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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935616/endocrine-disruptors-and-health-effects-in-africa-a-call-for-action
#1
Maria S Bornman, Natalie H Aneck-Hahn, Christiaan de Jager, Gesina M Wagenaar, Hindrik Bouwman, Irene E J Barnhoorn, Sean M Patrick, Laura N Vandenberg, Andreas Kortenkamp, Bruce Blumberg, Sarah Kimmins, Bernard Jegou, Jacques Auger, Joseph DiGangi, Jerrold J Heindel
BACKGROUND: Africa faces a number of unique environmental challenges. Unfortunately, it lacks the infrastructure needed to support the comprehensive environmental studies that could provide the scientific basis to inform environmental policies. There are a number of known sources of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and other hazardous chemicals in Africa. However, a coordinated approach to identify and monitor these contaminants and to develop strategies for public health interventions has not yet been made...
August 22, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927245/calcium-homeostasis-in-diabetes-mellitus
#2
REVIEW
Changhwan Ahn, Ji-Houn Kang, Eui-Bae Jeung
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is becoming a lifestyle-related pandemic disease. Diabetic patients frequently develop electrolyte disorders, especially diabetic ketoacidosis or nonketotic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome. Such patients show characteristic potassium, magnesium, phosphate, and calcium depletion. In this review, we discuss a homeostatic mechanism that links calcium and DM. We also provide a synthesis of the evidence in favor or against this linking mechanism by presenting recent clinical indications, mainly from veterinary research...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924431/occult-hepatitis-infection-in-transfusion-medicine-screening-policy-and-assessment-of-current-use-of-anti-hbc-testing
#3
REVIEW
Antonella Esposito, Chiara Sabia, Carmela Iannone, Giovanni F Nicoletti, Linda Sommese, Claudio Napoli
HBV still represents a global risk factor in transfusion medicine. The residual risk of HBV is not limited to pre-seroconversion window period but it extends to donors with occult HBV infection (OBI) characterized by the presence of HBV DNA in liver and by the absence of the virus surface antigen. Each country developed an appropriate blood screening policy according to local HBV prevalence, yields of infectious units per different screening methods and cost-effectiveness. We underline the need of maintaining a high level of attention for OBI carrier identification in all blood banks worldwide where the screening procedures are generally based on a combination of both serological markers and nucleic acid amplification test...
August 2017: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920443/four-fallacies-and-an-oversight-searching-for-martian-life
#4
J D Rummel, C A Conley
While it is anticipated that future human missions to Mars will increase the amount of biological and organic contamination that might be distributed on that planet, robotic missions continue to grow in capability and complexity, requiring precautions to be taken now to protect Mars, and particularly areas of Mars that might be Special Regions. Such precautionary cleanliness requirements for spacecraft have evolved over the course of the space age, as we have learned more about planetary environments, and are the subject of regular deliberations and decisions sponsored by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR)...
September 16, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913827/when-more-is-less-an-exploratory-study-of-the-precautionary-reporting-bias-and-its-impact-on-safety-signal-detection
#5
Kevin Klein, Joep Hg Scholl, Marie L De Bruin, Eugène P van Puijenbroek, Hubert Gm Leufkens, Pieter Stolk
Concerns have been expressed that large numbers of non-value added reports have been accumulating in ADR databases, for example via patient support programs. We performed an assessment of the impact of such reports, to which we refer to as 'precautionary reports', on safety signal detection in the Netherlands. The case narratives of ADR reports of three case products were screened with text-mining algorithms to identify those reports that lack a causal relationship with the suspected medicinal product. We demonstrate that precautionary reports impede the optimal use of the pharmacovigilance system by, on the one hand, masking safety signals and, on the other hand, creating spurious signals...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906157/economic-factors-impacting-food-allergen-management-perspectives-from-the-food-industry
#6
Ruchi S Gupta, Steve L Taylor, Joseph L Baumert, Lauren M Kao, Erik Schuster, Bridget M Smith
Food allergies affect up to 8% of children in the United States and may occasionally lead to severe life-threatening reactions. Because there is currently no cure for food allergies, strict avoidance of the allergen-containing foods is the only means of preventing an allergic reaction. Consumers rely on food manufacturers to reliably track and declare the presence of food allergens in products. Over the past 10 to 20 years, the food industry has increasingly adopted allergen control approaches in its processing facilities...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904336/the-relation-between-cesarean-birth-and-child-cognitive-development
#7
Cain Polidano, Anna Zhu, Joel C Bornstein
This is the first detailed study of the relation between cesarean birth and child cognitive development. We measure differences in child cognitive performance at 4 to 9 years of age between cesarean-born and vaginally-born children (n = 3,666) participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). LSAC is a nationally representative birth cohort surveyed biennially. Using multivariate regression, we control for a large range of confounders related to perinatal risk factors and the socio-economic advantage associated with cesarean-born children...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898466/an-overview-of-genetically-modified-crop-governance-issues-and-challenges-in-malaysia
#8
REVIEW
Andrew Johnny, Ismail Normaz Wana, Djama Marcel
The application of agricultural biotechnology attracts the interest of many stakeholders. Genetically modified (GM) crops, for example, are rapidly increase in production for the last 20 years. Despite its known benefits, GM crops also pose many concerns not only to human and animal health but also the environment. Malaysia, in general, allows the use of GM technology applications but it has to come with precautionary and safety measures consistent with the international obligations and domestic legal frameworks...
September 12, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895924/artificial-turf-contested-terrains-for-precautionary-public-health-with-particular-reference-to-europe
#9
Andrew Watterson
Millions of adults, children and teenagers use artificial sports pitches and playgrounds globally. Pitches are artificial grass and bases may be made up of crumb rubber from recycled tires or new rubber and sand. Player injury on pitches was a major concern. Now, debates about health focus on possible exposure and uptake of chemicals within pitch and base materials. Research has looked at potential risks to users from hazardous substances such as metals, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons including benzo (a) (e) pyrenes and phthalates: some are carcinogens and others may be endocrine disruptors and have developmental reproductive effects...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892846/caffeine-and-paraxanthine-in-aquatic-systems-global-exposure-distributions-and-probabilistic-risk-assessment
#10
J L Rodríguez-Gil, N Cáceres, R Dafouz, Y Valcárcel
This study presents one of the most complete applications of probabilistic methodologies to the risk assessment of emerging contaminants. Perhaps the most data-rich of these compounds, caffeine, as well as its main metabolite (paraxanthine), were selected for this study. Information for a total of 29,132 individual caffeine and 7442 paraxanthine samples was compiled, including samples where the compounds were not detected. The inclusion of non-detect samples (as censored data) in the estimation of environmental exposure distributions (EEDs) allowed for a realistic characterization of the global presence of these compounds in aquatic systems...
September 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885538/clinical-relevance-of-18f-fdg-pet-ct-lower-limb-imaging-in-patients-with-malignant-cutaneous-melanoma
#11
Nicolas Plouznikoff, Frédéric Arsenault
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical relevance of imaging the lower limbs when using 2-(F)-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (F-FDG) positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) for malignant cutaneous melanoma in patients without previously known or suspected primary or metastatic melanoma lesions in the lower limbs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively assessed 880 consecutive F-FDG PET/CT scans performed for adult patients in a context of suspected melanoma spanning a period of 5 years...
September 6, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880734/precautionary-behaviors-and-breast-cancer-related-lymphedema
#12
Cheryl Brunelle, Meyha Swaroop, Maria Asdourian, Melissa Skolny, Hoda Sayegh, Alphonse G Taghian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Lymphatic Research and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880728/reply-to-precautionary-behaviors-and-breast-cancer-related-lymphedema
#13
Judith Nudelman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Lymphatic Research and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863303/low-doses-and-non-targeted-effects-in-environmental-radiation-protection-where-are-we-now-and-where-should-we-go
#14
REVIEW
Carmel Mothersill, Andrej Rusin, Colin Seymour
The field of low dose radiobiology has advanced considerably in the last 30 years from small indications in the 1980's that all was not simple, to a paradigm shift which occurred during the 1990's, which severely dented the dose-driven models and DNA centric theories which had dominated until then. However while the science has evolved, the application of that science in environmental health protection has not. A reason for this appears to be the uncertainties regarding the shape of the low dose response curve, which lead regulators to adopt a precautionary approach to radiation protection...
August 29, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847147/control-of-major-pulmonary-artery-bleeding-with-a-gelatin-matrix-thrombin-solution-a-retrospective-analysis
#15
Giuseppe Cardillo, Francesco Carleo, Marco DI Martino, Bernardo Ciamberlano, Pasquale Ialongo, Giacomo Cusumano, Maria Denitza Tinti, Alberto Ricci, Stefano Cafarotti
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative pulmonary artery (PA) bleeding is common during thoracic surgery. We investigated the efficacy of the gelatin matrix-thrombin solution FloSeal (Baxter International, Deerfield, IL, USA) for control of major PA bleeding. METHODS: Retrospective data were collected on all intraoperative PA injuries during open or minimally invasive lobectomy or pneumonectomy between January 2000 and January 2014. Patients received either 4/0 prolene sutures (Standard) or the gelatin matrix-thrombin solution, plus sutures as needed (Matrix), with at least 6-month follow-up...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828766/perspective-on-health-seeking-behavior-of-patients-with-oropharyngeal-cancers-from-a-pakistani-background
#16
Maria Shoaib, Syed Ahsanuddin Ahmed, Syed Muhammad Waqar, Zainab Abbasi, Farah Hafiz Yusuf
Oropharyngeal cancers are the most common cancers of head neck region, they are placed amongst the top ten malignancies globally and around 40% of all the cancers in South and South East Asia. Patient's personal behaviour impacts causality more than the environmental factors in the pathology and prognosis of this particular cancer. In our country risk factors are based on poor infrastructure of the health care system, illiteracy, poor socioeconomic status, Betel nut and quid, smokeless and smoke tobacco. We recommend that an active precautionary approach is required to restrict the rising incidence in the oral cancers, particularly due to culturally related risk habits and reluctance to seek early healthcare amongst our people...
October 2016: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819080/a-survey-on-selection-use-maintenance-and-management-of-chemical-protective-gloves-at-workplaces-in-japan
#17
Isamu Kabe, Hiroko Tsuruoka, Takeshi Kochi, Yasuo Koga, Masafumi Eguchi, Tomomi Matsui, Rie Ito, Yoko Tokujitani, Hiroyuki Miyauchi, Shigeru Tanaka
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to survey the selection, use, and maintenance of chemical protective gloves (CPGs) at real workplaces. METHODS: Subjects comprised 817 workers using CPGs at seven domestic manufacturing plants in Japan. We administered an anonymous questionnaire survey comprising the following aspect related to CPGs: environment of use, conditions of use, method of selection, knowledge/awareness pertaining to their use, method of use, precautionary measures associated with their use, maximum time of use, and maintenance...
August 17, 2017: Sangyō Eiseigaku Zasshi, Journal of Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817588/phylogeography-of-the-reticulated-python-malayopython-reticulatus-ssp-conservation-implications-for-the-worlds-most-traded-snake-species
#18
Gillian Murray-Dickson, Muhammad Ghazali, Rob Ogden, Rafe Brown, Mark Auliya
As an important economic natural resource in Southeast Asia, reticulated pythons (Malayopython reticulatus ssp.) are primarily harvested from the wild for their skins-which are prized in the luxury leather goods industry. Trade dynamics of this CITES Appendix II listed species are complex and management approaches on the country or regional level appear obscure. Little is known about the actual geographic point-of-harvest of snakes, how genetic diversity is partitioned across the species range, how current harvest levels may affect the genetic viability of populations, and whether genetic structure could (or should) be accounted for when managing harvest quotas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810500/anxiety-effects-on-disaster-precautionary-behaviors-a-multi-path-cognitive-model
#19
Philip W Wirtz, Cynthia A Rohrbeck, Katherine M Burns
Previous studies have revealed a negative relationship between anxiety and health-promoting behavior. This study identified three cognitive pathways through which anxiety operates on preparedness behaviors for terrorist attacks. Preparedness was regressed on trait anxiety, perceived threat, and self-efficacy based on data from 306 adults. Mediating paths through perceived threat (positive) and self-efficacy (negative) and an independent negative path were identified. Results suggest that the anxiety/precautionary behavior relationship is more complex than previously thought, involving multiple pathways of competing directionality...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804700/abridged-version-of-the-awmf-guideline-for-the-medical-clinical-diagnostics-of-indoor-mould-exposure-s2k-guideline-of-the-german-society-of-hygiene-environmental-medicine-and-preventive-medicine-ghup-in-collaboration-with-the-german-association-of-allergists
#20
Gerhard A Wiesmüller, Birger Heinzow, Ute Aurbach, Karl-Christian Bergmann, Albrecht Bufe, Walter Buzina, Oliver A Cornely, Steffen Engelhart, Guido Fischer, Thomas Gabrio, Werner Heinz, Caroline E W Herr, Jörg Kleine-Tebbe, Ludger Klimek, Martin Köberle, Herbert Lichtnecker, Thomas Lob-Corzilius, Rolf Merget, Norbert Mülleneisen, Dennis Nowak, Uta Rabe, Monika Raulf, Hans Peter Seidl, Jens-Oliver Steiß, Regine Szewszyk, Peter Thomas, Kerttu Valtanen, Julia Hurraß
This article is an abridged version of the AWMF mould guideline "Medical clinical diagnostics of indoor mould exposure" presented in April 2016 by the German Society of Hygiene, Environmental Medicine and Preventive Medicine (Gesellschaft für Hygiene, Umweltmedizin und Präventivmedizin, GHUP), in collaboration with the above-mentioned scientific medical societies, German and Austrian societies, medical associations and experts. Indoor mould growth is a potential health risk, even if a quantitative and/or causal relationship between the occurrence of individual mould species and health problems has yet to be established...
2017: Allergo Journal International
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