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Peter M Chapman
We are facing a dynamic future in the face of multiple stressors acting individually and in combination: climate change; habitat change/loss; overfishing; invasive species; harmful algal blooms/eutrophication; and, chemical contaminants. Historic assessment and management approaches will be inadequate for addressing risks from climate change and other stressors. Wicked problems (non-linear, complex, competing risks and benefits, not easily solvable), will become increasingly common. We are facing irreversible changes to our planetary living conditions...
October 16, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Matthew Shortus, Jennie Musto, Hugo Bugoro, Charles Butafa, Alison Sio, Cynthia Joshua
PROBLEM: The close quartering and exposed living conditions in evacuation centres and the potential increase in vector density after flooding in Solomon Islands resulted in an increased risk of exposure for the occupants to vectorborne diseases. CONTEXT: In April 2014, Solomon Islands experienced a flash flooding event that affected many areas and displaced a large number of people. In the capital, Honiara, nearly 10 000 people were housed in emergency evacuation centres at the peak of the post-flood emergency...
January 2016: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
Nandan Limakrisna, Syahril Yoserizal
BACKGROUND: Indonesian banking industry has experienced up and down as can be seen after Pakto '88, in which the number of new banks grew rapidly, but after the 1997-1998 financial crisis, a lot of banks were liquidated due to the deteriorating financial condition and violation of the precautionary principles by bank management. The purpose of this research is to determine and analyze the effects of good corporate governance, information technology, HR competencies on competitive advantage and its implication on marketing performance...
2016: SpringerPlus
Christoph Boehmert, Peter Wiedemann, Rodney Croft
Many radiation health agencies communicate precautionary measures regarding the use of mobile communication devices, e.g. the use of a headset while talking on the phone. These precautionary messages have, however, been shown to unintentionally increase risk perceptions about radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs). The current study tested two potential ways of amending precautionary messages in order to minimise this unintentional effect. Firstly, the messages' potential to be perceived as inconsistent and thereby raise suspicions was addressed; secondly, the effectiveness of the precautions was explained...
October 9, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Margherita Siracusa, Fabio Petrelli
The aporia is obvious: food supplement, classified and regulated by food law, sometimes have the characteristics and the typical effects of medicines. In addition, these are produced by pharmaceutical companies and, through the scientific officer, are prescribed by doctors and dispensed by pharmacies. This study will attempt to retrace the winding, and sometimes overlapping, regulatory pathways of the legislation on food supplement, food and medicines. It will be important object the particular application of the precautionary principle behind the legislation on food supplement: application "in posterior", so the controls on the purity of the product and the possible effects resulting from the assumption is carried out ex post trade...
September 2016: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
Durfari Velandia Naranjo, Edwin van Gameren
Precautionary saving is the additional saving done by individuals to protect them financially in situations of uncertainty and reduce their vulnerability for negative shocks that may affect their consumption levels. This paper investigates the existence and extent of savings motivated by precaution in Mexico for people aged between 50 and 75, using data from the Mexican Health and Ageing Study 2003. The empirical strategy is based on a test of the direct relationship between the accumulated wealth and the uncertainty generated by the social security status, in particular the availability of health insurance, accounting also for the expectation to receive a retirement pension...
June 2016: Review of Income and Wealth
Veysel Karani Baris, Seyda Seren Intepeler, Emine Yasemin Yeginboy
Patient falls cause economic loss in hospitals, as well as patient injuries. This study aimed to calculate the additional hospital cost and length of stay (LOS) due to fall-related serious injuries and to identify the determining factors for both outcomes. A matched case-control design was used in the study. It was conducted with a case group of 39 patients and a control group of 39 patients in 28 hospitals in İzmir, Turkey. The additional hospital cost and LOS due to fall-related serious injuries were calculated to be US$3,302...
September 29, 2016: Clinical Nursing Research
Elizabeth Salt, Amanda T Wiggins, Mary Kay Rayens, Brent J Morris, David Mannino, Andrew Hoellein, Ryan P Donegan, Leslie J Crofford
OBJECTIVE: Inconclusive findings about infection risks, importantly the use of immunosuppressive medications in patients who have undergone large-joint total joint arthroplasty, challenge efforts to provide evidence-based perioperative total joint arthroplasty recommendations to improve surgical outcomes. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe risk factors for developing a post-operative infection in patients undergoing TJA of a large joint (total hip arthroplasty, total knee arthroplasty, or total shoulder arthroplasty) by identifying clinical and demographic factors, including the use of high-risk medications (i...
August 24, 2016: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
Kye Hwa Lee, Su Youn Baik, Soo Youn Lee, Chan Hee Park, Paul J Park, Ju Han Kim
Despite substantial premarket efforts, a significant portion of approved drugs has been withdrawn from the market for safety reasons. The deleterious impact of nonsynonymous substitutions predicted by the SIFT algorithm on structure and function of drug-related proteins was evaluated for 2504 personal genomes. Both withdrawn (n = 154) and precautionary (Beers criteria (n = 90), and US FDA pharmacogenomic biomarkers (n = 96)) drugs showed significantly lower genomic deleteriousness scores (P < 0.001) compared to others (n = 752)...
2016: PloS One
Sudip Kumar Ghosh, Debabrata Bandyopadhyay, Megha Agarwal, Olympia Rudra
BACKGROUND: "Holi" is a spring festival celebrated primarily in the Indian subcontinent and also abroad by expatriate Indians. It is a festival of colors, traditionally celebrated by mutual application of colors in different forms on a particular day of the year. These colors frequently comprise a range of synthetic dyes which have harmful effects on the skin and mucosae. Children take part in this colorful festival with much enthusiasm and vigor, making them prone to develop different "Holi"-related dermatoses...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology
Emilie Jaumain, Isabelle Quadrio, Laetitia Herzog, Fabienne Reine, Human Rezaei, Olivier Andréoletti, Hubert Laude, Armand Perret-Liaudet, Stéphane Haïk, Vincent Béringue
: Prions are proteinaceous pathogens responsible for subacute spongiform encephalopathies in animals and humans. The prions responsible for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) are zoonotic agents, causing variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans. The transfer of prions between species is limited by a species barrier, which is thought to reflect structural incompatibilities between host cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) and the infecting pathological PrP assemblies (PrP(Sc)) constituting the prion...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Virology
M Kraft, K Rauchfuss, S Sievering, M Wöckner, F Neugebauer, H Fromme
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a substance group of 209 theoretically possible compounds. The human body burden of PCBs is commonly calculated based on so-called indicator congeners such as PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180, which are analyzed in human blood. The German "Human Biomonitoring (HBM) Commission" assumes that the sum of these indicator congeners multiplied by a factor of 2 represents the total PCB burden. This norm is based on data obtained from exposure studies after dietary intake. Data from indoor air shows a different congener pattern, which might lead to a relatively higher intake of lower chlorinated PCBs by inhalation...
September 14, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Thomas G Dahlgren, Helena Wiklund, Muriel Rabone, Diva J Amon, Chiho Ikebe, Les Watling, Craig R Smith, Adrian G Glover
BACKGROUND: We present data from a DNA taxonomy register of the abyssal Cnidaria collected as part of the Abyssal Baseline (ABYSSLINE) environmental survey cruise 'AB01' to the UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UKSRL) polymetallic-nodule exploration area 'UK-1' in the eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ), central Pacific Ocean abyssal plain. This is the second paper in a series to provide regional taxonomic data for a region that is undergoing intense deep-sea mineral exploration for high-grade polymetallic nodules...
2016: Biodiversity Data Journal
Aliya Hisam, Mariam Nadeem Rana, Mahmood-Ur-Rahman
OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge and attitude regarding Ebola virus disease (EVD) among medical students of Rawalpindi. METHODS: A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in a medical college of Rawalpindi from September 2014-November 2014. About 400 students were inducted with 77% (n=308) response rate. After taking informed verbal consent from students and administration, a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was circulated among students of third, fourth and final year MBBS as well as third and fourth year BDS...
July 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Lennart Hardell, Tarmo Koppel, Michael Carlberg, Mikko Ahonen, Lena Hedendahl
The Stockholm Central Railway Station in Sweden was investigated for public radiofrequency (RF) radiation exposure. The exposimeter EME Spy 200 was used to collect the RF exposure data across the railway station. The exposimeter covers 20 different radiofrequency bands from 88 to 5,850 MHz. In total 1,669 data points were recorded. The median value for total exposure was 921 µW/m2 (or 0.092 µW/cm2; 1 µW/m2=0.0001 µW/cm2) with some outliers over 95,544 µW/m2 (6 V/m, upper detection limit). The mean total RF radiation level varied between 2,817 to 4,891 µW/m2 for each walking round...
August 12, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
Khuda Bakhsh, Naeem Ahmad, M Asif Kamran, Sarfraz Hassan, Qasir Abbas, Rashed Saeed, M Sadiq Hashmi
BACKGROUND: Farm workers and female cotton pickers are exposed to residual impacts of pesticide use in cotton production, in addition to dust, ultraviolet radiation, etc. Cotton picking causes various health hazards among cotton pickers with varied health cost. A soil bacterium known as Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is incorporated in cotton seed through genetic modification and it has resistance against certain bollworms of cotton. So it is considered that Bt cotton fields have less pesticide exposure compared to non-Bt cotton fields...
2016: BMC Public Health
Melanie Boeckmann, Hajo Zeeb
Climate change affects human health, and climate change adaptation aims to reduce these risks through infrastructural, behavioral, and technological measures. However, attributing direct human health effects to climate change adaptation is difficult, causing an ethical dilemma between the need for evidence of strategies and their precautionary implementation before such evidence has been generated. In the absence of conclusive evidence for individual adaptation strategies, alternative approaches to the measurement of adaptation effectiveness need to be developed...
September 7, 2016: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Xinji Zhang, Yuan Zhang, Xiang Xiao, Xiuqiang Ma, Jia He
BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the management of hypertension in Shanghai, China and to examine whether there was any difference of hypertension management among people enrolled in different health insurances. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 31,531 residents were selected in Shanghai, using a randomized, stratified, multi-stage sampling method, and were asked to provide their status of hypertension, condition of hypertension management, health insurances and other demographic information...
2016: BMC Public Health
Maria S Asdourian, Melissa N Skolny, Cheryl Brunelle, Cara E Seward, Laura Salama, Alphonse G Taghian
Precautionary recommendations conveyed to survivors of cancer by health-care practitioners to reduce the risk of breast cancer-related lymphoedema are indispensable aspects of clinical care, yet remain unsubstantiated by high-level scientific evidence. By reviewing the literature, we identified 31 original research articles that examined whether lifestyle-associated risk factors (air travel, ipsilateral arm blood pressure measurements, skin puncture, extreme temperatures, and skin infections-eg, cellulitis) increase the risk of breast cancer-related lymphoedema...
September 2016: Lancet Oncology
Tina Proveaux, Philipp Lambach, Justin R Ortiz, Joachim Hombach, Neal A Halsey
Information provided by most influenza vaccine manufacturers do not reflect the recommendations of WHO and/or national public health advisory groups with regard to the use of influenza vaccines in pregnant or lactating women. The majority of vaccines contain precautionary language which could discourage use in pregnant women and some include stronger language discouraging or contradicting use in pregnant or lactating women. Regulators and manufacturers should regularly assess the language of pregnancy and lactation sections in product information for vaccines and include information from national public health advisory groups regarding use by pregnant or lactating women and data from relevant studies...
October 26, 2016: Vaccine
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