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Y Zipori, P Jakobi, I Solt, P Abecassis
Pregnant women with lower back tattoos who wish to have an epidural placed during labour pose a dilemma to anesthesiologists. Clear guidelines have not been established. We reviewed the epidural risks in pregnant women with low back tattoos and have suggested precautionary measures to minimise them. Given the limited information available, and in the absence of a clear evidence-based medical contraindication, an epidural technique should not be excluded in those women with a lower back tattoo.
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
S Cowlishaw, S L Thomas
Research indicates that the evidential bases for many harm reduction policies targeting hazardous consumptions (including tobacco, alcohol and gambling) have been distorted by commercial industries that derive revenue from such commodities. These distortions are best illustrated by research on tobacco and alcohol, which indicates similar tactics used by industries to determine favourable policy environments through engineering of evidence, among other approaches. Although there is concern that gambling research is similarly vulnerable to commercial interests, the relevant literature lags far behind other fields and the aim of this paper is to increase familiarity with tactics used by industries for influencing research...
November 6, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
Helena Wiklund, John D Taylor, Thomas G Dahlgren, Christiane Todt, Chiho Ikebe, Muriel Rabone, Adrian G Glover
We present the first DNA taxonomy publication on abyssal Mollusca from the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ), central Pacific ocean, using material collected as part of the Abyssal Baseline (ABYSSLINE) environmental survey cruise 'AB01' to the UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UKSRL) polymetallic-nodule exploration area 'UK-1' in the eastern CCZ. This is the third paper in a series to provide regional taxonomic data for a region that is undergoing intense deep-sea mineral exploration for high-grade polymetallic nodules...
2017: ZooKeys
Jasmine H Francis, David H Abramson, Xunda Ji, Carol L Shields, Luiz F Teixeira, Amy C Schefler, Nathalie Cassoux, Doris Hadjistilianou, Jesse L Berry, Shahar Frenkel, Francis L Munier
Importance: The risk of extraocular extension from injecting chemotherapy into eyes with retinoblastoma is minimally understood; however, understanding this risk is important because of the increasing use of intravitreous chemotherapy. Objective: To evaluate the risk of extraocular extension in eyes with retinoblastoma that have received intravitreous chemotherapy injections. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study was performed in 655 patients at 10 retinoblastoma centers in North and South American, European, Israeli, and Chinese centers...
November 2, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
Rebekah L Sayers, Lee A Gethings, Victoria Lee, Anuradha Balasundaram, Philip J Johnson, Justin A Marsh, Antonietta Wallace, Helen Brown, Adrian Rogers, James I Langridge, E N Clare Mills
Peanut is an important food allergen but cannot currently be reliably detected and quantified in processed foods at low levels. Three mg protein/Kg is increasingly being used as a reference dose above which precautionary allergen labeling (PAL) is applied to food products. Two exemplar matrices (chocolate dessert and chocolate bar) were prepared and incurred at 0, 3, 10 or 50 mg/Kg peanut protein using a commercially available lightly roasted peanut flour ingredient. After simple buffer extraction employing an acid labile detergent, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) experiments were used to assess matrix effects on detection of a set of seven peptide targets derived from peanut allergens using either conventional or microfluidic chromatographic separation prior to mass spectrometry...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
Abdelmadjid Djoumad, Audrey Nisole, Reza Zahiri, Luca Freschi, Sandrine Picq, Dawn E Gundersen-Rindal, Michael E Sparks, Ken Dewar, Don Stewart, Halim Maaroufi, Roger C Levesque, Richard C Hamelin, Michel Cusson
The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., is one of the most destructive forest pests in the world. While the subspecies established in North America is the European gypsy moth (L. dispar dispar), whose females are flightless, the two Asian subspecies, L. dispar asiatica and L. dispar japonica, have flight-capable females, enhancing their invasiveness and warranting precautionary measures to prevent their permanent establishment in North America. Various molecular tools have been developed to help distinguish European from Asian subspecies, several of which are based on the mitochondrial barcode region...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Debesh Jha, Ji-In Kim, Goo-Rak Kwon
Background. Error-free diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) from healthy control (HC) patients at an early stage of the disease is a major concern, because information about the condition's severity and developmental risks present allows AD sufferer to take precautionary measures before irreversible brain damage occurs. Recently, there has been great interest in computer-aided diagnosis in magnetic resonance image (MRI) classification. However, distinguishing between Alzheimer's brain data and healthy brain data in older adults (age > 60) is challenging because of their highly similar brain patterns and image intensities...
2017: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Mohammed Alamgir, Mason J Campbell, Sean Sloan, Miriam Goosem, Gopalasamy Reuben Clements, Mahmoud I Mahmoud, William F Laurance
It is projected that 25 million km of new paved roads will be developed globally by 2050 - enough to encircle the planet more than 600 times. Roughly 90% of new roads will be built in developing nations, frequently in tropical and subtropical regions with high biodiversity and environmental values. Many developing nations are borrowing from international lenders or negotiating access to their natural resources in order to expand their transportation infrastructure. Given the unprecedented pace and extent of these initiatives, it is vital to thoroughly assess the potential consequences of large-scale road and highway projects...
October 23, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Charalambos Chrysostomou, Harris Partaourides, Huseyin Seker
The Influenza type A virus can be considered as one of the most severe viruses that can infect multiple species with often fatal consequences to the hosts. The Haemagglutinin (HA) gene of the virus has the potential to be a target for antiviral drug development realised through accurate identification of its sub-types and possible the targeted hosts. In this paper, to accurately predict if an Influenza type A virus has the capability to infect human hosts, by using only the HA gene, is therefore developed and tested...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Yeboah-Agyepong Mark, Amoah Philip, Agbo W Nelson, Ashley Muspratt, Samuel Aikins
This study assesses the microbial and heavy metal distribution in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) cultured in waste stabilization pond, and their subsequent suitability for human consumption. Treated wastewater-fed pond (WFP) was used in the culture of the fish with a non-wastewater fed pond (NWFP), fed with ground and rain water as control. Pond water, sediments and fish tissue (gill, liver, gut and skin) samples from both sources were analyzed for pathogens and heavy metal levels. Escherichia coli populations in the sediments and water from the WFP exceeded the maximum permissible limit by 2-3 log units as expected...
October 23, 2017: Environmental Technology
Giovanni A Zurzolo, Rachel L Peters, Jennifer J Koplin, Maximilian de Courten, Michael L Mathai, Katrina J Allen
Precautionary allergen labelling (PAL) has resulted in consumer confusion. Previous research has shown that interpretive labels (using graphics, symbols, or colours) are better understood than the traditional forms of labels. In this study, we aimed to understand if consumers would use interpretive labels (symbol, mobile phone application and a toll-free number) with or without medical advice that was advocated by the food industry rather than the normal PAL. This is relevant information for industry and clinicians as it provides an insight into the food allergic perception regarding PAL...
2017: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
Blake Klocke, Matthew Becker, James Lewis, Robert C Fleischer, Carly R Muletz-Wolz, Larry Rockwood, A Alonso Aguirre, Brian Gratwicke
We engaged pet salamander owners in the United States to screen their animals for two amphibian chytrid fungal pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and B. salamandrivorans (Bsal). We provided pet owners with a sampling kit and instructional video to swab the skin of their animals. We received 639 salamander samples from 65 species by mail, and tested them for Bd and Bsal using qPCR. We detected Bd on 1.3% of salamanders (95% CI 0.0053-0.0267) and did not detect Bsal (95% CI 0.0000-0.0071). If Bsal is present in the U...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Carlo Valerio Bellieni, Valentina Nardi, Giuseppe Buonocore, Sandra Di Fabio, Iole Pinto, Alberto Verrotti
BACKGROUND: Neonatal incubators are important tools for sick newborns in the first few days of life. Nevertheless, their electric engine, often very close to the newborn's body, emits electromagnetic fields (EMF) to which newborns are exposed. Aim of this paper is to review the available literature on EMF exposure in incubators, and the effects of such exposures on newborns that have been investigated. METHODS: We carried out a systematic review of studies about EMF emissions produced by incubators, using Medline and Embase databases from 1993 to 2017...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
B Vanthournout
Optimal care for abused children and their families can only be achieved through joint and committed endeavours from scientists, social workers and judiciary. The topic of child abuse and neglect will be introduced by a short account of the evolution of the status of the child in Western society. This clinic will be approached in its systemic dimension and will examine the place of the child in the family system and society in general. Clinical intervention intricacy as well as widely varying factors to be taken into account such as protection, ethics, therapy, way of life etc...
2017: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
Maria S Asdourian, Meyha N Swaroop, Hoda E Sayegh, Cheryl L Brunelle, Amir I Mina, Hui Zheng, Melissa N Skolny, Alphonse G Taghian
Purpose This study examined the lifestyle and clinical risk factors for lymphedema in a cohort of patients who underwent bilateral breast cancer surgery. Patients and Methods Between 2013 and 2016, 327 patients who underwent bilateral breast cancer surgery were prospectively screened for arm lymphedema as quantified by the weight-adjusted volume change (WAC) formula. Arm perometry and subjective data were collected preoperatively and at regular intervals postoperatively. At the time of each measurement, patients completed a risk assessment survey that reported the number of blood draws, injections, blood pressure readings, trauma to the at-risk arm, and number of flights since the previous measurement...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Mohamed A Zaazoue, Mostafa Bedewy, Liliana C Goumnerova
BACKGROUND: Head immobilization devices (HIDs) are a staple of neurosurgical procedures, including in the intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) operating rooms (ORs) where material modifications were necessary for compatibility with the magnets utilized. OBJECTIVE: To present the experience in this OR environment and discuss the multifactorial nature of the observed adverse events. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed, utilizing the Department of Neurosurgery and iMRI OR databases to identify patients who suffered complications related to HIDs between November 2007 and March 2016...
June 20, 2017: Neurosurgery
S O Martins, A O Osiyemi
INTRODUCTION: Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a highly contagious viral infection that requires a high risk perception and practice of good hand hygiene by regular hand washing or use of hand sanitizers for infection control at all time. The declaration of Nigeria as an Ebola-free country by the World Health Organization on the 20th of October, 2014 has prompted many Nigerians, including healthcare workers, to discontinue the regular practice of good hand hygiene which was commonplace during the EVD outbreak...
June 2017: Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine
Philip W Wirtz, Cynthia A Rohrbeck
In order to formulate effective communication and intervention strategies to respond to the widespread lack of preparedness for public health crises resulting from natural and human-made disasters, researchers have developed models describing the interrelationships between factors associated with emergency preparedness decisions. Empirical research has generally assumed that two key elements of most health behavior theories-self-efficacy and response efficacy-additively influence the decision to prepare, despite compelling theoretical rationale for an interactive relationship...
October 2017: Journal of Health Communication
Vesna Malinova, Bawarjan Schatlo, Martin Voit, Patricia Suntheim, Veit Rohde, Dorothee Mielke
OBJECTIVE Clipping of a ruptured intracranial aneurysm requires some degree of vessel manipulation, which in turn is believed to contribute to vasoconstriction. One of the techniques used during surgery is temporary clipping of the parent vessel. Temporary clipping may either be mandatory in cases of premature rupture (rescue) or represent a precautionary or facilitating surgical step (elective). The aim of this study was to study the association between temporary clipping during aneurysm surgery and the incidence of vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) in a large clinical series...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
Shohn G Wormgoor, Lance C Dalleck, Caryn Zinn, Nigel K Harris
BACKGROUND: Optimising exercise-induced physiological responses without increasing the risk of negative exaggerated responses is an important aspect of exercise prescription for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, knowledge of acute responses, including exaggerated responses, of different training modalities is limited. AIM: To compare acute physiological responses of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in T2DM...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
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