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Bowlby Attachment

B Lavigne, E Audebert-Mérilhou, G Buisson, F Kochman, J P Clément, B Olliac
INTRODUCTION: Depression disorder may become the first cause of morbidity by 2030, according to the World Health Organization. It is actually one of the main causes of disease and handicap in children aged from 10 to 19. The major risk is suicide, whose prevalence is estimated, in France, around 6.7 for 100,000, which is probably underestimated. At present, the discussions about prescription of antidepressants in an adolescent's depression remain intense which is why psychotherapy becomes the first choice of treatment...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
Adelaida Monteoliva, J Miguel A García-Martínez, Antonia Calvo-Salguero
Bowlby's attachment theory suggested that the attachment experiences of early childhood influence adult approaches to close relationships. As a result of these experiences, the child develops typical mental schemas or internal working models. The aim of this study was to analyze how young people with different attachment styles perceive the benefits and costs involved in spending as much time as possible with their partner, and to determine whether their beliefs reflect the internal working models associated with their attachment style...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Psychology
C De Oliveira, H Rahioui, M Smadja, M A Gorsane, F Louppe
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND: The borderline personality disorder is a complex psychiatric disorder that represents a high number of patients in a psychiatric adult service. Even if some therapies have shown to be effective in the therapeutic care of the borderline personality disorder they only target certain symptoms (e.g. anxiety, sadness, self-mutilation). The aim of this paper is to introduce a therapeutic model little known in France: the mentalization based therapy (MBT) developed in 2004 by Bateman and Fonagy...
July 15, 2016: L'Encéphale
Robbie Duschinsky, Monica Greco, Judith Solomon
Research on attachment is widely regarded in sociology and feminist scholarship as politically conservative - oriented by a concern to police families, pathologize mothers and emphasize psychological at the expense of socio-economic factors. These critiques have presented attachment theory as constructing biological imperatives to naturalize contingent, social demands. We propose that a more effective critique of the politically conservative uses of attachment theory is offered by engaging with the 'attachment system' at the level of ontology...
December 2015: Theory, Culture & Society
Koichi Otani, Akihito Suzuki, Yoshihiko Matsumoto, Masanori Enokido
BACKGROUND: Beck's cognitive theory postulates that dysfunctional attitudes predisposing to depression are formed by early negative experiences. Meanwhile, Bowlby's attachment theory contends that distorted working models built through insecure attachment relationships lead to various psychopathologies such as depression. The present study examined the correlations of dysfunctional attitudes about achievement, dependency, and self-control with working models of the self and other, and tried to promote understanding of those dysfunctional attitudes from an attachment perspective...
2016: Annals of General Psychiatry
Lenny van Rosmalen, Frank C P van der Horst, René van der Veer
John Bowlby is generally regarded as the founder of attachment theory, with the help of Mary Ainsworth. Through her Uganda and Baltimore studies Ainsworth provided empirical evidence for attachment theory, and she contributed the notion of the secure base and exploratory behavior, the Strange Situation Procedure and its classification system, and the notion of maternal sensitivity. On closer scrutiny, many of these contributions appear to be heavily influenced by William Blatz and his security theory. Even though Blatz's influence on Ainsworth has been generally acknowledged, this article, partly based on understudied correspondence from several personal archives, is the first to show which specific parts of attachment theory can be traced back directly to Blatz and his security theory...
February 2016: History of Psychology
Hadas Wiseman
OBJECTIVE: This paper focuses on the need for connection as a common core theme at the heart of both close relationships and therapeutic relationships and explores ways to connect these two research domains that have evolved as separate fields of study. Bowlby's attachment theory provides a strong conceptual and empirical base for linking human bonds and bonds in psychotherapy. METHOD: The growing body of research intersecting attachment and psychotherapy (1980-2014) is documented, and meta-analytic studies on attachment-outcome and attachment-alliance links are highlighted...
January 6, 2016: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
Zahava Moked, Anat Drach-Zahavy
AIMS: To examine whether the interdependent attachment style of students is positively related to their support-seeking behaviour during supervision and whether their over-dependent and counter-dependent attachment styles are negatively related to it. Second, to determine whether the mentors' attachment styles moderate the relationship between the students' support-seeking behaviours and their professional competence, such that this relationship is stronger when supervisors are characterized by higher independent attachment style...
February 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Alexandra Pinto, Manuela Veríssimo, Ana Gatinho, António J Santos, Brian E Vaughn
The present study aims to test Bowlby's suggestions concerning relations between the child's attachment quality with parents and subsequently constructed models of self-worth during early childhood. In most research on this question, attachment with mothers is considered in relation to self-worth but the child's attachment with fathers is not. Neither has the peer group been studied as an influence on child self-esteem, in the context of attachment research. This study addresses these relatively unstudied influences on child self-esteem...
2015: Attachment & Human Development
Delia Lenzi, Cristina Trentini, Renata Tambelli, Patrizia Pantano
The attachment and the caregiving system are complementary systems which are active simultaneously in infant and mother interactions. This ensures the infant survival and optimal social, emotional, and cognitive development. In this brief review we first define the characteristics of these two behavioral systems and the theory that links them, according to what Bowlby called the "attachment-caregiving social bond" (Bowlby, 1969). We then follow with those neuroimaging studies that have focused on this particular issue, i...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Marco Bacciagaluppi
Arieti was a great specialist of schizophrenia and Bowlby was the initiator of attachment theory. Working independently on the two sides of the Atlantic, they converged on a range of topics, such as evolutionary theory, mourning, trauma, violence, and therapy as art and science. Later, Bowlby exerted a direct influence on Arieti, which Arieti acknowledged in his Love Can Be Found. Finally, the two authors cooperated in the second edition of the American Handbook of Psychiatry.
September 2015: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
Hannah Saunders, Allyson Kraus, Lavinia Barone, Zeynep Biringen
Attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969) and its limitations are first described. Next, emotional availability (EA; Biringen et al., 1998; Biringen, 2008) is introduced as an expansion upon the original conceptualization of the parent-child attachment relationship. As a construct and as a measure, EA considers the dyadic and emotional qualities of adult-child relationships. EA is predictive of a variety of child outcomes, such as attachment security, emotion regulation, and school readiness. Recently developed programs to enhance adult-child EA are described...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Lane Beckes, Hans IJzerman, Mattie Tops
Attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969/1982) posits the existence of internal working models as a foundational feature of human bonds. Radical embodied approaches instead suggest that cognition requires no computation or representation, favoring a cognition situated in a body in an environmental context with affordances for action (Chemero, 2009; Barrett, 2011; Wilson and Golonka, 2013; Casasanto and Lupyan, 2015). We explore whether embodied approaches to social soothing, interpersonal warmth, separation distress, and support seeking could replace representational constructs such as internal working models with a view of relationship cognition anchored in the resources afforded to the individual by their brain, body, and environment in interaction...
2015: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Lenny Van Rosmalen, René Van der Veer, Frank Van der Horst
The American-Canadian psychologist Mary Ainsworth (1913-1999) developed the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) to measure mother-child attachment and attachment theorists have used it ever since. When Ainsworth published the first results of the SSP in 1969, it seemed a completely novel and unique instrument. However, in this paper we will show that the SSP had many precursors and that the road to such an instrument was long and winding. Our analysis of hitherto little-known studies on children in strange situations allowed us to compare these earlier attempts with the SSP...
2015: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
Roger Kobak, Kristyn Zajac, Joanna Herres, E Stephanie Krauthamer Ewing
The emergence of attachment-based treatments (ABTs) for adolescents highlights the need to more clearly define and evaluate these treatments in the context of other attachment based treatments for young children and adults. We propose a general framework for defining and evaluating ABTs that describes the cyclical processes that are required to maintain a secure attachment bond. This secure cycle incorporates three components: (1) the child or adult's IWM of the caregiver; (2) emotionally attuned communication; and (3) the caregiver's IWM of the child or adult...
2015: Attachment & Human Development
Ahmed Riaz Mohamed, Siyabulela Mkabile
Attachment and attachment-related psychopathology has increasingly gained focus since Bowlby introduced the concept into the clinical repertoire. However, little has been done to explore attachment, or attachment-based interventions, within the context of intellectual disability. Clinical experience, however, has demonstrated significant attachment-related problems in children with intellectual disability. This article explores one such case of a 13-year-old girl with moderate intellectual disability and severe and persistent externalizing behavioural difficulties - biting, in particular...
September 2015: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities: JOID
Tsachi Ein-Dor
Bowlby's (1982) attachment theory has generated an enormous body of research and conceptual elaborations. Although attachment theory and research propose that attachment security provides a person with many adaptive advantages, during all phases of the life cycle, numerous studies indicate that almost half of the human species can be classified as insecurely attached or insecure with respect to attachment. It seems odd that evolution left humans in this vulnerable position, unless there are some advantages to individuals or groups, under at least some conditions, of anxious and avoidant attachment styles...
2014: Frontiers in Psychology
Aner Govrin
Moral psychology once regarded ethics of care as a promising theory. However, there is evidence to suggest that nowadays moral psychology completely ignores ethics of care's various insights. Moreover, ethics of care's core concepts - compassion, dependence, and the importance of early relations to moral development- are no longer considered to be relevant to the development of new theories in the field. In this paper, I will firstly discuss some of the reasons which, over recent years, have contributed to the marginalization of the role of ethics of care in moral psychology...
2014: Frontiers in Psychology
Koichi Otani, Akihito Suzuki, Yoshihiko Matsumoto, Masanori Enokido, Fumikazu Kuwahata, Nana Takahashi
The present study examined the associations of working models of the self and other, one of the key concepts of Bowlby's attachment theory, with the seven dimensions of Cloninger's personality model. The subjects were 542 healthy Japanese volunteers. Working models of the self and other were assessed by the Relationship Scales Questionnaire, and the seven dimensions of personality were evaluated by the Temperament and Character Inventory. In the correlation analysis, the self-model was correlated most strongly with self-directedness (SD) (r=0...
January 2015: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Alessandra Cavalli
This paper attempts to describe how, in the very first months of extra-uterine life, personality structures are formed around notions of personal space, separateness, attachment and individuation. The contribution of a forgotten Hungarian analyst, Imre Hermann, who wrote about the 'clinging reflex', will be explored in relation to the origin of Bowlby's concept of attachment and Rey's theoretical understanding of personal space. Particular attention will be given to transitions, transitional experiences and the development of a sense of internal space...
September 2014: Journal of Analytical Psychology
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