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Ecdysteroids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631993/ovarian-ecdysteroid-biosynthesis-and-female-germline-stem-cells
#1
Tomotsune Ameku, Yuto Yoshinari, Ruriko Fukuda, Ryusuke Niwa
The germline stem cells (GSCs) are critical for gametogenesis throughout the adult life. Stem cell identity is maintained by local signals from a specialized microenvironment called the niche. However, it is unclear how systemic signals regulate stem cell activity in response to environmental cues. In our previous article, we reported that mating stimulates GSC proliferation in female Drosophila. The mating-induced GSC proliferation is mediated by ovarian ecdysteroids, whose biosynthesis is positively controlled by Sex peptide signaling...
February 8, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627423/severe-developmental-timing-defects-in-the-prothoracicotropic-hormone-ptth-deficient-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#2
Miwa Uchibori-Asano, Takumi Kayukawa, Hideki Sezutsu, Tetsuro Shinoda, Takaaki Daimon
The insect neuropeptide prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) triggers the biosynthesis and release of the molting hormone ecdysone in the prothoracic gland (PG), thereby controlling the timing of molting and metamorphosis. Despite the well-documented physiological role of PTTH and its signaling pathway in the PG, it is not clear whether PTTH is an essential hormone for ecdysone biosynthesis and development. To address this question, we established and characterized a PTTH knockout line in the silkworm, Bombyx mori...
June 13, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610907/insulin-like-growth-factor-igf-like-peptide-and-20-hydroxyecdysone-regulate-the-growth-and-development-of-the-male-genital-disk-through-different-mechanisms-in-the-silkmoth-bombyx-mori
#3
Daiki Fujinaga, Yusuke Kohmura, Naoki Okamoto, Hiroshi Kataoka, Akira Mizoguchi
It is well established that ecdysteroids play pivotal roles in the regulation of insect molting and metamorphosis. However, the mechanisms by which ecdysteroids regulate the growth and development of adult organs after pupation are poorly understood. Recently, we have identified insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-like peptides (IGFLPs), which are secreted after pupation under the control of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). In the silkmoth, Bombyx mori, massive amounts of Bombyx-IGFLP (BIGFLP) are present in the hemolymph during pupal-adult development, suggesting its importance in the regulation of adult tissue growth...
June 10, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526479/foxo-mediates-the-timing-of-pupation-through-regulating-ecdysteroid-biosynthesis-in-the-red-flour-beetle-tribolium-castaneum
#4
Xianyu Lin, Na Yu, Guy Smagghe
The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), the major developmental hormone in insects, controls all the developmental transitions including ecdysis and metamorphosis. In our study with last larval stages of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, dsRNA-mediated gene silencing of Forkhead box protein O (FoxO) resulted in reduced food intake and larval mass and this agreed with a reduction in the expression of insulin signaling-related genes (insulin-like peptides 2, 3, 4, and chico). Interestingly, we also observed a significant delay in the moment of the pupation and these FoxO-silenced larvae then died at the middle pupal stage...
May 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502740/isolation-of-an-insulin-like-peptide-from-the-asian-malaria-mosquito-anopheles-stephensi-that-acts-as-a-steroidogenic-gonadotropin-across-diverse-mosquito-taxa
#5
Andrew B Nuss, Mark R Brown
Many insulin-like peptides (ILPs) have been identified in insects, yet only a few were isolated in their native form for structural and functional studies. Antiserum produced to ILP3 in Aedes aegypti was used in a radioimmunoassay to monitor the purification of an ILP from heads of adult An. stephensi and recognized the ILP in other immunoassays. The structure of the purified peptide matched that predicted for the ILP3 in this species. The native form stimulated ecdysteroid production by ovaries isolated from non-blood fed females...
May 11, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497253/effects-of-juvenile-hormone-analogue-methoprene-and-20-hydroxyecdysone-on-reproduction-in-polygonia-c-aureum-lepidoptera-nymphalidae-in-relation-to-adult-diapause
#6
Satoshi Hiroyoshi, Gadi V P Reddy, Jun Mitsuhashi
We investigated the effects of juvenile hormone analogue (methoprene) and 20-hydroxyecdysone on female and male reproduction in a nymphalid butterfly, Polygonia c-aureum. This butterfly has a facultative adult diapause controlled by the corpora allata and brain. Methoprene seems to terminate reproductive diapause, although transplantation experiments indicate that the activity of the corpora allata does not affect male mating behavior Endo (Dev Growth Differ 15:1-10, 1973a), suggesting that the brain may be involved in diapause...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493870/functional-male-accessory-glands-and-fertility-in-drosophila-require-novel-ecdysone-receptor
#7
Vandana Sharma, Anuj K Pandey, Ajay Kumar, Snigdha Misra, Himanshu P K Gupta, Snigdha Gupta, Anshuman Singh, Norene A Buehner, Kristipati Ravi Ram
In many insects, the accessory gland, a secretory tissue of the male reproductive system, is essential for male fertility. Male accessory gland is the major source of proteinaceous secretions, collectively called as seminal proteins (or accessory gland proteins), which upon transfer, manipulate the physiology and behavior of mated females. Insect hormones such as ecdysteroids and juvenoids play a key role in accessory gland development and protein synthesis but little is known about underlying molecular players and their mechanism of action...
May 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479230/characterization-of-synthetic-ecdysteroid-analogues-as-functional-mimics-of-brassinosteroids-in-plant-growth
#8
Jutiporn Thussagunpanit, Kanapol Jutamanee, Sureeporn Homvisasevongsa, Apichart Suksamrarn, Ayumi Yamagami, Takeshi Nakano, Tadao Asami
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant steroidal hormones that play important roles in many stages of plant growth. Several plant species produce ecdysteroids, which are known as insect molting steroid hormones. In this study, we evaluated the biological activities of three hydroxysteroidal compounds, 20-hydroxyecdysone (ECD), 7,8-dihydro-8α-20-hydroxyecdysone (DHECD), and 7,8-dihydro-5α,8α-20-hydroxyecdysone (α-DHECD), and compared their activities with that of brassinolide (BL), the most potent BR. In rice, DHECD and α-DHECD enhanced the degree of lamina inclination, as do BRs...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448012/protocols-for-visualizing-steroidogenic-organs-and-their-interactive-organs-with-immunostaining-in-the-fruit-fly-drosophila-melanogaster
#9
Eisuke Imura, Yuto Yoshinari, Yuko Shimada-Niwa, Ryusuke Niwa
In multicellular organisms, a small group of cells is endowed with a specialized function in their biogenic activity, inducing a systemic response to growth and reproduction. In insects, the larval prothoracic gland (PG) and the adult female ovary play essential roles in biosynthesizing the principal steroid hormones called ecdysteroids. These ecdysteroidogenic organs are innervated from the nervous system, through which the timing of biosynthesis is affected by environmental cues. Here we describe a protocol for visualizing ecdysteroidogenic organs and their interactive organs in larvae and adults of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which provides a suitable model system for studying steroid hormone biosynthesis and its regulatory mechanism...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428023/cyp450s-analysis-across-spiny-lobster-metamorphosis-identifies-a-long-sought-missing-link-in-crustacean-development
#10
Tomer Ventura, Utpal Bose, Quinn P Fitzgibbon, Gregory G Smith, P Nicholas Shaw, Scott F Cummins, Abigail Elizur
Cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) are a rapidly evolving family of enzymes, making it difficult to identify bona fide orthologs with notable lineage-specific exceptions. In ecdysozoans, a small number of the most conserved orthologs include enzymes which metabolize ecdysteroids. Ecdysone pathway components were recently shown in a decapod crustacean but with a notable absence of shade, which is important for converting ecdysone to its active form, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20HE), suggesting that another CYP450 performs a similar function in crustaceans...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421370/the-current-state-of-knowledge-on-the-neuroactive-compounds-that-affect-the-development-mating-and-reproduction-of-spiders-araneae-compared-to-insects
#11
REVIEW
Marta Sawadro, Agata Bednarek, Agnieszka Babczyńska
The neuroendocrine system of insects, including the presence of the main neuroactive compounds, and their role in ontogenesis are probably best understood of all the arthropods. Development, metamorphosis, the maturation of the gonads, vitellogenesis and egg production are regulated by hormones (juvenile hormones, ecdysteroids) and neuropeptides. However, knowledge about their presence and functions in spiders is fragmentary. In this paper, we present a summary of the current data about the juvenile hormones, ecdysteroids and neuropeptides in selected groups of arthropods, with particular emphasis on spiders...
June 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419924/centrifugal-partition-chromatography-in-the-isolation-of-minor-ecdysteroids-from-cyanotis-arachnoidea
#12
Halima Meriem Issaadi, Yu-Chi Tsai, Fang-Rong Chang, Attila Hunyadi
Phytoecdysteroids are known for their various beneficial bioactivities in mammals including a non-hormonal anabolic and adaptogenic effect. Cyanotis arachnoidea extracts are extensively utilized worldwide as ecdysteroid-rich materials for various purposes, e.g. food supplementation, use in agriculture and aquaculture, etc. Preparative chromatography of ecdysteroids requires extensive use of methods of different selectivity, and only a very limited number of papers are available on related application of modern liquid-liquid chromatographic techniques...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417966/the-ecdysis-triggering-hormone-system-is-essential-for-successful-moulting-of-a-major-hemimetabolous-pest-insect-schistocerca-gregaria
#13
Cynthia Lenaerts, Dorien Cools, Rik Verdonck, Lina Verbakel, Jozef Vanden Broeck, Elisabeth Marchal
Insects are enclosed in a rigid exoskeleton, providing protection from desiccation and mechanical injury. To allow growth, this armour needs to be replaced regularly in a process called moulting. Moulting entails the production of a new exoskeleton and shedding of the old one and is induced by a pulse in ecdysteroids, which activates a peptide-mediated signalling cascade. In Holometabola, ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH) is the key factor in this cascade. Very little functional information is available in Hemimetabola, which display a different kind of development characterized by gradual changes...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397606/clock-and-hormonal-controls-of-an-eclosion-gate-in-the-flesh-fly-sarcophaga-crassipalpis
#14
Miki Yamamoto, Koji Nishimura, Sakiko Shiga
The eclosion gate in insect development is controlled by the circadian clock and hormonal cascade. To study mechanisms underlying the eclosion gate, we examined eclosion-timing signals from the circadian clock, and the role of 20-hydroxyecdysone in the eclosion gate of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga crassipalpis. Phase responses of the eclosion rhythm were examined by applying a low-temperature pulse in the day prior to the first eclosion peak. A low-temperature pulse applied about 5.4 h before eclosion advanced an eclosion peak by 0...
April 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385724/on-gonads-and-gadflies-the-estrus-angle
#15
Stephen G Hillier
The first sex steroid to be crystallized was the vertebrate ovarian hormone, estrone - a less potent metabolite of 17βestradiol, which in mammals stimulates the female urge to mate (estrus). The gadfly (Greek oistros) lent its name to the process of estrus, as an insect that bites and torments in classical Greek mythology. With the crystallization of a moult-inducing steroid (ecdysone) from insects, an interesting parallel emerged between mating and moulting in mammals and arthropods. Ecdysterone (potent ecdysone metabolite) has anabolic effects in mammalian muscle cells that can be blocked by selective estrogen receptor-antagonists...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333106/isolation-characterization-and-antiproliferative-activity-of-new-metabolites-from-the-south-african-endemic-red-algal-species-laurencia-alfredensis
#16
Godwin A Dziwornu, Mino R Caira, Jo-Anne de la Mare, Adrienne L Edkins, John J Bolton, Denzil R Beukes, Suthananda N Sunassee
The marine red algae of the genus Laurencia have been widely studied for their structurally diverse and biologically active secondary metabolites. We report here the natural product investigation of the organic extract of a newly identified South African endemic species, Laurencia alfredensis. A sequence of column chromatography, preparative TLC and normal phase HPLC resulted in the isolation of eleven compounds comprising three labdane-type diterpenes (1-3), four polyether triterpenes (4-7), three cholestane-type ecdysteroids (8-10) and a glycolipid (11)...
March 23, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282622/the-effects-of-fipronil-and-the-photodegradation-product-fipronil-desulfinyl-on-growth-and-gene-expression-in-juvenile-blue-crabs-callinectes-sapidus-at-different-salinities
#17
Andrew D Goff, Parichehr Saranjampour, Lauren M Ryan, Michelle L Hladik, Joseph A Covi, Kevin L Armbrust, Susanne M Brander
Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are now widely established to be present in the environment at concentrations capable of affecting wild organisms. Although many studies have been conducted in fish, less is known about effects in invertebrates such as decapod crustaceans. Decapods are exposed to low concentrations of EDCs that may cause infertility, decreased growth, and developmental abnormalities. The objective herein was to evaluate effects of fipronil and its photodegradation product fipronil desulfinyl...
May 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260683/endocrine-related-genes-are-altered-by-antibacterial-agent-triclosan-in-chironomus-riparius-aquatic-larvae
#18
Pedro Martínez-Paz, Mónica Morales, Josune Urien, Gloria Morcillo, José Luis Martínez-Guitarte
Triclosan (TCS) is an antibacterial agent widely used in personal care and consumer products and commonly detected in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, the effects of TCS on endocrine-related genes of Chironomus riparius aquatic larvae, a reference organism in aquatic toxicology, were evaluated. Twenty-four-hour in vivo exposures at 10µg/L, 100µg/L, and 1000µg/L TCS revealed that this xenobiotic was able to alter the transcriptional activity of ecdysone receptor gene (EcR), the ultraspiracle gene (usp), the estrogen-related receptor gene (ERR), and the E74 early ecdysone-inducible gene, as measured by real-time RT-PCR...
June 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257485/deep-sequencing-of-the-prothoracic-gland-transcriptome-reveals-new-players-in-insect-ecdysteroidogenesis
#19
Takayoshi Nakaoka, Masatoshi Iga, Tetsuya Yamada, Ikumi Koujima, Mika Takeshima, Xiangying Zhou, Yutaka Suzuki, Mari H Ogihara, Hiroshi Kataoka
Ecdysteroids are steroid hormones that induce molting and determine developmental timing in arthropods. In insect larva, the prothoracic gland (PG) is a major organ for ecdysone synthesis and release. Released ecdysone is converted into the active form, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in the peripheral tissues. All processes from ecdysone synthesis and release from the PG to its conversion to 20E are called ecdysteroidogenesis and are under the regulation of numerous factors expressed in the PG and peripheral tissues...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241743/conserved-patterns-of-integrated-developmental-plasticity-in-a-group-of-polyphenic-tropical-butterflies
#20
Erik van Bergen, Dave Osbaldeston, Ullasa Kodandaramaiah, Oskar Brattström, Kwaku Aduse-Poku, Paul M Brakefield
BACKGROUND: Developmental plasticity is thought to have profound macro-evolutionary effects, for example, by increasing the probability of establishment in new environments and subsequent divergence into independently evolving lineages. In contrast to plasticity optimized for individual traits, phenotypic integration, which enables a concerted response of plastic traits to environmental variability, may affect the rate of local adaptation by constraining independent responses of traits to selection...
February 27, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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