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Eric Gismondi
In amphipods, growth, development and reproduction are mediated by the molt, which is a hormonally controlled process and which, therefore, could be impacted by endocrine disruption compounds (EDC). The molt process is controlled by both X-organ (XO) and Y-organ (YO) through a variety of hormones and receptors including the molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) and the ecdysteroid receptor (EcR). However, although many studies were devoted to characterize MIH and EcR in crustaceans, only few works evaluated their variations under EDCs exposures...
April 12, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
B P Girish, C H Swetha, M Srilatha, M Hemalatha, P Sreenivasula Reddy
The possible involvement of 13-cis retinoic acid (CRA) in the regulation of ovarian development in Oziotelphusa senex senex was investigated. Injection of CRA, into avitellogenic crabs significantly increased ovarian index, oocyte diameter and ovarian vitellogenin levels. Injection of CRA also resulted in a significant increase in the secretory rates of mandibular organs and Y-organs and circulatory levels of the methyl farnesoate and ecdysteroids. Further, administration of CRA into avitellogenic crabs produced higher amounts of Retinoid X Receptor, Ecdysteroid Receptor, E75 and vitellogenin mRNAs in the hepatopancreas...
April 12, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Andrew Bradley Nuss, Mark R Brown, Upadhyayula Suryanarayana Murty, Monika Gulia-Nuss
Lymphatic filariasis, commonly known as elephantiasis, is a painful and profoundly disfiguring disease. Wuchreria bancrofti (Wb) is responsible for >90% of infections and the remainder are caused by Brugia spp. Mosquitoes of the genera Culex (in urban and semi-urban areas), Anopheles (in rural areas of Africa and elsewhere), and Aedes (in Pacific islands) are the major vectors of W. bancrofti. A preventive chemotherapy called mass drug administration (MDA), including albendazole with ivermectin or diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) is used in endemic areas...
April 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Cong Zhang, Xiao-Zhen Yang, Min-Jie Xu, Gen-Yong Huang, Qian Zhang, Yong-Xu Cheng, Long He, Hong-Yu Ren
In the pond culture of juvenile Eriocheir sinensis , a high limb-impairment rate seriously affects the culture success. Therefore, it is particularly important to artificially promote limb regeneration. This study evaluated the effects of melatonin on cheliped regeneration, digestive ability, and immunity, as well as its relationship with the eyestalk. It was found that the injection of melatonin significantly increased the limb regeneration rate compared with the saline group ( P < 0.05). The qRT-PCR results of growth-related genes showed that the level of EcR-mRNA (ecdysteroid receptor) and Chi-mRNA (chitinase) expression was significantly increased following the melatonin injection, while the expression of MIH-mRNA (molt-inhibiting hormone) was significantly decreased ( P < 0...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Lynn M Riddiford, James W Truman, Aljoscha Nern
The development of the adult optic lobe (OL) of Drosophila melanogaster is directed by a wave of ingrowth of the photoreceptors over a two day period at the outset of metamorphosis which is accompanied by the appearance of the pupal-specific transcription factor Broad-Z3 (Br-Z3) and expression of early drivers in OL neurons. During this time, there are pulses of ecdysteroids that time the metamorphic events. At the outset, the transient appearance of juvenile hormone (JH) prevents precocious development of the OL caused by the ecdysteroid peak that initiates pupariation, but the artificial maintenance of JH after this time misdirects subsequent development...
April 4, 2018: Biology Open
Éverton L Vogt, Jorge F A Model, Anapaula S Vinagre
Organotins (OTs) are considered some of the most toxic chemicals introduced into aquatic environments by anthropogenic activities. They are widely used for agricultural and industrial purposes and as antifouling additives on boat hull's paints. Even though the use of OTs was banned in 2008, elevated levels of OTs can still be detected in aquatic environments. OTs' deleterious effects upon wildlife and experimental animals are well documented and include endocrine disruption, immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity, genotoxicity, and metabolic dysfunction...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Reshma John, P P Shajitha, Aneesha Devassy, Linu Mathew
20-Hydroxyecdysone is one of the most common ecdysteroids in plants with potential therapeutic applications. In this study, cell suspension cultures of Achyranthes aspera were raised in shake flasks to investigate the production of 20-hydroxyecdysone. The quantification and characterization of 20-hydroxyecdysone in the cultures were done by High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Liquid Chromatography-quadrupole time-of- flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF) analyses. For raising the suspension, calli initiated from in vitro grown leaf explants were cultured in liquid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium augmented with combinations of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (1 mg L-1 ) and α-naphthaleneacetic acid (1 mg L-1 )...
March 2018: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Birgitte Nilsson, Benni Winding Hansen
Like 41 other calanoid copepods, Acartia tonsa, are capable of inducing embryonic quiescence when experiencing unfavorable environmental conditions. The ecdysone-signaling cascade is known to have a key function in developmental processes like embryogenesis and molting of arthropods, including copepods. We examined the role of ecdysteroid-phosphate phosphatase (EPPase), ecdysone receptor (EcR), ß fushi tarazu transcription factor 1 (ßFTZ-F1), and the ecdysteroid-regulated early gene E74 (E74), which represent different levels of the ecdysone-signaling cascade in our calanoid model organism...
2018: PloS One
Arnold De Loof
Are sex and gende r interchangeable terms? In classical biology, both are sometimes but not always used on an equal basis for some groups of animals. However, for our own species the Homo sapiens, they are not. A major question is why are there only two types of gametes (sperm- and egg cells), two types of sex steroids, (androgens and estrogens in vertebrates, and two types of ecdysteroids in insects), while the reproduction-related behaviour of the gamete producers displays a much greater variability than just two prominent forms, namely heterosexual males and heterosexual females? It indicates that in addition to a few sex-determining genes ( = the first pillar), other factors play a role...
2018: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Kristen A Lycett, J Sook Chung, Joseph S Pitula
In the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, early studies suggested a relationship between smaller crabs, which molt more frequently, and higher rates of infection by the dinoflagellate parasite, Hematodinium perezi. In order to better explore the influence of size and molting on infections, blue crabs were collected from the Maryland coastal bays and screened for the presence of H. perezi in hemolymph samples using a quantitative PCR assay. Molt stage was determined by a radioimmunoassay which measured ecdysteroid concentrations in blue crab hemolymph...
2018: PloS One
Shi-Hong Gu, Gen Li, Hsiao-Yen Hsieh, Pei-Ling Lin, Sheng Li
In this study, phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) by the prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) was investigated in prothoracic glands (PGs) of the silkworm, Bombyx mori . Results showed that JNK phosphorylation was stimulated by the PTTH in time- and dose-dependent manners. In vitro activation of JNK phosphorylation in PGs by the PTTH was also confirmed in an in vivo experiment, in which a PTTH injection greatly increased JNK phosphorylation in PGs of day-6 last instar larvae. JNK phosphorylation caused by PTTH stimulation was greatly inhibited by U73122, a potent and specific inhibitor of phospholipase C (PLC) and an increase in JNK phosphorylation was also detected when PGs were treated with agents (either A23187 or thapsigargin) that directly elevated the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, thereby indicating involvement of PLC and Ca2+ ...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Xianyu Lin, Guy Smagghe
Organismal development is a complex process as it requires coordination of many aspects to grow into fit individuals, such as the control of body size and organ growth. Therefore, the mechanisms of precise control of growth are essential for ensuring the growth of organisms at a correct body size and proper organ proportions during development. The control of the growth rate and the duration of growth (or the cessation of growth) are required in size control. The insulin signaling pathway and the elements involved are essential in the control of growth...
February 16, 2018: Peptides
Paul O Guillen, Kevin Calabro, Karla B Jaramillo, Cristobal Dominguez, Grégory Genta-Jouve, Jenny Rodriguez, Olivier P Thomas
Despite a large occurrence, especially over the Pacific Ocean, the chemical diversity of marine invertebrates belonging to the order Zoantharia is largely underexplored. For the two species of the genus Antipathozoanthus no chemical study has been reported so far. The first chemical investigation of Antipathozoanthus hickmani collected at the Marine Protected Area "El Pelado", Santa Elena, Ecuador, led to the isolation of four new ecdysteroid derivatives named ecdysonelactones. The structures of ecdysonelactones A-D ( 1 - 4 ) were determined based on their spectroscopy data, including 1D and 2D NMR and HRMS...
February 11, 2018: Marine Drugs
Fumihiko Igarashi, Mari H Ogihara, Masatoshi Iga, Hiroshi Kataoka
Dietary sterols including cholesterol and phytosterols are essential substrates for insect steroid hormone (ecdysteroid) synthesis in the prothoracic glands (PGs). In a silkworm Bombyx mori, one of the model species of insects, the steroidogenesis has been well demonstrated that cholesterol biotransformation into ecdysone in the PG cells. Because insects lack the ability to synthesize cellular sterol de novo, lipoprotein, lipophorin (Lp), has been thought to be the major cholesterol supply source; however, details of cholesterol behavior from Lp to the PG cells has not been analyzed till date...
January 31, 2018: Steroids
Joshua B Benoit, Veronika Michalkova, Elise M Didion, Yanyu Xiao, Aaron A Baumann, Geoffrey M Attardo, Serap Aksoy
Tsetse flies are important vectors of human and animal trypanosomiasis. Ability to reduce tsetse populations is an effective means of disease control. Lactation is an essential component of tsetse's viviparous reproductive physiology and requires a dramatic increase in the expression and synthesis of milk proteins by the milk gland organ in order to nurture larval growth. In between each gonotrophic cycle, tsetse ceases milk production and milk gland tubules undergo a nearly two-fold reduction in width (involution)...
January 31, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jingjing Xu, Amit Roy, Subba Reddy Palli
Juvenile hormones (JH) and ecdysteroids regulate many biological and metabolic processes. CREB-binding protein (CBP) is a transcriptional co-regulator with histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity. Therefore, CBP is involved in activation of many transcription factors that regulate expression of genes associated with postembryonic development in insects. However, the function of CBP in JH action in insects is not well understood. Hence, we studied the role of CBP in JH action in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum and the Tribolium cell line...
January 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Meng-Yi Zhang, Dong Wei, Ran Li, Hong-Ting Jia, Yu-Wei Liu, Clauvis Nji Tizi Taning, Jin-Jun Wang, Guy Smagghe
In insects, glutamine synthetase (GS), a key enzyme in the synthesis of glutamine, has been reported to be associated with embryonic development, heat shock response, and fecundity regulation. However, little is known about the influence of GS on postembryonic development. In this study, we demonstrate that blocking the activity of GS in the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) with use of a GS-specific inhibitor (L-methionine S-sulfoximine), led to a significant delay in larval development, pupal weight loss, and inhibition of pupation...
April 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Hans C Kelstrup, Klaus Hartfelder, Tiago Falcon Lopes, Theresa C Wossler
The emergence of queens and workers from solitary antecedents mark a major evolutionary transition in the history of life. The solitary progressive provisioning wasp Synagris cornuta, a member of the subfamily Eumeninae (basal to eusocial vespid wasps), alternates between behavioral states characterized as queenlike and worker-like. Akin to a queen in eusocial wasps, a S. cornuta female initiates construction of a cell into which she oviposits and then, similar to a worker, cares for the brood as it develops...
February 2018: American Naturalist
Camila R Paludo, Cristiano Menezes, Eduardo A Silva-Junior, Ayrton Vollet-Neto, Andres Andrade-Dominguez, Gleb Pishchany, Lily Khadempour, Fabio S do Nascimento, Cameron R Currie, Roberto Kolter, Jon Clardy, Mônica T Pupo
The larval stage of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona depilis must consume a specific brood cell fungus in order to continue development. Here we show that this fungus is a member of the genus Zygosaccharomyces and provides essential steroid precursors to the developing bee. Insect pupation requires ecdysteroid hormones, and as insects cannot synthesize sterols de novo, they must obtain steroids in their diet. Larval in vitro culturing assays demonstrated that consuming ergosterol recapitulates the developmental effects on S...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Máté Vágvölgyi, Ana Martins, Ágnes Kulmány, István Zupkó, Tamás Gáti, András Simon, Gábor Tóth, Attila Hunyadi
Multidrug resistance is a widespread problem among various diseases and cancer is no exception. We had previously described the chemo-sensitizing activity of ecdysteroid derivatives with low polarity on drug susceptible and multi-drug resistant (MDR) cancer cells. We have also shown that these molecules have a marked selectivity towards the MDR cells. Recent studies on the oximation of various steroid derivatives indicated remarkable increase in their antitumor activity, but there is no related bioactivity data on ecdysteroid oximes...
January 20, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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