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Separation Anxiety

Christopher A Flessner, Yolanda E Murphy, Elle Brennan, Alexandra D'Auria
Developmental models of pediatric anxiety posit multiple, maladaptive parenting behaviors as potential risk factors. Despite this, a standardized means of assessing multiple of these practices (i.e., anxiogenic parenting) in a comprehensive and efficient manner are lacking. In Study 1531 parents of children 7-17 years old completed an online survey via Amazon Mechanical Turk. In Study 2, a separate community sample (N = 109; 9-17 years old) was recruited and completed a comprehensive assessment battery as part of a larger study...
October 21, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Fabrice Kwiatkowski, Pascal Dessenne, Claire Laquet, Jean-Pierre Daures, Mathilde Gay-Bellile, Yves-Jean Bignon
BACKGROUND: Young women exposed to a high hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) risk are particularly vulnerable. They are ignored by health prevention measures but exposed to a stream of contradictory information (medicine, media, Internet). They may feel concerned about surgical prevention issues at a key moment of their identity construction (self, relationship, sexuality). We designed a special psychoeducational intervention to help these women cope better with these difficulties...
October 21, 2016: Trials
Nan Sook Park, Yuri Jang, David A Chiriboga
OBJECTIVES: Despite a high prevalence of mental health problems, racial/ethnic minorities are often reluctant to seek mental health services. Their reluctance may be shaped by cultural beliefs and stigma about mental health. The present study examined how beliefs and stigma about depression (e.g. disbelief in depression as a health-related condition, perception of depression as a normal part of aging, and/or depression as a sign of personal weakness/family shame) pose barriers to older Korean Americans' willingness to use mental health counseling and antidepressants...
October 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Madhuri S Kurdi, Sindhu Priya Muthukalai
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Melatonin (MT), a naturally occurring pituitary hormone has a sleep promoting effect. There are very few studies on pre-operative oral MT (0.2-0.5 mg/kg) in children. We planned a study to assess the efficacy of oral MT in two doses and compare it with oral midazolam and placebo for pre-operative anxiolysis, sedation, maintenance of cognition and psychomotor skills, parental separation behaviour and venepuncture compliance. METHODS: This prospective double-blind randomised study was conducted after ethical committee approval on 100 children aged 5-15 years, American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I and II undergoing elective surgery at our hospital from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2014...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
A Rumshisky, M Ghassemi, T Naumann, P Szolovits, V M Castro, T H McCoy, R H Perlis
The ability to predict psychiatric readmission would facilitate the development of interventions to reduce this risk, a major driver of psychiatric health-care costs. The symptoms or characteristics of illness course necessary to develop reliable predictors are not available in coded billing data, but may be present in narrative electronic health record (EHR) discharge summaries. We identified a cohort of individuals admitted to a psychiatric inpatient unit between 1994 and 2012 with a principal diagnosis of major depressive disorder, and extracted inpatient psychiatric discharge narrative notes...
October 18, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Giles Major, Sue Pritchard, Kathryn Murray, Jan Paul Alappadan, Caroline Hoad, Luca Marciani, Penny Gowland, Robin Spiller
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Poorly digested, fermentable carbohydrates may induce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), via unclear mechanisms. We performed a randomized trial with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis to investigate correlations between symptoms and changes in small and large bowel contents following oral challenge. METHODS: We performed a 3-period crossover study of 29 adult patients with IBS (based on Rome III criteria, with symptoms of abdominal pain or discomfort for at least 2 days/week) and reported bloating...
October 13, 2016: Gastroenterology
Susann Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann Wichmann, Tobias Stalder, Kevin Hilbert, Markus Muehlhan, Ulrike Lueken, Katja Beesdo-Baum
Studies investigating cortisol secretion in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have reported heterogeneous findings. Further, current knowledge on the specificity of endocrine changes for GAD and/or comorbid major depression (MD) is limited. Hence, the current study investigated long-term integrated cortisol secretion, as indexed by hair cortisol concentrations (HCC), and experimentally-induced cortisol stress reactivity in relation to GAD, MD and their comorbidity. Carefully characterized groups of 17 GAD patients including 8 with comorbid MD (GAD-MD), 12 MD patients and 21 healthy controls were recruited...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Jyoti Dahiya, Jitender Singh, Ashwani Kumar, Anupam Sharma
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Leaves of M. koenigii Linn. Spreng (Rutaceae) have been used as traditional medicine for anxiety disorders. Aim of the study was to isolate antianxiety principle(s) from the leaves of M. koenigii using bioactivity guided approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Hydroalcoholic extract of M. koenigii leaves was prepared using soxhlet apparatus, and the same was evaluated for antianxiety activity at 250, 500 and 750mg/kg, po, using Elevated plus-maze (EPM)...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Sharifah Adla Alattas, Toby Smith, Maria Bhatti, Daniel Wilson-Nunn, Simon Donell
PURPOSE: Around 10-30 % of patients are dissatisfied with the results of their total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This review aimed to identify and evaluate the predictors of outcome measured by the three domains of health-related quality of life (pain, stiffness and function). The focus was on pre-operative psychological factors as related to other patient-related variables. METHODS: A systematic search was performed using the following databases: MEDLINE, PubMed, AMED, CINAHL, PsychINFO, SciFinder, Scopus, EMBASE, Cochrane, Lilacs, Web of Science and ScienceDirect...
October 12, 2016: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Pasquale K Alvaro, Rachel M Roberts, Jodie K Harris, Oliviero Bruni
BACKGROUND: This study assessed the direction of the relationship between symptoms of insomnia disorder, depression, various anxiety disorders and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in adolescents after controlling for age, gender, chronotype, and outcome variable at baseline. METHODS: Data was collected in eight high schools in Adelaide, South Australia, at two time-points approximately 6 months apart. The study was completed by 318 and 255 high school students at baseline and follow-up, respectively, aged 12-18 (M=14...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Vipan K Parihar, Barrett D Allen, Chongshan Caressi, Stephanie Kwok, Esther Chu, Katherine K Tran, Nicole N Chmielewski, Erich Giedzinski, Munjal M Acharya, Richard A Britten, Janet E Baulch, Charles L Limoli
The Mars mission will result in an inevitable exposure to cosmic radiation that has been shown to cause cognitive impairments in rodent models, and possibly in astronauts engaged in deep space travel. Of particular concern is the potential for cosmic radiation exposure to compromise critical decision making during normal operations or under emergency conditions in deep space. Rodents exposed to cosmic radiation exhibit persistent hippocampal and cortical based performance decrements using six independent behavioral tasks administered between separate cohorts 12 and 24 weeks after irradiation...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jader B Ruchel, Josiane S Braun, Stephen A Adefegha, Fátima H Abdalla, Juliane S de Oliveira, Kelly Trelles, Cristiane Signor, Sônia T A Lopes, Cássia B da Silva, Livia G Castilhos, Maribel A Rubin, Daniela B R Leal
Hyperlipidemia is a risk factor for the development of cognitive dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Currently, the natural compounds have received special attention in relation to the treatment of diseases due to their low cost and wide margin of safety. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the possible preventive effect of guarana powder (Paullinia cupana) on memory impairment and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in brain structures of poloxamer407 induced hyperlipidemic rat. Adult male Wistar rats were pretreated with guarana 12...
October 6, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Nicole A Short, Kelly Fuller, Aaron M Norr, Norman B Schmidt
Despite the well-documented efficacy of cognitive behavioral treatments for anxiety disorders, the acceptability of these treatments remains an under-researched area. A better understanding of acceptability could help to improve the initiation of, and engagement in, these effective interventions. Recent research has suggested computerized interventions of anxiety-related risk factors may be one way to improve acceptability and overcome several common barriers to treatment. Considering this, the current study tested the acceptability of a computerized, anxiety sensitivity (AS)-focused treatment among a sample of treatment-seeking community participants and military veterans (N = 58)...
October 7, 2016: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Müge Genek Ülgen, Gülcan Güleç
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to study the change in sexual functions within 3 months period following the initiation of antidepressant treatment in psychiatry outpatients, and its relationship with the change in anxiety and depression symptoms. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Eighty two patients, who consecutively applied to the psychiatry outpatient clinic and who were prescribed antidepressants, were included in the study. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, General Assessment of Functioning Scale and Arizona Sexual Experience Questionnaire (ASEC) were administered to the patients at the first interview, then repeated on a monthly basis during 3 months...
2016: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
D S Araujo, McS Marquezin, T S Barbosa, Fla Fonseca, C Fegadolli, P M Castelo
PURPOSE: This study evaluated the association between excess weight and quality of life (QoL), symptoms of anxiety, caries experience and socio-economic factors in a representative sample of 8- to 10-year-old children from three public schools of Piracicaba (SP, Brazil). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Autoquestionnaire Qualité de Vie Enfant Image was applied to explore family and social relations, activities, health, body functions and separation domains, and, by means of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, symptoms of anxiety were screened...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Dental Hygiene
Judy Garber, Steven M Brunwasser, Argero A Zerr, Karen T G Schwartz, Karen Sova, V Robin Weersing
Anxiety and depression are highly comorbid and share several common etiological processes. Therefore, it may be more efficient to develop interventions that treat or prevent these problems together rather than as separate entities. The present meta-analytic review examined whether interventions for children and adolescents that explicitly targeted either anxiety or depression showed treatment specificity or also impacted the other outcome (i.e. cross-over effects). We addressed this question both within the same type of study (i...
October 2016: Depression and Anxiety
Donna McCormack
This article examines anxieties concerning organ transplantation in Nalo Hopkinson's prize-winning novel Brown Girl in the Ring (1998). The main focus is how this novel re-imagines subjectivity and selfhood as an embodied metaphor for the reconfiguring of broader sociopolitical relations. In other words, this article analyses the relationship between the transplanted body and the body politic, arguing that a post-transplant identity, where there is little separation between donor and recipient, is the foundation for a politics based on responsibility for others...
October 3, 2016: Medical Humanities
Elena Ivanova, Rachel J Burns, Sonya S Deschênes, Bärbel Knäuper, Norbert Schmitz
OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests that symptoms of depression and anxiety predict lower exercise behaviour and, inversely, that less exercise predicts higher symptomatology. The present longitudinal study examined this reciprocal association in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We predicted that symptoms of anxiety or depression would intensify over time as a consequence of lower exercise frequency and, similarly, that exercise frequency would decrease as a consequence of greater symptoms of anxiety or depression...
September 30, 2016: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
Rikke Thaarup Wesselhöft
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a frequent and painful mental disorder considered among the five leading causes of disability in Western countries by the World Health Organization. MDD occurs at all ages, but childhood onset MDD has a more severe course with longer depressive episodes, more suicidality, and more frequent hospitalization, than later onset MDD. Childhood seems to be a window of opportunity for prevention of mental disorders, and subsequently prevention of MDD onset in childhood is recommended...
October 2016: Danish Medical Journal
Jaak Panksepp
During the past half century of research with preclinical animal models, affective neuroscience has helped identify and illuminate the functional neuroanatomies and neurochemistries of seven primary process, i.e., genetically provided emotional systems of mammalian brains. All are subcortically localized, allowing animal models to guide the needed behavioral and neuroscientific analyses at levels of detail that cannot be achieved through human research, including modern brain imaging. They consist of the following neuronal processes: SEEKING/Enthusiasm, RAGE/Anger, FEAR/Anxiety, sexual LUST/Passion, maternal CARE/Nurturance, separation-distress PANIC/Grief and PLAY/Social Joy...
October 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
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