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toxic hair

Anatoly V Skalny, Elena V Zhukovskaya, Galina N Kireeva, Margarita G Skalnaya, Andrey R Grabeklis, Ivan V Radysh, Rosa A Shakieva, Alexandr A Nikonorov, Alexey A Tinkov
The primary aim of the study is assessment of hair and whole blood trace element and mineral levels in children living in a polluted area near a copper smelter (Karabash) and two control locations (Varna, Tomino) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The obtained data indicates that both blood and hair As, Pb, and Fe levels in children living in Karabash significantly exceeded the control values. Whole blood levels of copper in children living in Varna exceeded that in Tomino (p = 0.155) and Karabash (p < 0...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Hafiz Mamoon Rehman, Zahid Hussain Shah, Muhammad Amjad Nawaz, Muhammad Qadir Ahmad, Seung Hwan Yang, Kang Hee Kho, Gyuhwa Chung
This review provides an insight into the beta-cyanoalanine synthase pathway in higher plants for cyanide (CN) detoxification and describes how it contributes to various physiological activities, such as plant growth and development. In higher plants, CN is produced as a natural toxin through the biosynthesis of ethylene and camalexin, the degradation of glucosinolates and cyanogenic glycosides, the oxidation of amino acids, and the metabolism of glyoxylate and hydroxylamine. To maintain cellular homeostasis by maintaining CN at non-toxic levels, plants have evolved four different biochemical pathways: the β-cyanoalanine synthase pathway (beta-CASP), the thiocyanate pathway, the formamide hydrolase pathway, and the natural release of CN through volatilization...
October 15, 2016: Planta
Ximena Fadic, Fabián Placencia, Ana María Domínguez, Francisco Cereceda-Balic
There is a current tendency to develop and apply environmentally friendly techniques that meet the requirements of green analytical chemistry as an alternative to conventional analytical methods. For toxicity evaluation, these alternatives may be found in bioassays such as Tradescantia. This technique, developed in the 1980s, is highly sensitive to evaluate environmental mutagens, simple and cheap. In this paper, the sensibility of both the Tradescantia micronucleus bioassay (Trad-MCN) and the Tradescantia stamen hair bioassay (Trad-SH) were studied for carbaryl, dimethoate and iprodione, common agricultural and domestic pesticides that are currently used in Chile, which have never been tested with such bioassays...
October 10, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Rachana Singh, Samiksha Singh, Parul Parihar, Rohit K Mishra, Durgesh K Tripathi, Vijay P Singh, Devendra K Chauhan, Sheo M Prasad
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated inevitably in the redox reactions of plants, including respiration and photosynthesis. In earlier studies, ROS were considered as toxic by-products of aerobic pathways of the metabolism. But in recent years, concept about ROS has changed because they also participate in developmental processes of plants by acting as signaling molecules. In plants, ROS regulate many developmental processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation, programmed cell death, seed germination, gravitropism, root hair growth and pollen tube development, senescence, etc...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Christoph Rochlitz, Martin Bigler, Roger von Moos, Jürg Bernhard, Klazien Matter-Walstra, Andreas Wicki, Khalil Zaman, Sandro Anchisi, Marc Küng, Kyung-Jae Na, Daniela Bärtschi, Markus Borner, Tamara Rordorf, Daniel Rauch, Andreas Müller, Thomas Ruhstaller, Marcus Vetter, Andreas Trojan, Ursula Hasler-Strub, Richard Cathomas, Ralph Winterhalder
BACKGROUND: Adding bevacizumab to chemotherapy improves response rates and progression-free survival (PFS) in metastatic breast cancer (mBC). We aimed to demonstrate decreased toxicity with metronomic chemotherapy/bevacizumab compared with paclitaxel/bevacizumab. METHODS: This multicenter, randomized phase III trial compared bevacizumab with either paclitaxel (arm A) or daily oral capecitabine-cyclophosphamide (arm B) as first-line treatment in patients with HER2-negative advanced breast cancer...
October 10, 2016: BMC Cancer
Shulin Shi, Tao Wang, Ziru Chen, Zhong Tang, Zhongchang Wu, David E Salt, Dai-Yin Chao, Fangjie Zhao
Rice is a major dietary source of the toxic metalloid arsenic. Reducing its accumulation in rice grain is of critical importance to food safety. Rice roots take up arsenate and arsenite depending on the prevailing soil conditions. The first step of arsenate detoxification is its reduction to arsenite, but the enzyme(s) catalyzing this reaction in rice remains unknown. Here, we identify OsHAC1;1 and OsHAC1;2 as arsenate reductases in rice. OsHAC1;1 and OsHAC1;2 are able to complement an Escherichia coli mutant lacking the endogenous arsenate reductase and to reduce arsenate to arsenite...
October 4, 2016: Plant Physiology
Pavel Lobachevsky, Trevor Leong, Patricia Daly, Jai Smith, Nickala Best, Jonathan Tomaszewski, Ella R Thompson, Na Li, Ian G Campbell, Roger F Martin, Olga A Martin
A small percentage of cancer radiotherapy patients develop abnormally severe side effects as a consequence of intrinsic radiosensitivity. We analysed the γ-H2AX response to ex-vivo irradiation of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and plucked eyebrow hair follicles from 16 patients who developed severe late radiation toxicity following radiotherapy, and 12 matched control patients. Longer retention of the γ-H2AX signal and lower colocalization efficiency of repair factors in over-responding patients confirmed that DNA repair in these individuals was compromised...
September 28, 2016: Cancer Letters
Kaian Amorim Teles, Patrícia Medeiros-Souza, Francisco Aires Correa Lima, Bruno Gedeon de Araújo, Rodrigo Aires Correa Lima
Cyclophosphamide (CPM) is an alkylating agent widely used for the treatment of malignant neoplasia and which can be used in the treatment of multiple rheumatic diseases. Medication administration errors may lead to its reduced efficacy or increased drug toxicity. Many errors occur in the administration of injectable drugs. The present study aimed at structuring a routine for cyclophosphamide use, as well as creating a document with pharmacotherapeutic guidelines for the patient. The routine is schematized in three phases: pre-chemotherapy (pre-ChT), administration of cyclophosphamide, and post-chemotherapy (post-ChT), taking into account the drugs to be administered before and after cyclophosphamide in order to prevent adverse effects, including nausea and hemorrhagic cystitis...
September 17, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
Xi Tian, Samuel B Warner, Kyle T Wagner, Joseph M Caster, Tian Zhang, Patricia Ohana, Alberto A Gabizon, Andrew Z Wang
PURPOSE: To examine the effect of radiation on in vitro drug activation and release of Promitil, a pegylated liposomal formulation of a mitomycin C (MMC) lipid-based prodrug; and examine the efficacy and toxicity of Promitil with concurrent radiation in colorectal cancer models. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Promitil was obtained from Lipomedix Pharmaceuticals (Jerusalem, Israel). We tested the effects of radiation on release of active MMC from Promitil in vitro. We next examined the radiosensitization effect of Promitil in vitro...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Wei Zhu, Rong Zuo, Rongfang Zhou, Junyan Huang, Minqiang Tang, Xiaohui Cheng, Yueying Liu, Chaobo Tong, Yang Xiang, Caihua Dong, Shengyi Liu
Iron toxicity is a nutrient disorder that severely affects crop development and yield in some soil conditions. Vacuolar detoxification of metal stress is an important strategy for plants to survive and adapt to this adverse environment. Vacuolar iron transporter (VIT) members are involved in this process and play essential roles in iron storage and transport. In this study, we identified a rapeseed VIT gene BnMEB2 (BnaC07g30170D) homologs to Arabidopsis MEB2 (At5g24290). Transient expression analysis revealed that BnMEB2 was localized to the vacuolar membrane...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Alain Manceau, Mironel Enescu, Alexandre Simionovici, Martine Lanson, Maria Gonzalez-Rey, Mauro Rovezzi, Rémi Tucoulou, Pieter Glatzel, Kathryn L Nagy, Jean-Paul Bourdineaud
Humans are contaminated by mercury in different forms from different sources. In practice, contamination by methylmercury from fish consumption is assessed by measuring hair mercury concentration, whereas exposure to elemental and inorganic mercury from other sources is tested by analysis of blood or urine. Here, we show that diverse sources of hair mercury at concentrations as low as 0.5 ppm can be individually identified by specific coordination to C, N, and S ligands with high energy-resolution X-ray absorption spectroscopy...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Ioanna Katsikantami, Stavros Sifakis, Manolis N Tzatzarakis, Elena Vakonaki, Olga-Ioanna Kalantzi, Aristidis M Tsatsakis, Apostolos K Rizos
Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants which are used in industry as plasticizers and additives in cosmetics. They are classified as Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) which impair the human endocrine system inducing fertility problems, respiratory diseases, childhood obesity and neuropsychological disorders. The aim of this review is to summarize the current state of knowledge on the toxicity that phthalates pose in humans based on human biomonitoring studies conducted over the last decade...
September 23, 2016: Environment International
Monica Gandhi, David V Glidden, Kenneth Mayer, Mauro Schechter, Susan Buchbinder, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Sybil Hosek, Martin Casapia, Juan Guanira, Linda-Gail Bekker, Alexander Louie, Howard Horng, Leslie Z Benet, Albert Liu, Robert M Grant
BACKGROUND: As pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine for the prevention of HIV infection is rolled out internationally, strategies to maintain effectiveness and to minimise adverse effects merit consideration. In this study, we aimed to assess reductions in renal function and predictors of renal toxicity in a large open-label study of PrEP. METHODS: As part of the iPrEx open-label extension (OLE) study, men who have sex with men or transgender women aged 18-70 years who were HIV negative and had participated in three previous PrEP trials from Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, South Africa, Thailand, and the USA were enrolled into an open-label PrEP study...
August 31, 2016: Lancet HIV
Muddathir H Hamad, Ahmed Awad Adeel, Ali Abdu N Alhaboob, Ahmed M Ashri, Mustafa A Salih
This is a case report of acute organophosphate poisoning in a child treated with topical application of Diazinon-60 (WHO Class II toxicity) for head lice (pediculosis capitis). The patient presented with neurological symptoms and signs. After emergency respiratory and circulatory resuscitation the patient underwent dermal decontamination and was treated with atropine, high flow oxygen and pralidoxime. Scanning electron micrographs of scalp hair specimens revealed both viable and empty head lice nits (lice eggs that attach to the hair shaft)...
2016: Sudan J Paediatr
Diana Cryderman, Lisa Letourneau, Fiona Miller, Niladri Basu
The Aamjiwnaang First Nations community is located in Canada's 'Chemical Valley' situated in southwest Ontario near Sarnia. Mercury pollution in the region has been known since the 1940s but little is known about levels in the environment and area residents. The current study, using ecological and human exposure assessment methods, was conducted at the community's request to help fill these gaps. First, Canada's National Pollutant Release Inventory and the U.S. Toxics Release Inventory were queried to investigate mercury releases from area facilities...
September 19, 2016: EcoHealth
Ayşe Tansu Koparal, Rakibe Beklem Bostancıoğlu
How the seeds of Delphinium staphisagria promote hair growth in humans is yet to be discovered. This lack of information leads us to the investigation of hair promoting effects of seeds of Delphinium staphisagria in-vitro. Extract prepared from the Seed of Delphinium staphisagria (ESDS) - traditionally used for hair loss treatment - was selected and tested for the cytotoxic and angiogenic potential in endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human keratinocytes (HaCaT) cells. The effects of extract was determined by using in-vitro colorimetric MTT [3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] cytotoxicity assay...
2016: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
S J E Hwang, R Anforth, G Carlos, P Fernandez-Peñas
Over the past decade, targeted therapies such as BRAF inhibitors, MEK inhibitors and immunotherapies such as anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD1 antibodies have emerged as novel treatments of advanced melanoma. Along with increased use of these therapies, a range of cutaneous adverse events have also emerged, varying from more serious and frequent cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma to mere cosmetic changes such as curly hair or rare severe toxic epidermal necrolysis. Early detection and management of these cutaneous adverse events will aid patients to receive accurate treatment, avoid unnecessary discontinuation of anti-tumour treatment and improve the patient's overall quality of life...
September 15, 2016: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
Ali Gholami, Atefeh Mohsenikia, Saeed Masoum
Formaldehyde is commonly used in detergents and cosmetic products as antibacterial agent and preservative. This substance is unfavorable for human health because it is known to be toxic for humans and causes irritation of eyes and skins. The toxicology studies of this compound indicate risk of detergents and cosmetic formulations with a minimum content of 0.05% free formaldehyde. Therefore, determination of formaldehyde as quality control parameter is very important. In this study, a photoluminescence method was achieved by using 2-methyl acetoacetanilide...
2016: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Peng Jiang, Amrita Ray, Leonard P Rybak, Michael J Brenner
RATIONALE: Oxidative stress plays a critical role in gentamicin-induced hair cell death. Previous work has implicated the cytoplasmic transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) as a potential mediator of drug-induced ototoxicity, but role in aminoglycosides is largely unknown. This study investigated aminoglycosides-induced cell death, exploring contributions of reactive oxygen species and STAT1 pathway in injury and protection. METHODS: Neonatal murine organ of Corti explants from 2 to 3 day postnatal pups (n = 96) were treated with gentamicin at (4 μM, 50 μM) for 4 to 72 hours, with/without protectants...
October 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Ting Li, Lei Wang, Huijie Wang, Shujuan Zhang, Atikan Kawuli, Xiaowei Zhang, Zhiguo Luo, Chunmeng Wang
Background The study was aim to assess the efficacy and safety of sunitinib on 14 Chinese patients with locally unresectable or metastatic Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma (ASPS) at two institutions retrospectively. Methods Patients were treated with 37.5 mg of sunitinib once daily continuously without a scheduled off-treatment period. Dose holds or reductions were recommended for grade 3 AEs but were required for grade 4 AEs. Restarting treatment of sunitinib was allowed when AEs returned back to grade 1 or disappeared...
September 8, 2016: Investigational New Drugs
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