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Pathologic myopia

Kaori Kasahara, Muka Moriyama, Kei Morohoshi, Takeshi Yoshida, Noriaki Simada, Natsuko Nagaoka, Tae Yokoi, Kosei Shinohara, Yuichiro Kaneko, Mitsuki Suga, Kyoko Ohno-Matsui
PURPOSE: To investigate the 6-year outcome of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) to treat eyes with active choroidal neovascularization (CNV) due to pathologic myopia. METHODS: Medical records of 36 eyes of 35 consecutive patients with high myopia (refractive error ≥8 D or axial length ≥26.5 mm) and active CNV, who had been treated with IVB and followed for ≥6 years were analyzed. The factors that predicted the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at 6 years after IVB were determined by multiple regression analyses...
October 10, 2016: Retina
Kyoko Ohno-Matsui
PURPOSE: Despite being a major cause of visual impairment worldwide, pathologic myopia has not been clearly and consistently defined. This lack of a standardized definition has made comparisons among epidemiological studies difficult. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to summarize the definitions of pathologic myopia. METHODS: A literature search was conducted of Pubmed to identify reports presenting definitions of pathologic myopia. RESULTS: Although cut-off values for refractive error and increased axial length have been used in some studies, a definition based solely on such values is considered to just show a 'high degree of myopia'...
October 11, 2016: Retina
Negin Amirshekarizadeh, Hassan Hashemi, Ebrahim Jafarzadehpur, Ali Mirzajani, Abbasali Yekta, Mehdi Khabazkhoob
PURPOSE: To determine the effect of cyclopentolate, tropicamide, and artificial tear drops on higher-order aberrations (HOAs) in normal eyes with OPD-Scan III (Nidek Inc., Tokyo, Japan). METHODS: In this study, 189 eyes of individuals aged 20 to 35 years were selected as samples. Inclusion criteria were a corrected visual acuity of 20/20 or better, a minimum size of about 5 mm for the pupil in the dark, hyperopia and myopia less than 5 D, and astigmatism less than 2 D...
September 30, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
Rosa Dolz-Marco, Kenneth Kato, K Bailey Freund, Lawrence A Yannuzzi
PURPOSE: To report a case of unilateral stellate nonhereditary idiopathic foveomacular retinoschisis (SNIFR) in a young male showing structural changes induced by a Valsalva maneuver. METHODS: Case report of a 26-year-old oboist with SNIFR, including multimodal imaging. Eye-tracked spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was used to compare the retinal architecture at rest and during a Valsalva maneuver. RESULTS: Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography showed macular and peripapillary retinoschisis with no signs of pathologic myopia, optic pit, or vitreoretinal traction...
August 23, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Shivali A Menda, Todd H Driver, Alexandra E Neiman, Seth Blumberg, Ayman Naseri, Jay M Stewart
OBJECTIVE: Investigate risk factors for unplanned return to the operating room after resident-performed cataract surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. SETTING: Institutional. METHODS: Study population: All patients with reoperation within 90 days of resident-performed phacoemulsification were matched to four control eyes which had surgery within 30 days of the reoperation at the same institution. OBSERVATION PROCEDURE: Billing codes were used to identify all patients who underwent resident-performed intended phacoemulsification with intraocular lens placement from January 2005 to December 2010...
September 29, 2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
M Rinaldi, F Semeraro, F Chiosi, A Russo, M R Romano, M C Savastano, R dell'Omo, C Costagliola
BACKGROUND: To demonstrate the efficacy of intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) in combination with reduced-fluence photodynamic therapy (RF-PDT) in patients with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to pathologic myopia. METHODS: Sixty patients affected by myopic CNV (mCNV) were randomized to receive either ranibizumab 0.5 mg monotherapy (RM; n = 20), standard fluence PDT (SF-PDT, n = 20) or RF-PDT combination therapy (n = 20). Subsequently, IVR was injected as needed...
September 28, 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Alvaro Velazquez-Villoria, Sergio Recalde, Jaouad Anter, Jaione Bezunartea, Maria Hernandez-Sanchez, Laura García-García, Elena Alonso, Jose María Ruiz-Moreno, Javier Araiz-Iribarren, Patricia Fernandez-Robredo, Alfredo García-Layana
Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) commonly occurs in age related macular degeneration and pathological myopia patients. In this study we conducted a case-control prospective study including 431 participants. The aim of this study was to determine the potential association between 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in 4 different genetic regions (CFI, COL8A1, LIPC, and APOE), and choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration and the development of choroidal neovascularization in highly myopic eyes of a Caucasian population...
2016: PloS One
Nina Riddell, Loretta Giummarra, Nathan E Hall, Sheila G Crewther
Myopia (short-sightedness) affects 1.45 billion people worldwide, many of whom will develop sight-threatening secondary disorders. Myopic eyes are characterized by excessive size while hyperopic (long-sighted) eyes are typically small. The biological and genetic mechanisms underpinning the retina's local control of these growth patterns remain unclear. In the present study, we used RNA sequencing to examine gene expression in the retina/RPE/choroid across 3 days of optically-induced myopia and hyperopia induction in chick...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Ian G Morgan, Mingguang He, Kathryn A Rose
PURPOSE: To systematically review epidemiologic and laboratory studies on the etiology of high myopia and its links to pathologic myopia. METHODS: Regular Medline searches have been performed for the past 20 years, using "myopia" as the basic search term. The abstracts of all articles have been scrutinized for relevance, and where necessary, translations of articles in languages other than English were obtained. RESULTS: Systematic review shows that there is an epidemic of myopia and high myopia in young adults in East and Southeast Asia, with similar but smaller trends in other parts of the world...
September 8, 2016: Retina
J Willem L Tideman, Qiao Fan, Jan Roelof Polling, Xiaobo Guo, Seyhan Yazar, Anthony Khawaja, René Höhn, Yi Lu, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Kenji Yamashiro, Munemitsu Yoshikawa, Aslihan Gerhold-Ay, Stefan Nickels, Tanja Zeller, Mingguang He, Thibaud Boutin, Goran Bencic, Veronique Vitart, David A Mackey, Paul J Foster, Stuart MacGregor, Cathy Williams, Seang Mei Saw, Jeremy A Guggenheim, Caroline C W Klaver
Previous studies have identified many genetic loci for refractive error and myopia. We aimed to investigate the effect of these loci on ocular biometry as a function of age in children, adolescents, and adults. The study population consisted of three age groups identified from the international CREAM consortium: 5,490 individuals aged <10 years; 5,000 aged 10-25 years; and 16,274 aged >25 years. All participants had undergone standard ophthalmic examination including measurements of axial length (AL) and corneal radius (CR)...
September 9, 2016: Genetic Epidemiology
Kyoko Ohno-Matsui, Micol Alkabes, Cecilia Salinas, Carlos Mateo, Muka Moriyama, Kejia Cao, Takeshi Yoshida
PURPOSE: Pigmentary alterations along the presumed edge of staphyloma in wide-field fundus images have been reported to be highly correlated with the eye shape in three-dimensional magnetic resonance images. The purpose of this study was to analyze Optos images in a large series of highly myopic patients to determine the prevalence, types, and features of staphylomas. METHODS: One thousand and sixty eyes of 541 patients with high myopia (axial length ≥ 26.5 mm) in at least one eye were retrospectively analyzed in Japan and Spain...
August 23, 2016: Retina
Viola A Dohvoma, Emilienne Epée, Stève R Ebana Mvogo, N Sandra Lietcheu, Côme Ebana Mvogo
PURPOSE: To study the relationship between exophthalmometric value (EV) and refractive error in Cameroonian young adults. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective descriptive study was carried out in the ophthalmic unit of the Yaoundé Central Hospital from March to May 2015. Consenting patients aged 20-40 years with no intraocular pathology who were seen for refractive errors were included. Ocular protrusion was measured using the Hertel exophthalmometer. Automatic refraction was done following cycloplegia with cyclopentolate and tropicamide...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
Lala Ceklic, Marion R Munk, Ute Wolf-Schnurrbusch, Margarita Gekkieva, Sebastian Wolf
PURPOSE: To investigate visual and morphological outcome in eyes with MRS and choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to pathologic myopia treated with intravitreal (IVT) ranibizumab. METHODS: Post hoc analysis of the patients included in the RADIANCE trial (n = 277) was performed to evaluate the impact of MRS on the functional outcome in patients with myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV) undergoing intravitreal ranibizumab injections. RESULTS: Prevalence of MRS in pathologic myopia population is 6%...
August 16, 2016: Retina
Lea Querques, Chiara Giuffrè, Federico Corvi, Ilaria Zucchiatti, Adriano Carnevali, Luigi A De Vitis, Giuseppe Querques, Francesco Bandello
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To describe the morphological features of choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) and to report the ability of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) to detect the presence of myopic CNV by means of this new technique. METHODS: Myopic CNV cases were individuated from a pool of patients with pathological myopia consecutively presenting between October 2015 and March 2016. OCT-A images were assessed for classification of morphological features, and to estimate sensitivity and specificity...
August 16, 2016: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Ian G Morgan
Developed countries in East and Southeast Asia are now faced with a high prevalence of high myopia in young adults, and this trend is emerging in other parts of the world. This is likely to lead to increased levels of pathological myopia. Fortunately, several school-based clinical trials have demonstrated that interventions based on increasing the amount of time that children spend outdoors can significantly slow the onset of myopia. I argue that it is time to implement mandatory programs of this kind in school systems, within a framework of regular monitoring of visual acuity, so that those children who become myopic are referred for clinical treatment as soon as possible to slow progression of their myopia towards high and potentially pathological myopia...
September 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Audrey Giocanti-Auregan, Ramin Tadayoni, Typhaine Grenet, Franck Fajnkuchen, Sylvia Nghiem-Buffet, Corinne Delahaye-Mazza, Gabriel Quentel, Salomon Y Cohen
BACKGROUND: To estimate the need for bilateral intravitreal anti-VEGF injections in patients treated for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD), diabetic macular edema (DME), retinal vein occlusion, choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in high myopia, and other causes of CNV. METHODS: All consecutive patients treated with intravitreal anti-VEGF injection over a 1-month period were included in a prospective multicenter survey. The reason for intravitreal anti-VEGF injection and the involvement of the fellow eye in the pathology requiring a treatment with intravitreal anti-VEGF were recorded...
2016: BMC Ophthalmology
Sundar Srilekha, Bhavna Rao, Divya M Rao, D Sudha, Sathya Priya Chandrasekar, A J Pandian, N Soumittra, S Sripriya
Gene mapping of inherited ophthalmic diseases such as congenital cataracts, retinal degeneration, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, myopia, optic atrophy, and eye malformations has shed more light on the disease pathology, identified targets for research on therapeutics, earlier detection, and treatment options for disease management and patient care. This article details the different approaches to gene identification for both Mendelian and complex eye disorders.
July 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
Alexander Karl-Georg Schuster, Joachim Ernst Fischer, Christine Vossmerbaeumer, Urs Vossmerbaeumer
BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows quantitative image analysis of retinal tissue in vivo. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness is widely used for evaluation of retinal nerve fiber rarefaction in several optic neuropathies. This study evaluates associations of pRNFL thickness in healthy adult subjects in order to evaluate influencing factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in a working-age population. Only eyes without detectable ocular pathologies were included in the analysis...
October 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Kosei Shinohara, Muka Moriyama, Noriaki Shimada, Takeshi Yoshida, Kyoko Ohno-Matsui
PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and the characteristics of peripheral pigmented streaks in the eyes with pathologic myopia. METHODS: The widefield fundus images of 375 eyes (203 patients) with pathologic myopia were examined. The characteristics of the pigmented streaks existing in the peripheral fundus were analyzed. The spatial relationships between the steep edge of a staphyloma and the distribution of the streaks were also determined. RESULTS: Peripheral streaks were observed in 165 of the 375 eyes (44...
August 2016: Retina
Teresa Barth, Florian Zeman, Horst Helbig, Isabel Oberacher-Velten
PURPOSE: To assess the etiology, clinical features, and outcome of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in children. METHODS: We retrospectively assessed 10 eyes of 8 patients younger than 18 years diagnosed with CNV. The main clinical parameters included predisposing ocular pathologies, best-corrected visual acuity before and after treatment, characteristics of CNV, and treatment modalities. RESULTS: Two boys and 6 girls with CNV and a mean age of 13...
August 4, 2016: European Journal of Ophthalmology
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