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Toddler communication

Manuela Rigo, Jane Willcox, Alison Spence, Anthony Worsley
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity among Australian pre-school children is a major concern with links to poor health outcomes. One contributing factor is excess energy intake. Sugar-sweetened beverages are energy-dense, nutrient-poor, readily available and have been implicated in the increasing prevalence of obesity. Furthermore, preschooler beverage consumption may develop into dietary habits that track into adulthood. There is little research on factors influencing parents' decision-making when serving beverages to their preschoolers, or on mothers' perceptions of preschooler's beverages...
March 19, 2018: Nutrients
Zoë W Hawks, Natasha Marrus, Anne L Glowinski, John N Constantino
Previous research has suggested that behavioral comorbidity is the rule rather than the exception in autism. The present study aimed to trace the respective origins of autistic and general psychopathologic traits-and their association-to infancy. Measurements of autistic traits and early liability for general psychopathology were assessed in 314 twins at 18 months, ascertained from the general population using birth records. 222 twins were re-evaluated at 36 months. Standardized ratings of variation in social communication at 18 months were highly heritable and strongly predicted autistic trait scores at 36 months...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Gregor Kachel, Richard Moore, Michael Tomasello
In the current study, 24- to 27-month-old children (N = 37) used pointing gestures in a cooperative object choice task with either peer or adult partners. When indicating the location of a hidden toy, children pointed equally accurately for adult and peer partners but more often for adult partners. When choosing from one of three hiding places, children used adults' pointing to find a hidden toy significantly more often than they used peers'. In interaction with peers, children's choice behavior was at chance level...
March 12, 2018: Developmental Science
Xing Lu, Zhaobing Qin
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate early auditory performance, speech perception and language skills in Mandarin-speaking prelingual deaf children in the first two years after they received a cochlear implant (CI) and analyse the effects of possible associated factors. METHODS: The Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (ITMAIS)/Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (MAIS), Mandarin Early Speech Perception (MESP) test and Putonghua Communicative Development Inventory (PCDI) were used to assess auditory and language outcomes in 132 Mandarin-speaking children pre- and post-implantation...
April 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Lauren P Lawson, Rucha Joshi, Josephine Barbaro, Cheryl Dissanayake
Relatively few studies have examined gender differences in infants and toddlers, and most focus on clinically referred samples or high-risk infant cohorts. The current study aimed to examine gender differences in early autism manifestations and cognitive development in a community-ascertained sample. In total, 46 males and 21 females with ASD were seen at approximately 24 and 48 months of age. No significant gender differences were observed on overall cognitive ability, verbal skills, non-verbal skills, overall autism severity, or restricted repetitive behaviours...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Arianna Bello, Daniela Onofrio, Lorena Remi, Cristina Caselli
This study analyzed the communicative, linguistic and symbolic skills in Italian Late Talking (LT) toddlers. Thirty-five participants were identified through a language-screening program at 29 months by using the Italian version of MB-CDI W&S Short Form. Cognitive, communicative and linguistic skills were evaluated 5 later, with indirect and direct tools. The MB-CDI WS Short Form revealed, in LT children, weakness in gesture production, decontextualized comprehension, verbal imitation, symbolic play, and phonological accuracy...
February 23, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Caroline Floccia, Thomas D Sambrook, Claire Delle Luche, Rosa Kwok, Jeremy Goslin, Laurence White, Allegra Cattani, Emily Sullivan, Kirsten Abbot-Smith, Andrea Krott, Debbie Mills, Caroline Rowland, Judit Gervain, Kim Plunkett
The majority of the world's children grow up learning two or more languages. The study of early bilingualism is central to current psycholinguistics, offering insights into issues such as transfer and interference in development. From an applied perspective, it poses a universal challenge to language assessment practices throughout childhood, as typically developing bilingual children usually underperform relative to monolingual norms when assessed in one language only. We measured vocabulary with Communicative Development Inventories for 372 24-month-old toddlers learning British English and one Additional Language out of a diverse set of 13 (Bengali, Cantonese, Dutch, French, German, Greek, Hindi-Urdu, Italian, Mandarin, Polish, Portuguese, Spanish, and Welsh)...
March 2018: Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development
Shruti Dave, Ann M Mastergeorge, Lesley B Olswang
Responsive parental communication during an infant's first year has been positively associated with later language outcomes. This study explores responsivity in mother-infant communication by modeling how change in guiding language between 7 and 11 months influences toddler vocabulary development. In a group of 32 mother-child dyads, change in early maternal guiding language positively predicted child language outcomes measured at 18 and 24 months. In contrast, a number of other linguistic variables - including total utterances and non-guiding language - did not correlate with toddler vocabulary development, suggesting a critical role of responsive change in infant-directed communication...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Child Language
Bingrui Zhou, Qiong Xu, Huiping Li, Ying Zhang, Yi Wang, Sally J Rogers, Xiu Xu
To evaluate the effects of a 26-week, high-intensity, parent-implemented Early Start Denver Model (P-ESDM) intervention on developmental outcomes, severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and parental stress of ASD toddlers in China. Subjects in P-ESDM group (n = 23) were recruited from 1.5- to 2.5-year-old toddlers who were screened positive in Xuhui and Minhang Districts and were diagnosed with ASD. A community (comparison) group of age-matched toddlers with ASD (n = 20) was recruited from other areas...
February 7, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Suvi-Maria Vehkavuori, Suvi Stolt
Early screening of children at risk for language difficulties is challenging. This study aimed to analyze the specificity and sensitivity of two screening methods at 2;0 years of age. In addition, the matter of what kind of information the use of word combinations and parental concern provide for screening was analyzed. The subjects were 78 children. The screening methods used were the Finnish versions of the short-form version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (FinCDI-SF) and the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales, Developmental Profile, Infant-Toddler Checklist (FinCSBS)...
January 18, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Gordan Grahovac, Tatiana Pundy, Tadanori Tomita
OBJECTIVES: Chiari I malformation has been a well-recognized clinical entity; however, its occurrence among infants and toddlers is unusual. Their clinical presentations may be different from other age groups due to their lack of effective verbal communication. The authors analyze their personal series of patients focusing on symptomatology and MRI characteristics. Treatment methods, results, and outcome are analyzed in order to identify appropriate surgical management among infants and toddlers with Chiari I malformation...
February 2, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
D A Goh, D Gan, J Kung, S Baron-Cohen, C Allison, H Chen, S M Saw, Y S Chong, V S Rajadurai, K H Tan, P C L Shek, F Yap, B F P Broekman, I Magiati
Current research on children's autistic traits in the general population relies predominantly on caregiver-report, yet the extent to which individual, caregiver or demographic characteristics are associated with informants' ratings has not been sufficiently explored. In this study, caregivers of 396 Singaporean two-year-olds from a birth cohort study completed the Quantitative Checklist for Autism in Toddlers. Children's gender, cognitive functioning and birth order, maternal age, and ethnic group membership were not significant predictors of caregiver-reported autistic traits...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Jennifer R Frey, Ann P Kaiser, Nancy J Scherer
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of child speech intelligibility and rate on caregivers' linguistic responses. DESIGN: This study compared the language use of children with cleft palate with or without cleft lip (CP±L) and their caregivers' responses. Descriptive analyses of children's language and caregivers' responses and a multilevel analysis of caregiver responsivity were conducted to determine whether there were differences in children's productive language and caregivers' responses to different types of child utterances...
February 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
Nicole Megan Edwards
Objectives There continues to be a pressing need to increase referrals to family-centered early intervention (EI) for more eligible infants and toddlers with inadequate consideration for the role of senior, mentoring professionals. Methods To address a dearth in our understanding, a subset of Pediatric Residency Training Directors shared views on EI, referral, and relevant training efforts. Results Participating directors primarily reported limited understanding of EI. Greater knowledge of family-focused EI correlated with its perceived helpfulness (r = ...
January 18, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Weiwei Qin, Zhenhuan Du, Youhe Gao
Change is the most fundamental property of a biomarker. In contrast to the blood, which is under homeostatic controls, urine reflects changes in the body earlier and is more sensitive, thus making it a better biomarker source. Moreover, drawing blood from infants and toddlers is difficult and not tolerated well. For patients limited by language, communicating their chief complaint is difficult. Thus, monitoring biomarkers in urine can provide valuable clues for the diagnosis of diseases, especially pediatric diseases...
January 4, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Monica Roosa Ordway, Thomas J Mcmahon, Lourdes De Las Heras Kuhn, Nancy E Suchman
The process of mental health intervention implementation with vulnerable populations is not well-described in the literature. The authors worked as a community-partnered team to adapt and pilot an empirically supported intervention program for mothers of infants and toddlers in an outpatient mental health clinic that primarily serves a low-income community. We used qualitative ethnographic methods to document the adaption of an evidence-based intervention, Mothering from the Inside Out, and the pilot implementation in a community mental health clinic...
December 28, 2017: Infant Mental Health Journal
Marte Bjørk, Bettina Riedel, Olav Spigset, Gyri Veiby, Eivind Kolstad, Anne Kjersti Daltveit, Nils Erik Gilhus
Importance: Strategies to prevent autism in children exposed to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) during pregnancy are important. Objective: To explore whether folic acid supplementation and folate status in pregnancy are associated with reduced risk of autistic traits owing to in utero AED exposure. Design, Setting, and Participants: The population-based, prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study approached Norwegian-speaking women attending routine ultrasonographic examinations from June 1999 through December 31, 2008 (163 844 of 277 702 women refused)...
December 26, 2017: JAMA Neurology
C Chang, N N Qiu, T Xiao, X Xiao, K K Chu, Y Li, Q R Wu, H Fang, X Y Ke
Objective: To conduct a follow-up investigation of structural changes of the corpus callosum fibers of toddlers (2 to 5 years of age) with autism spectrum disorder(ASD) and to explore the associations with clinical symptoms. Method: In this prospective randomized controlled study, ASD children who were diagnosed in the Child Mental Health Research Center, Nanjing Brain Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University from May 2011 to November 2012 were included in the ASD group, and developmentally delayed children were included in the control group (DD group)...
December 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Laura J Conway, Penny A Levickis, Jodie Smith, Fiona Mensah, Melissa Wake, Sheena Reilly
BACKGROUND: Identifying risk and protective factors for language development informs interventions for children with developmental language disorder (DLD). Maternal responsive and intrusive communicative behaviours are associated with language development. Mother-child interaction quality may influence how children use these behaviours in language learning. AIMS: To identify (1) communicative behaviours and interaction quality associated with language outcomes; (2) whether the association between a maternal intrusive behaviour (directive) and child language scores changed alongside a maternal responsive behaviour (expansion); and (3) whether interaction quality modified these associations...
March 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Trine Staak Olesen, Dorthe Bleses, Helle Raun Andersen, Philippe Grandjean, Hanne Frederiksen, Fabio Trecca, Niels Bilenberg, Henriette Boye Kyhl, Louise Dalsager, Inge Kjær Jensen, Anna-Maria Andersson, Tina Kold Jensen
BACKGROUND: Phthalates are a group of chemicals found in a variety of consumer products. They have anti-androgenic properties and human studies have reported associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and neuropsychological development in the offspring despite different cognitive tests, different ages and varying timing of exposure. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between prenatal phthalate exposure and language development in children aged 20-36months...
January 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
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