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Separation Anxiety

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338802/separating-common-from-unique-variance-within-emotional-distress-an-examination-of-reliability-and-relations-to-worry
#1
Andrew J Marshall, Emma K Evanovich, Sarah Jo David, Gregory H Mumma
BACKGROUND: High comorbidity rates among emotional disorders have led researchers to examine transdiagnostic factors that may contribute to shared psychopathology. Bifactor models provide a unique method for examining transdiagnostic variables by modelling the common and unique factors within measures. Previous findings suggest that the bifactor model of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) may provide a method for examining transdiagnostic factors within emotional disorders...
January 17, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337001/antidepressant-treatment-duration-in-pediatric-depressive-and-anxiety-disorders-how-long-is-long-enough
#2
Elizabeth E Hathaway, John T Walkup, Jeffrey R Strawn
Anxiety and depressive disorders are common in the pediatric primary care setting, and respond to both psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacologic treatment. However, there are limited data regarding the optimal treatment duration. This article systematically reviews guidelines and clinical trial data related to antidepressant treatment duration in pediatric patients with depressive and anxiety disorders. The extant literature suggests 9-12 months of antidepressant treatment for youth with major depressive disorder...
January 11, 2018: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335151/-tools-to-overcome-anxiety-in-paediatric-surgery
#3
Nolwenn Febvre
An association of caregivers carried out several actions to combat children's anxiety in paediatric surgery, including anaesthetic masks to cover in stickers, a tactile application on the operating pathway and a cuddly toy in the recovery room. These tools help children at the moment of being separated from their parents and all along their care pathway. They also encourage caregivers to adjust their practices to improve the care provided to the families.
January 2018: Soins. Pédiatrie, Puériculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325447/longitudinal-association-of-amyloid-beta-and-anxious-depressive-symptoms-in-cognitively-normal-older-adults
#4
Nancy J Donovan, Joseph J Locascio, Gad A Marshall, Jennifer Gatchel, Bernard J Hanseeuw, Dorene M Rentz, Keith A Johnson, Reisa A Sperling
OBJECTIVE: To understand the role of depressive symptoms in preclinical Alzheimer's disease, it is essential to define their temporal relationship to Alzheimer's proteinopathies in cognitively normal older adults. The study objective was to examine associations of brain amyloid beta and longitudinal measures of depression and depressive symptom clusters in a cognitively normal sample of older adults. METHOD: A total of 270 community-dwelling, cognitively normal elderly individuals underwent baseline Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography (PET) measures of cortical aggregate amyloid beta and annual assessments with the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325145/anxiety-dependent-modulation-of-motor-responses-to-pain-expectancy
#5
Carlotta Fossataro, Giulia Bucchioni, Federico D'Agata, Valentina Bruno, Rosalba Morese, Pierre Krystkowiak, Francesca Garbarini
The relationship between pain expectancy and motor system plays a crucial role in the human defensive system. Here, we took advantage of the inhibitory modulation of the motor pathway to the muscle of the hand receiving painful stimuli, by recording motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) to Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). We employed a classical conditioning paradigm in which neutral (visual and auditory) stimuli were conditioned by pairing either painful or not-painful stimuli (electric shocks) in separated groups...
January 8, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310605/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-skills-training-for-oncologists-and-a-communication-aid-for-patients-to-stimulate-shared-decision-making-about-palliative-systemic-treatment-choice-study-protocol
#6
I Henselmans, E M A Smets, J C J M de Haes, M G W Dijkgraaf, F Y de Vos, H W M van Laarhoven
BACKGROUND: Systemic treatment for advanced cancer offers uncertain and sometimes little benefit while the burden can be high. Hence, treatment decisions require Shared Decision Making (SDM). The CHOICE trial examines the separate and combined effect of oncologist training and a patient communication aid on SDM in consultations about palliative systemic treatment. METHODS: A RCT design with four parallel arms will be adopted. Patients with metastatic or irresectable cancer with a median life expectancy <12 months who meet with a medical oncologist to discuss the start or continuation of palliative systemic treatment are eligible...
January 8, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302206/maternal-separation-does-not-produce-a-significant-behavioral-change-in-mice
#7
Shawn Tan, Hin San Ho, Anna Yoonsu Song, Joey Low, Hyunsoo Shawn Je
Early life adversities together with genetic predispositions have been associated with elevated risks of neuropsychiatric disorders during later life. In order to investigate the underlying mechanisms, many chronic, early-life stress paradigms in multiple animal models have been developed. Previously, studies reported that maternal separation (MS) in the early postnatal stages triggers depression-and/or anxiety-like behaviors in rats. However, similar studies using mice have reported inconsistent behavioral outcomes...
December 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297265/short-term-effects-of-binaural-beats-on-eeg-power-functional-connectivity-cognition-gait-and-anxiety-in-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Gerardo Gálvez, Manuel Recuero, Leonides Canuet, Francisco Del-Pozo
We applied rhythmic binaural sound to Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients to investigate its influence on several symptoms of this disease and on Electrophysiology (Electrocardiography and Electroencephalography (EEG)). We conducted a double-blind, randomized controlled study in which rhythmic binaural beats and control were administered over two randomized and counterbalanced sessions (within-subjects repeated-measures design). Patients ([Formula: see text], age [Formula: see text], stage I-III Hoehn & Yahr scale) participated in two sessions of sound stimulation for 10[Formula: see text]min separated by a minimum of 7 days...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288748/abandoned-prairie-vole-mothers-show-normal-maternal-care-but-altered-emotionality-potential-influence-of-the-brain-corticotropin-releasing-factor-system
#9
Oliver J Bosch, Tobias T Pohl, Inga D Neumann, Larry J Young
When fathers leave the family, mothers are at increased risk of developing depression and anxiety disorders. In biparental, socially monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), sudden bond disruption increases passive stress-coping, indicative of depressive-like behavior, and acts as chronic stressor in both males and females. However, the consequences of separation in lactating prairie vole mothers are unknown. In the present study, following 18 days of cohousing, half of the prairie vole pairs were separated by removing the male...
December 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288745/a-translational-approach-to-the-genetics-of-anxiety-disorders
#10
N W McGregor, J J Dimatelis, P J Van Zyl, S M J Hemmings, C Kinnear, V A Russell, D J Stein, C Lochner
There have been important advances in our understanding of the genetic architecture of anxiety disorders. At the same time, relatively few genes have reached genome wide significance in anxiety disorders, and there is relatively little work on how exposure to an adverse environment impacts on gene expression in either animal models or human clinical populations. Here we assessed differential expression of genes of the dorsal striatum involved in synaptic transmission in an animal models of early adversity (maternal separation followed by restraint stress), and investigated whether variants in these genes were associated with risk for anxiety disorders, particularly in the presence of environmental stressors...
December 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280957/emotional-encoding-context-leads-to-memory-bias-in-individuals-with-high-anxiety
#11
Christopher Lee, Myra A Fernandes
We investigated whether anxious individuals, who adopt an inherently negative mindset, demonstrate a particularly salient memory bias for words tainted by negative contexts. To this end, sequentially presented target words, overlayed onto negative or neutral pictures, were studied in separate blocks (within-subjects) using a deep or shallow encoding instruction (between-subjects). Following study, in Test 1, participants completed separate recognition test blocks for the words overlayed onto the negative and the neutral contexts...
December 27, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279875/enacted-stigma-mental-health-and-protective-factors-among-transgender-youth-in-canada
#12
Jaimie F Veale, Tracey Peter, Robb Travers, Elizabeth M Saewyc
Purpose: We aimed to assess the Minority Stress Model which proposes that the stress of experiencing stigma leads to adverse mental health outcomes, but social supports (e.g., school and family connectedness) will reduce this negative effect. Methods: We measured stigma-related experiences, social supports, and mental health (self-injury, suicide, depression, and anxiety) among a sample of 923 Canadian transgender 14- to 25-year-old adolescents and young adults using a bilingual online survey. Logistic regression models were conducted to analyze the relationship between these risk and protective factors and dichotomous mental health outcomes among two separate age groups, 14- to 18-year-old and 19- to 25-year-old participants...
2017: Transgender Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261562/mechanisms-of-attentional-selection-bias-for-threatening-emotions-of-anger-and-disgust-in-individuals-with-high-trait-anxiety
#13
Luyao Xia, Lixia Cui, Qin Zhang, Xiaofei Dong, Guangyuan Shi
There are still some controversies that attentional bias to negative emotions in individuals with high-trait anxiety (HTA), as compare with those with low-trait anxiety (LTA), occurs in the engagement or disengagement facet of attentional selectivity and whether this attentional bias is affected by negative emotional types. In this study, we explored the different attentional selectivity mechanisms for threatening emotions of anger and disgust between individuals with HTA and LTA using the variant attentional-probe paradigm...
December 19, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258974/partners-in-parenting-a-multi-level-web-based-approach-to-support-parents-in-prevention-and-early-intervention-for-adolescent-depression-and-anxiety
#14
Marie Bh Yap, Katherine A Lawrence, Ronald M Rapee, Mairead C Cardamone-Breen, Jacqueline Green, Anthony F Jorm
Depression and anxiety disorders in young people are a global health concern. Various risk and protective factors for these disorders are potentially modifiable by parents, underscoring the important role parents play in reducing the risk and impact of these disorders in their adolescent children. However, cost-effective, evidence-based interventions for parents that can be widely disseminated are lacking. In this paper, we propose a multi-level public health approach involving a Web-based parenting intervention, Partners in Parenting (PIP)...
December 19, 2017: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258471/the-influence-of-caregiver-depression-on-adolescent-mental-health-outcomes-findings-from-refugee-settlements-in-uganda
#15
Sarah R Meyer, Mara Steinhaus, Clare Bangirana, Patrick Onyango-Mangen, Lindsay Stark
BACKGROUND: Family-level predictors, including caregiver depression, are considered important influences on adolescent mental health. Adolescent depression and anxiety in refugee settings is known to be a significant public health concern, yet there is very limited literature from humanitarian settings focusing on the relationship between caregiver mental health and adolescent mental health. In the context of a larger study on child protection outcomes in refugee settings, researchers explored the relationship between caregiver depression and adolescent mental health in two refugee settlements, Kiryandongo and Adjumani, in Uganda...
December 19, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250009/links-between-an-owner-s-adult-attachment-style-and-the-support-seeking-behavior-of-their-dog
#16
Therese Rehn, Andrea Beetz, Linda J Keeling
The aim of this study was to investigate if an owner's adult attachment style (AAS) influences how their dog interacts and obtains support from them during challenging events. A person's AAS describes how they perceive their relationship to other people, but it may also reflect their caregiving behavior, and so their behavior toward the dog. We measured the AAS of 51 female Golden retriever owners, using the Adult Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ), and observed the reactions of the dog-owner dyads in response to different challenging situations [visual surprise, auditory stressor and social stressors like a person approaching dressed as ghost or in coat, hat and sunglasses]...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245091/specificity-in-mediated-pathways-by-anxiety-symptoms-linking-adolescent-stress-profiles-to-depressive-symptoms-results-of-a-moderated-mediation-approach
#17
Frederick Anyan, Boris Bizumic, Odin Hjemdal
BACKGROUND: We investigated the specificity in mediated pathways that separately link specific stress dimensions through anxiety to depressive symptoms and the protective utility of resilience. Thus, this study goes beyond lumping together potential mediating and moderating processes that can explain the relations between stress and (symptoms of) psychopathology and the buffering effect of resilience. METHODS: Ghanaian adolescents between 13 and 17 years (female = 285; male = 244) completed the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ), Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Short Mood Feeling Questionnaire (SMFQ) and the Resilience Scale for Adolescents (READ)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236543/rorschach-assessment-of-two-distinctive-personality-states-of-a-person-with-dissociative-identity-disorder
#18
Ellen Hartmann, Kirsten Benum
This case study used test data from a patient with Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID; American Psychiatric Association, 2013 ) to illustrate how two main personality states of the patient ("Ann" and "Ben") seemed to function. The Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS; Meyer, Viglione, Mihura, Erard, & Erdberg, 2011 ) and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex (IIP-64; Horowitz, Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 2000 ), administered to Ann and Ben in separate settings, exposed two diverse R-PAS and IIP-64 profiles...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235276/-anti-tumor-target-identification-and-molecular-mechanism-study-of-total-saponins-from-albizia-julibrissin
#19
Yi Qian, Qing-Hua Han, Dan Liu, Peng-Fei Tu, Ke-Wu Zeng, Hong Liang
Dried stem bark from Albizia julibrissin(AJ) is a common traditional Chinese herb with several therapy effects including insomnia, anxiety and anti-tumor. Recently, the anti-tumor effect and mechanism studies of AJ have drawn much attention; however, there are still some troubles in chemical composition separation, which leads to the difficulties in pharmacological research of AJ. In this study, we firstly confirmed the proliferation inhibitory effect of total saponins from AJ(TSAJ)on human hepatocarcinoma(HepG2) cells, and also tested the apoptosis induction effect of TSAJ...
October 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231752/differences-between-slovak-and-dutch-patients-scheduled-for-coronary-artery-bypass-graft-surgery-regarding-clinical-and-psychosocial-predictors-of-physical-and-mental-health-related-quality-of-life
#20
Noha El-Baz, Daniela Ondusova, Martin Studencan, Jaroslav Rosenberger, Sijmen A Reijneveld, Jitse P van Dijk, Berrie Middel
BACKGROUND: Differences in health-related quality of life in coronary artery disease patients and associated factors between patients of central and western European descent are rarely investigated. We aim to test differences between Dutch and Slovak health-related quality of life, whether nationality predicted health-related quality of life and if standardised beta weights of health-related quality of life determinants differ across countries. DESIGN: An observational multicentre study at university cardiac centres in the Netherlands and Slovakia...
December 1, 2017: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
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