeth Marchal, Rik Verdonck, Jozef Vanden Broeck
Venus kinase receptors (VKR) are a subfamily of invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases, which have only recently been discovered. They contain an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain and an extracellular Venus FlyTrap domain. VKRs have been functionally and pharmacologically characterized in only two invertebrate species, namely the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni and the mosquito Aedes aegypti, where they play a crucial role in oogenesis. Here, we report the characterization of a VKR in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893182/the-dynamic-landscape-of-gene-regulation-during-bombyx-mori-oogenesis
#14
Qiang Zhang, Wei Sun, Bang-Yong Sun, Yang Xiao, Ze Zhang
BACKGROUND: Oogenesis in the domestic silkworm (Bombyx mori) is a complex process involving previtellogenesis, vitellogenesis and choriogenesis. During this process, follicles show drastic morphological and physiological changes. However, the genome-wide regulatory profiles of gene expression during oogenesis remain to be determined. RESULTS: In this study, we obtained time-series transcriptome data and used these data to reveal the dynamic landscape of gene regulation during oogenesis...
September 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872696/the-light-cycle-controls-the-hatching-rhythm-in-bombyx-mori-via-negative-feedback-loop-of-the-circadian-oscillator
#15
Hui Tao, Xue Li, Jian-Feng Qiu, Heng-Jiang Liu, Da-Yan Zhang, Feng Chu, Yanghu Sima, Shi-Qing Xu
Hatching behavior is a key target in silkworm (Bombyx mori) rearing, especially for the control of Lepidoptera pests. According to previous research, hatching rhythms appear to be controlled by a clock mechanism that restricts or "gates" hatching to a particular time. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Under 12-h light:12-h dark photoperiod (LD) conditions, the transcriptional levels of the chitinase5 (Cht5) and hatching enzyme-like (Hel) genes, as well as the enzymatic activities of their gene products, oscillated in time with ambient light cycles, as did the transcriptional levels of the cryptochrome 1, cryptochrome 2, period (per), and timeless genes, which are key components of the negative feedback loop of the circadian rhythm...
October 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867986/ecdysteroids-production-in-plant-in-vitro-cultures
#16
REVIEW
Barbara Thiem, Małgorzata Kikowska, Michał P Maliński, Dariusz Kruszka, Marta Napierała, Ewa Florek
Ecdysteroids are secondary metabolites, widely distributed in the animal and plant kingdoms. They have a wide range of pharmacological effects in vertebrates, including mammals, most of which are beneficial for humans. Therefore, they have become compounds of interest for the pharmaceutical industry due to their adaptogenic, anabolic, hypoglycaemic, hypocholesterolaemic and antimicrobial activities, which are still being researched. Nowadays, ecdysteroids are present as active ingredients in bodybuilding supplements...
2017: Phytochemistry Reviews: Proceedings of the Phytochemical Society of Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866256/evaluation-of-ecdysteroid-antisera-for-a-competitive-enzyme-immunoassay-and-extraction-procedures-for-the-measurement-of-mosquito-ecdysteroids
#17
David A McKinney, Michael R Strand, Mark R Brown
Ecdysteroid hormones regulate several aspects of insect development and reproduction. The predominant ecdysteroids produced by insects including mosquitoes are ecdysone (E) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). The ability to measure E and 20E titers is essential for many studies, but few sensitive, low cost options are currently available for doing so. To address this deficiency, we developed a new enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA). In the first part of the study, we compared the affinity of two new antisera named EAB25 and EAB27 to other available ecdysteroid antisera...
November 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860304/multiple-mirnas-jointly-regulate-the-biosynthesis-of-ecdysteroid-in-the-holometabolous-insects-chilo-suppressalis
#18
Kang He, Yang Sun, Huamei Xiao, Chang Ge, Fei Li, Zhaojun Han
The accurate rise and fall of active hormones is important for insect development. The ecdysteroids must be cleared in a timely manner. However, the mechanism of suppressing the ecdysteroid biosynthesis at the right time remains unclear. Here, we sequenced a small RNA library of Chilo suppressalis and identified 300 miRNAs in this notorious rice insect pest. Microarray analysis yielded 54 differentially expressed miRNAs during metamorphosis development. Target prediction and in vitro dual-luciferase assays confirmed that seven miRNAs (two conserved and five novel miRNAs) jointly targeted three Halloween genes in the ecdysteroid biosynthesis pathway...
December 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854664/hyperecdysonism-in-the-formosan-subterranean-termite-and-eastern-subterranean-termite-isoptera-rhinotermitidae
#19
Nan-Yao Su, Erin J Monteagudo
Effects of ecdysone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), and an ecdysone agonist, halofenozide, were tested against the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, and the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), in a 12-d no choice assay. Approximately 22-26% of R. flavipes and C. formosanus exhibited symptoms of hyperecdysonism, that is, "jackknife" position, when exposed to ecdysone and 20E at 1,000 ppm, respectively. High mortalities were recorded for both termite species in ecdysone and 20E at 100 and 1,000 ppm, but only at 10,000 ppm for halofenizide...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842223/an-essential-role-of-rieske-domain-oxygenase-neverland-in-the-molting-cycle-of-black-tiger-shrimp-penaeus-monodon
#20
Ponsit Sathapondecha, Sakol Panyim, Apinunt Udomkit
Molting is an important process for development and growth in arthropods. In crustaceans, molt is regulated by ecdysteroids or molting hormones that are synthesized in Y-organs. However, ecdysteroid biosynthesis pathway in crustaceans and its participating enzymes have not been well studied so far. In this study, a Rieske domain oxygenase, the enzyme that acts as cholesterol 7,8-dehydrogenase by converting cholesterol to 7-dehydrocholesterol in the first step of the ecdysteroid biosynthesis was characterized in black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon...
August 24, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
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