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Ecdysteroids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428023/cyp450s-analysis-across-spiny-lobster-metamorphosis-identifies-a-long-sought-missing-link-in-crustacean-development
#1
Tomer Ventura, Utpal Bose, Quinn P Fitzgibbon, Gregory G Smith, P Nicholas Shaw, Scott F Cummins, Abigail Elizur
Cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) are a rapidly evolving family of enzymes, making it difficult to identify bona fide orthologs with notable lineage-specific exceptions. In ecdysozoans, a small number of the most conserved orthologs include enzymes which metabolize ecdysteroids. Ecdysone pathway components were recently shown in a decapod crustacean but with a notable absence of shade, which is important for converting ecdysone to its active form, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20HE), suggesting that another CYP450 performs a similar function in crustaceans...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421370/the-current-state-of-knowledge-on-the-neuroactive-compounds-that-affect-the-development-mating-and-reproduction-of-spiders-araneae-compared-to-insects
#2
REVIEW
Marta Sawadro, Agata Bednarek, Agnieszka Babczyńska
The neuroendocrine system of insects, including the presence of the main neuroactive compounds, and their role in ontogenesis are probably best understood of all the arthropods. Development, metamorphosis, the maturation of the gonads, vitellogenesis and egg production are regulated by hormones (juvenile hormones, ecdysteroids) and neuropeptides. However, knowledge about their presence and functions in spiders is fragmentary. In this paper, we present a summary of the current data about the juvenile hormones, ecdysteroids and neuropeptides in selected groups of arthropods, with particular emphasis on spiders...
June 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419924/centrifugal-partition-chromatography-in-the-isolation-of-minor-ecdysteroids-from-cyanotis-arachnoidea
#3
Halima Meriem Issaadi, Yu-Chi Tsai, Fang-Rong Chang, Attila Hunyadi
Phytoecdysteroids are known for their various beneficial bioactivities in mammals including a non-hormonal anabolic and adaptogenic effect. Cyanotis arachnoidea extracts are extensively utilized worldwide as ecdysteroid-rich materials for various purposes, e.g. food supplementation, use in agriculture and aquaculture, etc. Preparative chromatography of ecdysteroids requires extensive use of methods of different selectivity, and only a very limited number of papers are available on related application of modern liquid-liquid chromatographic techniques...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417966/the-ecdysis-triggering-hormone-system-is-essential-for-successful-moulting-of-a-major-hemimetabolous-pest-insect-schistocerca-gregaria
#4
Cynthia Lenaerts, Dorien Cools, Rik Verdonck, Lina Verbakel, Jozef Vanden Broeck, Elisabeth Marchal
Insects are enclosed in a rigid exoskeleton, providing protection from desiccation and mechanical injury. To allow growth, this armour needs to be replaced regularly in a process called moulting. Moulting entails the production of a new exoskeleton and shedding of the old one and is induced by a pulse in ecdysteroids, which activates a peptide-mediated signalling cascade. In Holometabola, ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH) is the key factor in this cascade. Very little functional information is available in Hemimetabola, which display a different kind of development characterized by gradual changes...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397606/clock-and-hormonal-controls-of-an-eclosion-gate-in-the-flesh-fly-sarcophaga-crassipalpis
#5
Miki Yamamoto, Koji Nishimura, Sakiko Shiga
The eclosion gate in insect development is controlled by the circadian clock and hormonal cascade. To study mechanisms underlying the eclosion gate, we examined eclosion-timing signals from the circadian clock, and the role of 20-hydroxyecdysone in the eclosion gate of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga crassipalpis. Phase responses of the eclosion rhythm were examined by applying a low-temperature pulse in the day prior to the first eclosion peak. A low-temperature pulse applied about 5.4 h before eclosion advanced an eclosion peak by 0...
April 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385724/on-gonads-and-gadflies-the-estrus-angle
#6
Stephen G Hillier
The first sex steroid to be crystallized was the vertebrate ovarian hormone, estrone - a less potent metabolite of 17βestradiol, which in mammals stimulates the female urge to mate (estrus). The gadfly (Greek oistros) lent its name to the process of estrus, as an insect that bites and torments in classical Greek mythology. With the crystallization of a moult-inducing steroid (ecdysone) from insects, an interesting parallel emerged between mating and moulting in mammals and arthropods. Ecdysterone (potent ecdysone metabolite) has anabolic effects in mammalian muscle cells that can be blocked by selective estrogen receptor-antagonists...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333106/isolation-characterization-and-antiproliferative-activity-of-new-metabolites-from-the-south-african-endemic-red-algal-species-laurencia-alfredensis
#7
Godwin A Dziwornu, Mino R Caira, Jo-Anne de la Mare, Adrienne L Edkins, John J Bolton, Denzil R Beukes, Suthananda N Sunassee
The marine red algae of the genus Laurencia have been widely studied for their structurally diverse and biologically active secondary metabolites. We report here the natural product investigation of the organic extract of a newly identified South African endemic species, Laurencia alfredensis. A sequence of column chromatography, preparative TLC and normal phase HPLC resulted in the isolation of eleven compounds comprising three labdane-type diterpenes (1-3), four polyether triterpenes (4-7), three cholestane-type ecdysteroids (8-10) and a glycolipid (11)...
March 23, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282622/the-effects-of-fipronil-and-the-photodegradation-product-fipronil-desulfinyl-on-growth-and-gene-expression-in-juvenile-blue-crabs-callinectes-sapidus-at-different-salinities
#8
Andrew D Goff, Parichehr Saranjampour, Lauren M Ryan, Michelle L Hladik, Joseph A Covi, Kevin L Armbrust, Susanne M Brander
Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are now widely established to be present in the environment at concentrations capable of affecting wild organisms. Although many studies have been conducted in fish, less is known about effects in invertebrates such as decapod crustaceans. Decapods are exposed to low concentrations of EDCs that may cause infertility, decreased growth, and developmental abnormalities. The objective herein was to evaluate effects of fipronil and its photodegradation product fipronil desulfinyl...
February 28, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260683/endocrine-related-genes-are-altered-by-antibacterial-agent-triclosan-in-chironomus-riparius-aquatic-larvae
#9
Pedro Martínez-Paz, Mónica Morales, Josune Urien, Gloria Morcillo, José Luis Martínez-Guitarte
Triclosan (TCS) is an antibacterial agent widely used in personal care and consumer products and commonly detected in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, the effects of TCS on endocrine-related genes of Chironomus riparius aquatic larvae, a reference organism in aquatic toxicology, were evaluated. Twenty-four-hour in vivo exposures at 10µg/L, 100µg/L, and 1000µg/L TCS revealed that this xenobiotic was able to alter the transcriptional activity of ecdysone receptor gene (EcR), the ultraspiracle gene (usp), the estrogen-related receptor gene (ERR), and the E74 early ecdysone-inducible gene, as measured by real-time RT-PCR...
March 2, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257485/deep-sequencing-of-the-prothoracic-gland-transcriptome-reveals-new-players-in-insect-ecdysteroidogenesis
#10
Takayoshi Nakaoka, Masatoshi Iga, Tetsuya Yamada, Ikumi Koujima, Mika Takeshima, Xiangying Zhou, Yutaka Suzuki, Mari H Ogihara, Hiroshi Kataoka
Ecdysteroids are steroid hormones that induce molting and determine developmental timing in arthropods. In insect larva, the prothoracic gland (PG) is a major organ for ecdysone synthesis and release. Released ecdysone is converted into the active form, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in the peripheral tissues. All processes from ecdysone synthesis and release from the PG to its conversion to 20E are called ecdysteroidogenesis and are under the regulation of numerous factors expressed in the PG and peripheral tissues...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241743/conserved-patterns-of-integrated-developmental-plasticity-in-a-group-of-polyphenic-tropical-butterflies
#11
Erik van Bergen, Dave Osbaldeston, Ullasa Kodandaramaiah, Oskar Brattström, Kwaku Aduse-Poku, Paul M Brakefield
BACKGROUND: Developmental plasticity is thought to have profound macro-evolutionary effects, for example, by increasing the probability of establishment in new environments and subsequent divergence into independently evolving lineages. In contrast to plasticity optimized for individual traits, phenotypic integration, which enables a concerted response of plastic traits to environmental variability, may affect the rate of local adaptation by constraining independent responses of traits to selection...
February 27, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237481/20-hydroxyecdysone-from-dacrycarpus-imbricatus-bark-inhibits-the-proliferation-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia-cells
#12
Trinh Thi Thuy, Nguyen Thanh Tam, Nguyen Thi Hoang Anh, Dang Viet Hau, Dinh Thi Phong, Le Quoc Thang, Sabrina Adorisio, Tran Van Sung, Domenico V Delfino
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the anti-proliferative effects of 20-hydroxyecdysone isolated from the bark of Dacrycarpus imbricatus (Blume) de Laub. METHODS: Column chromatography was used for isolation of compounds from plant material. The structure of the isolated compound was identified by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, including HSQC, HMBC, NOE-difference experiments. The isolated compound was tested for its anti-proliferative activity in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and OCI-AML cells...
February 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196088/transcriptomic-cellular-and-life-history-responses-of-daphnia-magna-chronically-exposed-to-benzotriazoles-endocrine-disrupting-potential-and-molting-effects
#13
Maeva Giraudo, Mélanie Douville, Guillaume Cottin, Magali Houde
Benzotriazoles (BZTs) are ubiquitous aquatic contaminants used in a wide range of industrial and domestic applications from aircraft deicers to dishwasher tablets. Acute toxicity has been reported in aquatic organisms for some of the BZTs but their mode of action remains unknown. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the transcriptomic response of D. magna exposed to sublethal doses of 1H-benzotriazole (BTR), 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole (5MeBTR) and 5-chloro-1H-benzotriazole (5ClBTR) using RNA-sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174130/identification-and-expression-of-nuclear-receptor-genes-and-ecdysteroid-titers-during-nymphal-development-in-the-spider-agelena-silvatica
#14
Yoshiko Honda, Wataru Ishiguro, Mari H Ogihara, Hiroshi Kataoka, DeMar Taylor
Ecdysteroids play an essential role in the regulation of the molting processes of arthropods. Nuclear receptors of the spider Agelena silvatica that showed high homology with other arthropods especially in the functional domains were identified, two isoforms of ecdysone receptor (AsEcRA, AsEcRB), retinoid X receptor (AsRXR) and two isoforms of E75 (AsE75A, AsE75D). AsEcR and AsRXR mRNA did not show major changes in expression but occurred throughout the third instar nymphal stage. AsE75DBD was low or non-existent at first then showed a sudden increase from D7 to D10...
February 4, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139750/myosuppressin-is-involved-in-the-regulation-of-pupal-diapause-in-the-cabbage-army-moth-mamestra-brassicae
#15
Nobuto Yamada, Hiroshi Kataoka, Akira Mizoguchi
Diapause, a programmed developmental arrest, is common in insects, enabling them to survive adverse seasons. It is well established that pupal diapause is regulated by ecdysteroids secreted by the prothoracic glands (PGs), with cessation of ecdysteroid secretion after pupal ecdysis leading to pupal diapause. A major factor regulating the gland activity is prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) secreted from the brain. In our previous study, we demonstrated that the cessation of PTTH release after pupal ecdysis resulted in the inactivation of the PGs, leading to pupal diapause in the cabbage army moth Mamestra brassicae...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126483/the-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-ace-gene-family-of-bombyx-mori
#16
Hai-Yan Yan, Kazuei Mita, Xia Zhao, Yoshikazu Tanaka, Minoru Moriyama, Huabin Wang, Masashi Iwanaga, Hideki Kawasaki
We previously reported regarding an ecdysone-inducible angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene. We found another four ACE genes in the Bombyx genome. The present study was undertaken to clarify the evolutionally changed function of the ACE of Bombyx mori. Core regions of deduced amino acid sequences of ACE genes were compared with those of other insect ACE genes. Five Bombyx genes have the conserved Zn(2+)-binding-site motif (HEXXH); however, BmAcer4 has only one and BmAcer3 has no catalytic ligand. BmAcer1 and BmAcer2 were expressed in several organs...
April 15, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125071/backstabbing-p-gp-side-chain-cleaved-ecdysteroid-2-3-dioxolanes-hyper-sensitize-mdr-cancer-cells-to-doxorubicin-without-efflux-inhibition
#17
Attila Hunyadi, József Csábi, Ana Martins, Joseph Molnár, Attila Balázs, Gábor Tóth
P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) over-expression, causing a multi-drug resistant (MDR) phenotype, is a major problem in cancer chemotherapy that urgently requires novel approaches. Our previous studies showed certain ecdysteroid derivatives as promising chemo-sensitizers against MDR and non-MDR cancer cell lines while also exerting mild to moderate inhibition of P-gp function. Here we report the preparation of a set of substituted 2,3-dioxolane derivatives of poststerone, a known in vivo metabolite of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E)...
January 25, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121379/identification-of-ecdysteroidogenic-enzyme-genes-and-their-expression-during-pupal-diapause-in-the-cabbage-armyworm-mamestra-brassicae
#18
M H Ogihara, H Ikeda, N Yamada, J Hikiba, T Nakaoka, Y Fujimoto, Y Suzuki, K Saito, A Mizoguchi, H Kataoka
In this study, we identified ecdysteroidogenic enzymes in the cabbage armyworm, Mamestra brassicae, and demonstrated reduced expression of these genes during diapause. Some insects employ a temporary developmental arrest, diapause, to survive in severe environments. The titres of the moulting hormone ecdysteroid were reduced in diapause pupae of M. brassicae; therefore, ecdysteroidogenesis might be suppressed by a diapause-specific mechanism. To clarify expression changes of ecdysteroidogenic enzyme genes during diapause in M...
January 25, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069934/steroid-signaling-in-mature-follicles-is-important-for-drosophila-ovulation
#19
Elizabeth Knapp, Jianjun Sun
Although ecdysteroid signaling regulates multiple steps in oogenesis, it is not known whether it regulates Drosophila ovulation, a process involving a matrix metalloproteinase-dependent follicle rupture. In this study, we demonstrated that ecdysteroid signaling is operating in mature follicle cells to control ovulation. Moreover, knocking down shade (shd), encoding the monooxygenase that converts ecdysone (E) to the more active 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), specifically in mature follicle cells, blocked follicle rupture, which was rescued by ectopic expression of shd or exogenous 20E...
January 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069422/identification-of-ecdysteroid-receptor-mediated-signaling-pathways-in-the-hepatopancreas-of-the-red-swamp-crayfish-procambarus-clarkii
#20
Baojian Zhu, Lin Tang, Yingying Yu, Huimin Yu, Lei Wang, Cen Qian, Guoqing Wei, Chaoliang Liu
The hepatopancreas of crustaceans plays an important role in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, digestion of food, and biogenesis. In this study, the hepatopancreas transcriptome from the red crayfish Procambarus clarkii was characterized for the first time using high-throughput sequencing, producing approximately 41.4 million reads were obtained. After de novo assembly, 57,363 unigenes with an average length of 725bp were identified, Gene Ontology analysis categorized 22,580 as being involved in biological processes, among which metabolic process and cellular process groups were the most highly enriched...
January 6, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
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