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Katherine C Crocker, Mark D Hunter
An animal's phenotype may be shaped by its genes, but also reflects its own environment and often that of its parents. Nongenetic parental effects are often mediated by steroid hormones, and operate between parents and offspring through mechanisms that are well described in vertebrate and model systems. However, less is understood about the strength and frequency of hormone mediated nongenetic parental effects across more than one generation of descendants, and in nonmodel systems. Here we show that the concentration of active ecdysteroid hormones provided by a female house cricket (Acheta domesticus) affects the growth rate of her offspring...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Megan E Roegner, Hsiang-Yin Chen, R Douglas Watson
Existing data indicate that a Ca2+ signal stimulates ecdysteroid hormone production by crustacean molting glands (Y-organs). Ca2+ signaling is dependent on a tightly regulated Ca2+ gradient, with intracellular free Ca2+ maintained at a low basal level (typically sub-micromolar). This is achieved through the action of proteins intrinsic to the plasma membrane and the membranes of organelles. One such protein, the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA), pumps Ca2+ from cytosol to the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum...
June 7, 2018: Gene
Gaia Fumagalli, Giulia Giorgi, Máté Vágvölgyi, Eleonora Colombo, Michael S Christodoulou, Veronica Collico, Davide Prosperi, Franco Dosio, Attila Hunyadi, Monica Montopoli, Mariafrancesca Hyeraci, Alessandra Silvani, Giordano Lesma, Lisa Dalla Via, Daniele Passarella
Heteronanoparticles (H-NPs) consisting of conjugates characterized by a squalene tail linked to doxorubicin and ecdysteroid derivatives are presented. Biological evaluation on A2780ADR cell line confirms not only the maintenance of the activity of the parental drug but also the ability to overcome cancer resistance. The in vitro cell uptake was demonstrated, and the involvement of an endosomal-mediated pathway was suggested.
May 10, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Lucie Vaufrey, Christine Balducci, René Lafont, Claude Prigent, Stéphanie Le Bras
In metazoans, organisms arising from a fertilized egg, the embryo will develop through multiple series of cell divisions, both symmetric and asymmetric, leading to differentiation. Aurora A is a serine threonine kinase highly involved in such divisions. While intensively studied at the cell biology level, its function in the development of a whole organism has been neglected. Here we investigated the pleiotropic effect of Aurora A loss-of-function in Drosophila larval early development. We report that Aurora A is required for proper larval development timing control through direct and indirect means...
May 9, 2018: Developmental Biology
S Shyamal, S Das, A Guruacharya, D L Mykles, D S Durica
The intermolt crustacean Y-organ (YO) maintains a basal state mediated by pulsatile release of molt inhibiting hormone (MIH), a neuropeptide produced in the eyestalk ganglia, inhibiting YO ecdysteroidogenesis. Reduction of MIH results in YO activation and the animal enters premolt. In the crab, Gecarcinus lateralis, molting was induced by eyestalk ablation (ESA). ESA animals were injected with either rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, or DMSO vehicle at Day 0. YOs were harvested at 1, 3, and 7 days post-ESA and processed for high throughput RNA sequencing...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Karla B Jaramillo, Miriam Reverter, Paul O Guillen, Grace McCormack, Jenny Rodriguez, Frédéric Sinniger, Olivier P Thomas
Zoantharians represent a group of marine invertebrates widely distributed from shallow waters to the deep sea. Despite a high diversity and abundance in the rocky reefs of the Pacific Ocean, very few studies have been reported on the diversity of this group in the Tropical Eastern Pacific coasts. While molecular techniques recently clarified some taxonomic relationships within the order, the taxonomy of zoantharians is still highly challenging due to a lack of clear morphological characters and confusing use of different data in previous studies...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tamy Portillo Rodriguez, Joshua D Mast, Tom Hartl, Tom Lee, Peter Sand, Ethan O Perlstein
N-glycanase 1 (NGLY1) Deficiency is a rare monogenic multi-system disorder first described in 2014. NGLY1 is evolutionarily conserved in model organisms. Here we conducted a natural history study and chemical-modifier screen on the Drosophila melanogaster NGLY1 homolog, Pngl. We generated a new fly model of NGLY1 Deficiency, engineered with a nonsense mutation in Pngl at codon 420 that results in a truncation of the C-terminal carbohydrate-binding PAW domain. Homozygous mutant animals exhibit global development delay, pupal lethality and small body size as adults...
May 7, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Zhengfei Wang, Yuze Bai, Daizhen Zhang, Boping Tang
Osmoregulation is an important mechanism by which euryhaline crustaceans regulate osmotic and ionic concentrations. The Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) is a strong osmoregulating animal model among crustacean species, as it can maintain its hemolymph composition and survives well in either seawater or freshwater. Osmoregulation by E. sinensis during physiological adaptation has been studied extensively. However, the genetic basis of osmoregulation in E. sinensis for acclimating to changing salinities remains unclear...
May 4, 2018: Genetica
Priscila Karla F Santos, Natalia de Souza Araujo, Elaine Françoso, Alexandre Rizzo Zuntini, Maria Cristina Arias
BACKGROUND: Diapause is a natural phenomenon characterized by an arrest in development that ensures the survival of organisms under extreme environmental conditions. The process has been well documented in arthropods. However, its molecular basis has been mainly studied in species from temperate zones, leaving a knowledge gap of this phenomenon in tropical species. In the present study, the Neotropical and solitary bee Tetrapedia diversipes was employed as a model for investigating diapause in species from tropical zones...
April 27, 2018: BMC Genomics
Qing-Wei Meng, Qing-Yu Xu, Pan Deng, Kai-Yun Fu, Wen-Chao Guo, Guo-Qing Li
In the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, juvenile hormone (JH) is critical for the control of species-specific size. However, whether the basic helix-loop-helix/Per-Arnt-Sim domain receptor methoprene-tolerant (Met) is involved remains unconfirmed. In the present paper, we found that RNA interference (RNAi)-aided knockdown of Met gene (LdMet) lowered the larval and pupal fresh weights and shortened the larval development period in the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Dietary introduction of JH into the LdMet RNAi larvae rescued neither the decreased weights nor the reduced development phase, even though JH ingestion by control larvae extended developmental time and caused large pupae...
June 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Eric Gismondi
In amphipods, growth, development and reproduction are mediated by the molt, which is a hormonally controlled process and which, therefore, could be impacted by endocrine disruption compounds (EDC). The molt process is controlled by both X-organ (XO) and Y-organ (YO) through a variety of hormones and receptors including the molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) and the ecdysteroid receptor (EcR). However, although many studies were devoted to characterize MIH and EcR in crustaceans, only few works evaluated their variations under EDCs exposures...
August 30, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
B P Girish, C H Swetha, M Srilatha, M Hemalatha, P Sreenivasula Reddy
The possible involvement of 13-cis retinoic acid (CRA) in the regulation of ovarian development in Oziotelphusa senex senex was investigated. Injection of CRA, into avitellogenic crabs significantly increased ovarian index, oocyte diameter and ovarian vitellogenin levels. Injection of CRA also resulted in a significant increase in the secretory rates of mandibular organs and Y-organs and circulatory levels of the methyl farnesoate and ecdysteroids. Further, administration of CRA into avitellogenic crabs produced higher amounts of Retinoid X Receptor, Ecdysteroid Receptor, E75 and vitellogenin mRNAs in the hepatopancreas...
April 12, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Andrew Bradley Nuss, Mark R Brown, Upadhyayula Suryanarayana Murty, Monika Gulia-Nuss
Lymphatic filariasis, commonly known as elephantiasis, is a painful and profoundly disfiguring disease. Wuchreria bancrofti (Wb) is responsible for >90% of infections and the remainder are caused by Brugia spp. Mosquitoes of the genera Culex (in urban and semi-urban areas), Anopheles (in rural areas of Africa and elsewhere), and Aedes (in Pacific islands) are the major vectors of W. bancrofti. A preventive chemotherapy called mass drug administration (MDA), including albendazole with ivermectin or diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) is used in endemic areas...
April 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Cong Zhang, Xiao-Zhen Yang, Min-Jie Xu, Gen-Yong Huang, Qian Zhang, Yong-Xu Cheng, Long He, Hong-Yu Ren
In the pond culture of juvenile Eriocheir sinensis , a high limb-impairment rate seriously affects the culture success. Therefore, it is particularly important to artificially promote limb regeneration. This study evaluated the effects of melatonin on cheliped regeneration, digestive ability, and immunity, as well as its relationship with the eyestalk. It was found that the injection of melatonin significantly increased the limb regeneration rate compared with the saline group ( P < 0.05). The qRT-PCR results of growth-related genes showed that the level of EcR-mRNA (ecdysteroid receptor) and Chi-mRNA (chitinase) expression was significantly increased following the melatonin injection, while the expression of MIH-mRNA (molt-inhibiting hormone) was significantly decreased ( P < 0...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Lynn M Riddiford, James W Truman, Aljoscha Nern
The development of the adult optic lobe (OL) of Drosophila melanogaster is directed by a wave of ingrowth of the photoreceptors over a 2-day period at the outset of metamorphosis, which is accompanied by the appearance of the pupal-specific transcription factor Broad-Z3 (Br-Z3) and expression of early drivers in OL neurons. During this time, there are pulses of ecdysteroids that time the metamorphic events. At the outset, the transient appearance of juvenile hormone (JH) prevents precocious development of the OL caused by the ecdysteroid peak that initiates pupariation, but the artificial maintenance of JH after this time misdirects subsequent development...
April 23, 2018: Biology Open
Éverton L Vogt, Jorge F A Model, Anapaula S Vinagre
Organotins (OTs) are considered some of the most toxic chemicals introduced into aquatic environments by anthropogenic activities. They are widely used for agricultural and industrial purposes and as antifouling additives on boat hull's paints. Even though the use of OTs was banned in 2008, elevated levels of OTs can still be detected in aquatic environments. OTs' deleterious effects upon wildlife and experimental animals are well documented and include endocrine disruption, immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity, genotoxicity, and metabolic dysfunction...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Reshma John, P P Shajitha, Aneesha Devassy, Linu Mathew
20-Hydroxyecdysone is one of the most common ecdysteroids in plants with potential therapeutic applications. In this study, cell suspension cultures of Achyranthes aspera were raised in shake flasks to investigate the production of 20-hydroxyecdysone. The quantification and characterization of 20-hydroxyecdysone in the cultures were done by High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Liquid Chromatography-quadrupole time-of- flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF) analyses. For raising the suspension, calli initiated from in vitro grown leaf explants were cultured in liquid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium augmented with combinations of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (1 mg L-1 ) and α-naphthaleneacetic acid (1 mg L-1 )...
March 2018: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Birgitte Nilsson, Benni Winding Hansen
Like 41 other calanoid copepods, Acartia tonsa, are capable of inducing embryonic quiescence when experiencing unfavorable environmental conditions. The ecdysone-signaling cascade is known to have a key function in developmental processes like embryogenesis and molting of arthropods, including copepods. We examined the role of ecdysteroid-phosphate phosphatase (EPPase), ecdysone receptor (EcR), ß fushi tarazu transcription factor 1 (ßFTZ-F1), and the ecdysteroid-regulated early gene E74 (E74), which represent different levels of the ecdysone-signaling cascade in our calanoid model organism...
2018: PloS One
Arnold De Loof
Are sex and gende r interchangeable terms? In classical biology, both are sometimes but not always used on an equal basis for some groups of animals. However, for our own species the Homo sapiens, they are not. A major question is why are there only two types of gametes (sperm- and egg cells), two types of sex steroids, (androgens and estrogens in vertebrates, and two types of ecdysteroids in insects), while the reproduction-related behaviour of the gamete producers displays a much greater variability than just two prominent forms, namely heterosexual males and heterosexual females? It indicates that in addition to a few sex-determining genes ( = the first pillar), other factors play a role...
2018: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Kristen A Lycett, J Sook Chung, Joseph S Pitula
In the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, early studies suggested a relationship between smaller crabs, which molt more frequently, and higher rates of infection by the dinoflagellate parasite, Hematodinium perezi. In order to better explore the influence of size and molting on infections, blue crabs were collected from the Maryland coastal bays and screened for the presence of H. perezi in hemolymph samples using a quantitative PCR assay. Molt stage was determined by a radioimmunoassay which measured ecdysteroid concentrations in blue crab hemolymph...
2018: PloS One
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