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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735337/thresholds-of-toxicological-concern-setting-a-threshold-for-testing-below-which-there-is-little-concern
#1
Thomas Hartung
Low dose, low risk; very low dose, no real risk. Setting a pragmatic threshold below which concerns become negligible is the purpose of thresholds of toxicological concern (TTC). The idea is that such threshold values do not need to be established for each and every chemical based on experimental data, but that by analyzing the distribution of lowest or no-effect doses of many chemicals, a TTC can be defined - typically using the 5th percentile of this distribution and lowering it by an uncertainty factor of, e...
2017: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730124/cataract-surgery-on-post-radial-keratotomy-patients
#2
Alessandro Meduri, Mario Urso, Giuseppe A Signorino, Miguel Rechichi, Cosimo Mazzotta, Stephen Kaufman
This study aims to evaluate and to compare three different approaches of cataract surgery to patients with previous radial keratotomy (RK), and to analyze the mechanical properties of the cornea after cataract surgery. Three groups of patients, each one including 8 eyes of patients with 16 RK incisions. The first group includes eyes with the first cataract incision superiorly, the second group in the temporal area, the third group in temporal area and a precautionary stabilizing suture across the RK incision adjacent to the main tunnel...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719087/mri-guided-stereotactic-neurosurgical-procedures-in-a-diagnostic-mri-suite-background-and-safe-practice-recommendations
#3
Paul S Larson, Jon T Willie, Sudhakar Vadivelu, Hooman Azmi-Ghadimi, Amy Nichols, Loretta Litz Fauerbach, Helen Boehm Johnson, Denise Graham
The development of navigation technology facilitating MRI-guided stereotactic neurosurgery has enabled neurosurgeons to perform a variety of procedures ranging from deep brain stimulation to laser ablation entirely within an intraoperative or diagnostic MRI suite while having real-time visualization of brain anatomy. Prior to this technology, some of these procedures required multisite workflow patterns that presented significant risk to the patient during transport. For those facilities with access to this technology, safe practice guidelines exist only for procedures performed within an intraoperative MRI...
July 2017: Journal of Healthcare Risk Management: the Journal of the American Society for Healthcare Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715759/do-pcdd-pcdf-standard-solutions-used-in-dioxin-analysis-pose-a-risk-as-potentially-acutely-toxic-to-lab-personnel
#4
REVIEW
Rainer Malisch, Michael S Denison, Heidelore Fiedler, Peter Fürst, Ron L A P Hoogenboom, Alexander Schaechtele, Dieter Schrenk, Martin van den Berg
Laboratory safety requires protecting personnel from chemical exposures. Working with stock solutions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) in routine analysis of feed and food with bioanalytical or physicochemical methods raises some concerns. Since PCDD/PCDFs are considered as possibly acutely toxic, the potential risks were evaluated to determine whether supervision of their use is necessary. Based on LD50-data for oral or dermal intake, hazard classification of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) as a substance (category 1) and in commercially available TCDD standard solutions (category 4) is different...
July 5, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692688/addressing-uncertainty-in-modelling-cumulative-impacts-within-maritime-spatial-planning-in-the-adriatic-and-ionian-region
#5
Elena Gissi, Stefano Menegon, Alessandro Sarretta, Federica Appiotti, Denis Maragno, Andrea Vianello, Daniel Depellegrin, Chiara Venier, Andrea Barbanti
Maritime spatial planning (MSP) is envisaged as a tool to apply an ecosystem-based approach to the marine and coastal realms, aiming at ensuring that the collective pressure of human activities is kept within acceptable limits. Cumulative impacts (CI) assessment can support science-based MSP, in order to understand the existing and potential impacts of human uses on the marine environment. A CI assessment includes several sources of uncertainty that can hinder the correct interpretation of its results if not explicitly incorporated in the decision-making process...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690397/pesticide-exposure-and-health-problems-among-female-horticulture-workers-in-tanzania
#6
REVIEW
Ezra Jonathan Mrema, Aiwerasia Vera Ngowi, Stephen Simon Kishinhi, Simon Henry Mamuya
Commercialization of horticulture farming, expansion of farms, and the practice of monoculture favor the proliferation of pests, which in turn increases the need for pesticides. Increased exposure to pesticides is associated with inadequate knowledge on the hazardous nature of pesticides, poor hygiene practices, lack of availability of washing facilities, and insufficient adherence to precautionary instructions on pesticide labels. Mitigating the risks posed by pesticides is considered a less compelling interest than alleviating poverty...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683931/filling-the-gap-using-fishers-knowledge-to-map-the-extent-and-intensity-of-fishing-activity
#7
Claire L Szostek, Lee G Murray, Ewen Bell, Michel J Kaiser
Knowledge of the extent and intensity of fishing activities is critical to inform management in relation to fishing impacts on marine conservation features. Such information can also provide insight into the potential socio-economic impacts of closures (or other restrictions) of fishing grounds that could occur through the future designation of Marine Conservation Zones (MCZs). We assessed the accuracy and validity of fishing effort data (spatial extent and relative effort) obtained from Fishers' Local Knowledge (LK) data compared to that derived from Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) data for a high-value shellfish fishery, the king scallop (Pecten maximus L...
June 20, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665794/facts-about-phthalate-toxicity-in-humans-and-their-occurrence-in-alcoholic-beverages
#8
Irena Brčić Karačonji, Sonja Anić Jurica, Dario Lasić, Karlo Jurica
Phthalates are esters of phthalic acid and aliphatic alcohol added to plastic to improve its softness, flexibility, and extensibility. They easily migrate from plastic products into the environment because of their physical and chemical properties. This review summarises their characteristics, distribution in the environment, monitoring, use, toxic effects on human health, regulatory limits in different matrices and products, and tolerable daily intake. The studies we have reviewed suggest that phthalates have a potential to affect reproduction and development in humans...
June 27, 2017: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660386/environmental-decision-making-on-acid-mine-drainage-issues-in-south-africa-an-argument-for-the-precautionary-principle
#9
T J Morodi, Charles Mpofu
This paper examines the issue of acid mine drainage in South Africa and environmental decision making processes that could be taken to mitigate the problem in the context of both conventional risk assessment and the precautionary principle. It is argued that conventional risk assessment protects the status quo and hence cannot be entirely relied upon as an effective tool to resolve environmental problems in the context of South Africa, a developing country with complex environmental health concerns. The complexity of the environmental issues is discussed from historical and political perspectives...
June 28, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647993/-impact-of-hiv-hbv-infection-and-hiv-hbv-co-infection-on-outcomes-of-pregnancy
#10
Y Yang, W T Cheng, Y B Zhou, Q W Jiang
Both HIV and HBV infection have become major health problems, of global concern, due to the high prevalence in the past few decades. Data from cumulated epidemiological surveys have shown the links between maternal HIV or HBV infection and adverse outcomes on pregnancy. Maternal HIV or HBV infection may also increase the mother-to-child (MTCT) transmission of the two diseases. However, association between HIV-HBV co-infection and adverse pregnancy is still inconclusive. Does maternal HIV-HBV co-infection have an impact on mother-to-child transmission on either HIV or HBV? Study on effective precautionary measures to promote both maternal and child's health is deemed necessary...
June 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644573/characteristics-of-integrons-and-associated-gene-cassettes-in-antibiotic-resistant-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-free-ranging-food-animals-in-china
#11
Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Hui Zhang, Shucheng Huang, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal, Khalid Mehmood, Houqiang Luo, Jiakui Li
We investigated the occurrence of integrons in antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli strains isolated from free-ranging food animals, including yaks, piglets, and chickens, in China, and characterized the gene cassettes harbored within the integrons. We examined 432 E. coli strains that exhibited resistance to at least one class of antibiotics. Integrase genes and associated gene cassettes were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, restriction fragment-length polymorphism, DNA sequencing, conjugation experiments, and plasmid analysis...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634813/long-term-excessive-selenium-supplementation-induces-hypertension-in-rats
#12
Denise Grotto, Maria Fernanda Hornos Carneiro, Michele Mazzaron de Castro, Solange Cristina Garcia, Fernando Barbosa Junior
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element involved in several biological pathways, naturally found in rocks, soils, and food. Even though the daily requirement of Se is achieved through a balanced diet, the use of Se supplements has been frequent. Due to the risk of toxic effects of having Se in excess, supplementation is still under debate. The aim was to evaluate the effects of long-term Se supplementation upon systolic blood pressure (SBP) and redox status of rats exposed to sodium selenite. Male Wistar rats were exposed to 2 and 6 mg/L of sodium selenite in drinking water for 85 days...
June 20, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622847/historic-scale-and-persistence-of-drill-cuttings-impacts-on-north-sea-benthos
#13
Lea-Anne Henry, Dan Harries, Paul Kingston, J Murray Roberts
Despite its long history of hydrocarbon exploitation, the United Kingdom lacks scientific protocols to monitor ecological impacts of drill cuttings (mixtures between rocky material excavated from wells and drilling mud). The present study used the UK Benthos industry database to apply standardised variance partitioning and measure the scale and persistence of these effects at 19 sites across the UK sector of the North Sea. Generally, effects were limited to within 1 km from the platform, but two platforms historically drilled with oil-based mud were impacted up to 1...
May 31, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618659/projected-impact-of-climate-change-and-chemical-emissions-on-the-water-quality-of-the-european-rivers-rhine-and-meuse-a-drinking-water-perspective
#14
Rosa M A Sjerps, Thomas L Ter Laak, Gertjan J J G Zwolsman
Low river discharges of the rivers Rhine and Meuse are expected to occur more often and more prolonged in a changing climate. During these dry periods the dilution of point sources such as sewage effluents is reduced leading to a decline in chemical water quality. This study projects chemical water quality of the rivers Rhine and Meuse in the year 2050, based on projections of chemical emissions and two climate scenarios: moderate and fast climate change. It focuses on specific compounds known to be relevant to drinking water production, i...
June 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612260/utility-of-spherical-human-liver-microtissues-for-prediction-of-clinical-drug-induced-liver-injury
#15
William R Proctor, Alison J Foster, Jennifer Vogt, Claire Summers, Brian Middleton, Mark A Pilling, Daniel Shienson, Monika Kijanska, Simon Ströbel, Jens M Kelm, Paul Morgan, Simon Messner, Dominic Williams
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) continues to be a major source of clinical attrition, precautionary warnings, and post-market withdrawal of drugs. Accordingly, there is a need for more predictive tools to assess hepatotoxicity risk in drug discovery. Three-dimensional (3D) spheroid hepatic cultures have emerged as promising tools to assess mechanisms of hepatotoxicity, as they demonstrate enhanced liver phenotype, metabolic activity, and stability in culture not attainable with conventional two-dimensional hepatic models...
June 13, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611466/satellite-tagging-of-mediterranean-fin-whales-working-towards-the-identification-of-critical-habitats-and-the-focussing-of-mitigation-measures
#16
Simone Panigada, Gregory P Donovan, Jean-Noël Druon, Giancarlo Lauriano, Nino Pierantonio, Enrico Pirotta, Margherita Zanardelli, Alexandre N Zerbini, Giuseppe Notarbartolo di Sciara
Mediterranean fin whales comprise a genetically distinct population, listed as Vulnerable (VU) in the IUCN Red List. Collisions with vessels are believed to represent the main cause of human-induced mortality. The identification of critical habitats (including migration routes) incorporating satellite telemetry data is therefore crucial to develop focussed conservation efforts. Between 2012 and 2015 thirteen fin whales were equipped with satellite transmitters, 8 in the Pelagos Sanctuary (although two ceased within two days) and 5 in the Strait of Sicily, to evaluate movements and habitat use...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611320/prevalence-of-low-back-pain-and-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-among-dental-practitioners-in-dakshina-kannada-and-coorg-district
#17
D Anupama Prasad, Drithi Appachu, Vinayak Kamath, D Krishna Prasad
CONTEXT: Dental practitioners who usually have to work for long durations in a particular fixed posture are more prone to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), particularly those involving the hand and wrist and also of the lower back. AIMS: To study the prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and low back pain (LBP) among dental practitioners and to correlate the symptoms with the duration of practice. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A closed-end questionnaire was distributed to 100 dental practitioners from Dakshina Kannada and Coorg districts of Karnataka, India...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606448/platelet-transfusion-in-thrombocytopenic-cancer-patients-sometimes-justified-but-likely-insidious
#18
REVIEW
Thierry Burnouf, Mohamed Elemary, Julia Radosevic, Jerard Seghatchian, Hadi Goubran
The transfusion of platelet concentrates prepared from allogeneic single or pooled donations is a standard procedure in transfusion medicine to stop or prevent bleeding in cancer patients with thrombocytopenia undergoing surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. While platelet transfusion may appear reasonable in many instances, greater scientific and medical attention should however be given to the possibly insidious impact of transfused platelets on the outcome of cancers. Indeed platelets and the microvesicles they release possess all the biological ingredients capable of supporting tumor growth, protecting circulating tumor cells, and to contributing to metastatic invasion...
June 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601370/impact-of-periodontal-treatment-on-hospitalization-for-adverse-respiratory-events-in-asthmatic-adults-a-propensity-matched-cohort-study
#19
Te-Chun Shen, Pei-Ying Chang, Cheng-Li Lin, Chang-Ching Wei, Chih-Yen Tu, Te-Chun Hsia, Chuen-Ming Shih, Wu-Huei Hsu, Fung-Chang Sung, Chia-Hung Kao
BACKGROUND: Periodontal disease is prevalent in asthmatics, but it is unclear whether periodontal treatment plays a role in adverse respiratory events in these patients. We evaluated risk of hospitalization for adverse respiratory events (acute exacerbation, pneumonia, and acute respiratory failure) and mortality in asthmatic adults with and without periodontal treatment. METHODS: We used National Health Insurance (NHI) claims data of Taiwan to identify 4771 asthmatic adults with periodontal disease who underwent periodontal treatment during 2000-2006...
June 7, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601041/results-of-domestic-migration-on-juvenile-delinquency-in-adana-turkey
#20
Sunay Firat, Yigit Iltas, Mete K Gulmen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine the effect of migration on children in the juvenile justice system. The study takes into account whether these children arrived in the city via migration or not, the types of crimes against property and persons committed by the children brought before the Juvenile Courts, and the types, frequency, and durations of punishments and precautionary decisions they received. In addition, the study examines the children's ability to realize the meaning and consequences of their crimes and to lead their future behaviors effectively...
July 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
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