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Thierry Baussant, Marianne Nilsen, Elisa Ravagnan, Stig Westerlund, Sreerekha Ramanand
This study aimed at providing confidence in the predictability of the impacts of drill cuttings (DC) discharge on the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa. L. pertusa was exposed to DC from offshore exploration in the lab with the goal to assess precautionary thresholds of effects. Two exposure scenarios with DC were tested: a long-term (LT) pulsed exposure (12 weeks, peak concentrations: 2-50 mg/L, mean concentrations: 1-25 mg/L) and a short-term (ST) continuous exposure (2.5 weeks, mean concentrations: 4-42 mg/L)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Stephan Brendel, Éva Fetter, Claudia Staude, Lena Vierke, Annegret Biegel-Engler
Background: Short-chain PFASs (per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances) are widely used as alternatives to long-chain PFASs. Long-chain PFASs become gradually regulated under REACH (EC No. 1907/2006) and other international regulations, due to having persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic properties and/or being toxic for reproduction. The increasingly used short-chain PFASs are assumed to have a lower bioaccumulation potential. Nonetheless, they have other properties of concern and are already widely distributed in the environment, also in remote regions...
2018: Environmental Sciences Europe
Johanna R Rochester, Ashley L Bolden, Carol F Kwiatkowski
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased in prevalence in the past decade. Studies attempting to identify a specific genetic component have not been able to account for much of the heritability of ADHD, indicating there may be gene-environment interactions underlying the disorder, including early exposure to environmental chemicals. Based on several relevant studies, we chose to examine bisphenol A (BPA) as a possible contributor to ADHD in humans. BPA is a widespread environmental chemical that has been shown to disrupt neurodevelopment in rodents and humans...
March 3, 2018: Environment International
Katrina J Allen, Steve L Taylor
Precautionary allergen labeling (PAL) also known as "may contain" labeling has been applied to many packaged food products around the world. PAL is a voluntary form of labeling whose original intent was to help ensure that packaged foods were as safe as possible for allergic consumers by alerting them to the possible presence of allergen residues resulting from the use of shared processing equipment, shared processing facilities, or other industry practices. However, the proliferation of PAL and the myriad of various phrasing used as PAL statements are confusing to consumers and serve to diminish their quality of life...
March 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Richard Pullicino, Mark Radon, Shubhabrata Biswas, Maneesh Bhojak, Kumar Das
Over the past 3 years, gadolinium-based contrast agents have been linked to MRI signal changes in the brain, which have been found to be secondary to gadolinium deposition in the brain, particularly in the dentate nuclei and globus pallidus even in patients having an intact blood-brain barrier and a normal renal function. This tends to occur more in linear agents than with macrocyclic agents. Nonetheless, there has been no significant evidence that this has any clinical consequence. We reviewed the current evidence related to this new phenomenon and the precautionary approach taken by regulatory agencies...
March 9, 2018: Clinical Neuroradiology
Ding Zhou, Yi-Xuan Chen, Jun-Hui Yin, Shi-Cong Tao, Shang-Chun Guo, Zhan-Ying Wei, Yong Feng, Chang-Qing Zhang
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are the most common cause of atraumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) because their effect compromises the osteogenic capability of bone marrow‑derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Valproic acid (VPA) is a widely used anti‑epileptic and anti‑convulsant drug. Previous studies have reported that VPA promotes osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro and osteogenesis in vivo as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of VPA as a precautionary treatment of ONFH after GC treatment in rats...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Xi Du, Makafui Nyagblordzro, Lijun An, Xue Gao, Lemei Du, Yangyang Wang, Gregory Ondieki, Siambi Kikete, Xin He
Tripterigium wilfordii glycosides (TWG) demonstrate paramount bioactive effectiveness in the management of many autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and nephrotic syndrome. However, its side effects on the hepatic, nephrotic, reproductive, and cardiovascular systems have limited its immense therapeutic potentials. Triptolide (TP) and Celastrol (CL), the leading bioactive as well as toxic constituents of TWG, have been widely studied. These studies have documented the key mechanisms that trigger the toxic reactions and the precautionary measures that could prevent and reduce such reactions...
March 2, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
D Lingeshwar, R Appadurai, Padmaja Challa, S U Sswedheni
Auricular reconstruction is an interdisciplinary approach where multiple specialties play a vital role in the treatment provided to the patient. This article provides a comprehensive interpretation of the process carried out for the fabrication of a custom-made prosthetic conformer for the management of postoperative contraction of a skin graft after ear reconstruction surgery-Brent stage III. The prosthesis is used as a precautionary measure and is simple, effective, and economical.
March 6, 2018: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
Lars M H Reinders, Martin D Klassen, Martin Jaeger, Thorsten Teutenberg, Jochen Tuerk
Monoclonal antibodies are a group of commonly used therapeutics, whose occupational health risk is still discussed controversially. The long-term low-dose exposure side effects are insufficiently evaluated; hence, discussions are often based on a theoretical level or extrapolating side effects from therapeutic dosages. While some research groups recommend applying the precautionary principle for monoclonal antibodies, others consider the exposure risk too low for measures taken towards occupational health and safety...
March 5, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Mwali Muray, Charles H Bélanger, Jamil Razmak
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to document the need for implementing a fall prevention strategy in an emergency department (ED). The paper also spells out the research process that led to approving an assessment tool for use in hospital outpatient services. Design/methodology/approach The fall risk assessment tool was based on the Morse Fall Scale. Gender mix and age above 65 and 80 years were assessed on six risk assessment variables using χ2 analyses. A logistic regression analysis and model were used to test predictor strength and relationships among variables...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance
Alexis Rump, Daniela Stricklin, Andreas Lamkowski, Stefan Eder, Michael Abend, Matthias Port
OBJECTIVE: In radiological emergencies, there is a risk of radionuclide incorporation. The radiological doses absorbed can be reduced by decorporation treatment. Antidote requirements depend on the scenario and treatment strategy ("urgent approach": immediate treatment of all patients with possible incorporation; "precautionary approach": treatment only after confirmation of incorporation). We calculated the number of daily antidote doses for different scenarios and the differences in outcome for both treatment strategies...
October 2017: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
R Pullicino, K Das
Gadolinium-based contrast agents have greatly expanded the capability of magnetic resonance imaging and have been used extensively in neuroradiology over the past 30 years. When initially developed they were thought to be relatively harmless; it was later discovered they are associated with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and should be used with caution in certain patient groups, especially those with renal failure. Lately it has been found that the use of these contrast agents may result in deposition of gadolinium in the brain even in patients with an intact blood-brain barrier...
September 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
Ivo Vlaev, Brian Wallace, Nicholas Wright, Antoinette Nicolle, Paul Dolan, Raymond Dolan
Many important decisions are taken not by the person who will ultimately gain or lose from the outcome, but on their behalf, by somebody else. We examined economic decision-making about risk and time in situations in which deciders chose for others who also chose for them. We propose that this unique setting, which has not been studied before, elicits perception of reciprocity that prompts a unique bias in preferences. We found that decision-makers are less patient (more discounting), and more risk averse for losses than gains, with other peoples' money, especially when their choices for others are more uncertain...
June 2017: Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics
Gregory E Kaebnick, Michael K Gusmano
Can we make wise policy decisions about still-emerging technologies-decisions that are grounded in facts yet anticipate unknowns and promote the public's preferences and values? There is a widespread feeling that we should try. There also seems to be widespread agreement that the central element in wise decisions is the assessment of benefits and costs, understood as a process that consists, at least in part, in measuring, tallying, and comparing how different outcomes would affect the public interest. But how benefits and costs are best weighed when making decisions about whether to move forward with an emerging technology is not clear...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
Andrew Stirling, Josie Coburn
The purpose of this essay is to critically review the design of methods for ethically robust forms of technology appraisal in the regulation of research and innovation in synthetic biology. It will focus, in particular, on the extent to which cost-benefit analysis offers a basis for informing decisions about which technological pathways to pursue and which to discourage. A further goal is to consider what (if anything) the precautionary principle might offer in enabling better decisions. And this, in turn, raises questions about why mention of precaution can excite accusations of unscientific bias or irrational, "anti-innovation" extremism...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
Gregory E Kaebnick, Michael K Gusmano
In the technology assessment literature, the leading alternative to CBA-like methods is usually held to be precaution, which is understood in various ways but is always about making decisions under conditions of uncertainty. Under such conditions, proponents of precaution commonly hold, a straightforward tallying of potential outcomes does not seem possible. Since CBA aims to tally up outcomes to determine which outcome would produce the greatest public benefit, precaution begins to look like, not just an alternative to CBA, but an incompatible alternative...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
Giovanni Dothel, Maria Raffaella Barbaro, Emanuel Raschi, Giovanni Barbara, Fabrizio De Ponti
Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) is a common disorder characterized by a complex pathophysiology hampering optimal targeted drug development. Recent advances in our understanding of key underlying mechanisms prompted novel therapeutics including novel pharmacological approaches. Areas covered: This review summarizes the latest advancements in the pipeline of IBS-D drugs focusing on new pharmacological targets, efficacy and safety of medicinal products considering the recent harmonization of regulatory requirements by the FDA and the EMA...
February 22, 2018: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Antoine Moinet, Romualdo Pastor-Satorras, Alain Barrat
Many progresses in the understanding of epidemic spreading models have been obtained thanks to numerous modeling efforts and analytical and numerical studies, considering host populations with very different structures and properties, including complex and temporal interaction networks. Moreover, a number of recent studies have started to go beyond the assumption of an absence of coupling between the spread of a disease and the structure of the contacts on which it unfolds. Models including awareness of the spread have been proposed, to mimic possible precautionary measures taken by individuals that decrease their risk of infection, but have mostly considered static networks...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Michael S Green, Johann J Mathew, Lia J Michos, Parmis Green, Mansoor M Aman
Introduction: An acquired Tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is commonly caused by a malignancy or trauma, with pulmonary infection or aspiration being the presenting symptom. However, in the critical care setting the presentation can be subtle and may present with difficult ventilation. High endotracheal tube cuff pressures can lead to tracheal erosions and thus increasing the chances for developing a TEF. Prolonged intubation in the presence of other risk factors like poor general state of health, episodic hypotension, nasogastric tubes, and repeated intubations can increase the likelihood of developing an acquired TEF...
August 2017: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Enrico Spinas, Antonello Mameli, Luca Giannetti
Background: Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) represent 18-30% of all oral pathologies and a considerable number of these are sports related. It is very important to treat sports-related injuries and prevent complications. However, very few studies investigate the most expedient therapeutic strategies for the treatment of dental trauma correlated to sports. Objective: The aim of this work was to focus on the average recovery time for different lesions, to assess adequate times for each athlete, to identify any association with complications and to investigate whether or not the use of mouth-guards interfered with a full recovery to normal health...
2018: Open Dentistry Journal
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