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Donald B Sanders, Janice M Massey
OBJECTIVE: To determine if single-fiber EMG (SFEMG) jitter accurately reflects change in severity in myasthenia gravis (MG). METHODS: We reviewed jitter and outcome data from all MG patients in our clinic who had at least 2 jitter measurements in the extensor digitorum (ED) or frontalis muscle. RESULTS: Change in all parameters of jitter measured with SFEMG electrodes predicted clinical change with acceptable accuracy. Absolute and percentage change in mean MCD were equally accurate in predicting clinical change and were more accurate than change in the proportion of fiber pairs with blocking or normal jitter...
October 19, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
Suma Babu, Erik P Pioro, Jianbo Li, Yuebing Li
INTRODUCTION: We compared the yield of limb and thoracic paraspinal muscles for revealing lower motor neuron (LMN) dysfunction on electromyography (EMG) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: A retrospective review of 354 patients with clinically definite or probable ALS was performed. Seventeen limb muscles and thoracic paraspinal muscles were evaluated for the presence of both active and chronic denervation. RESULTS: Distal limb muscles showed the highest electrodiagnostic sensitivities of LMN dysfunction in ALS regardless of onset region and diagnostic certainty at the time of diagnosis...
October 19, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
Ricardo Noguera Louzada, Daniela Ferrara, Eduardo Amorim Novais, Eric Moult, Emily Cole, Mark Lane, James Fujimoto, Jay S Duker, Caroline R Baumal
To describe the appearance of a scleral-derived feeder vessel in a highly myopic eye with secondary choroidal neovascularization (CNV) as visualized on both en face high-speed swept-source (SS) optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) prototype, and a commercially available spectral-domain (SD) OCTA, with the corresponding en face and cross-sectional structural OCT images. In this case report, a 60-year-old white male presented with high myopia and secondary CNV in the right eye, previously treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor, and was imaged on both SD-OCT and SS-OCT...
October 1, 2016: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Ulku Aka Akturk, Dilek Ernam, Makbule Ozlem Akbay, Nagihan Durmus Koçak, Erhan Ogur, Ilim Irmak
OBJECTIVES: Pleural effusion is a common diagnostic and clinical problem. The differential diagnosis of pleural effusion may be difficult and may require several procedures, including invasive ones. Certain studies have investigated biochemical parameters to facilitate the diagnosis of exudative pleural effusion; however, it remains a challenging problem in clinical practice. We aimed to investigate the potential role of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, which can be easily obtained by determining the cell count of the pleural fluid, in the differential diagnosis of exudative pleural effusion...
October 1, 2016: Clinics
Rodolfo Patussi Correia, Laiz Cameirão Bento, Ana Carolina Apelle Bortolucci, Anderson Marega Alexandre, Andressa da Costa Vaz, Daniela Schimidell, Eduardo de Carvalho Pedro, Fabricio Simões Perin, Sonia Tsukasa Nozawa, Cláudio Ernesto Albers Mendes, Rodrigo de Souza Barroso, Nydia Strachman Bacal
Objective: To discuss the implementation of technical advances in laboratory diagnosis and monitoring of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria for validation of high-sensitivity flow cytometry protocols. Methods: A retrospective study based on analysis of laboratory data from 745 patient samples submitted to flow cytometry for diagnosis and/or monitoring of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Results: Implementation of technical advances reduced test costs and improved flow cytometry resolution for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clone detection...
July 2016: Einstein
Vânia Ames Schommer, Airton Tetelbom Stein, Aline Marcadenti, Estefania Inez Wittke, André Luís Câmara Galvão, Guido Bernardo Aranha Rosito
Objective: To evaluate the association between obesity and levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with heart failure admitted to a tertiary hospital. Methods: Cross-sectional study with a consecutive sampling of hospitalized patients with heart failure. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected, and the nutritional status was assessed through indicators such as body mass index (in kg/m2), waist circumference (in cm), waist-hip ratio, triceps skinfold (in mm) and subscapularis skinfold (in mm)...
July 2016: Einstein
Otto Mauro Dos Santos-Rosa, Henrique Simonsen Lunardelli, Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle Ribeiro-Junior
Background: The pyogenic liver abscess has an incidence of 1.1/1,000 habitants. Mortality can reach 100%. The use of less invasive procedures diminish morbidity and hospital stay. Aim: Identify risk factors in patients who underwent percutaneous drainage guided by ultrasound as treatment. Method: Were analyzed 10 patients submitted to the method. Epidemiological characteristics, laboratory markers and imaging exams (ultrasound and CT) were evaluated...
July 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
Mehran Peyvasteh, Shahnam Askarpour, Nasrollah Ostadian, Mohammad-Reza Moghimi, Hazhir Javaherizadeh
Background: Hirschsprung's disease is the most common cause of pediatric intestinal obstruction. Contrast enema is used for evaluation of the patients with its diagnosis. Aim: To evaluate sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of radiologic findings for diagnosis of Hirschsprung in patients underwent barium enema. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in Imam Khomeini Hospital for one year starting from 2012, April...
July 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
Osama Mosa, Milan Skitek, Ales Jerin
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is still a headache for clinicians and scientists as a possible reason for increased death among intensive care unit (ICU) patients after invasive cardiac surgery. Furthermore, the diagnostic process for AKI using conventional biomarkers is not sufficient to ensure early warning of this condition because of the morbid influence of non-renal factors that definitively delay the time for the prognosis. These imposed limitations have led to significant amounts of research targeted towards identifying novel biomarkers for AKI with a sustained degree of sensitivity and specificity...
October 13, 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
Mahsa Jalali, Ye Yu, Kaichen Xu, Ray J H Ng, Zhaogang Dong, Liancheng Wang, Saman Safari Dinachali, Minghui Hong, Joel K W Yang
Color printing with plasmonic resonators can overcome limitations in pigment-based printing approaches. While layering in pigment-based prints results in familiar color mixing effects, the color effects of stacking plasmonic resonator structures have not been investigated. Here, we demonstrate an experimental strategy to fabricate a 3-tiered complex superlattice of nanostructures with multiple sets of building blocks. Laser interference lithography was used to fabricate the nanostructures and a thin-layer of aluminum was deposited to introduce plasmonic colors...
October 19, 2016: Nanoscale
Shane A Grace, Angela M Sutton, Eric S Armbrecht, Claudia I Vidal, Ilana S Rosman, Maria Y Hurley
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a proliferative disorder of Langerhans cells that can be challenging to distinguish histologically from Langerhans cell (LC) hyperplasia, seen in a variety of inflammatory dermatoses. Lesional cells in both entities demonstrate positive staining for CD1a and S100. Previous studies have demonstrated positive staining of fascin, CD31, and p53 in cases of LCH, but currently, no studies have compared the staining profiles of these markers between LCH and LC hyperplasia. The authors compared immunohistochemical staining profiles of LCH (n = 15) and various inflammatory dermatoses with LC hyperplasia (n = 15) using fascin, CD31, and p53...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Li Lu, Menglin Wu, Longhao Sun, Weidong Li, Weihua Fu, Xuening Zhang, Tong Liu
BACKGROUND: In recent years, CD44 and CD133 have been identified as 2 common used cancer stem cell (CSC) markers in gastric cancer. However, the clinicopathological and prognostic value of these markers in gastric cancer remains controversial; moreover, there is lack of comparison of these 2 markers' roles in clinical applications. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to elucidate these markers' clinicopathological features and association with prognosis in patients with gastric cancer...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Lingling He, Xiaoli Liu, Lijia Wang, Zhiyun Yang
The findings regarding the effects of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients have been inconsistent, and the assessment of different clinical variables for evaluating the effects of TZDs confound a direct comparison of the results of different randomized clinical trials (RCTs), especially with regard to lifestyle changes. In this paper, we performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to clarify the effects of TZD treatment with and without lifestyle changes on histological markers of NASH and clinical variables related to insulin resistance (IR), hyperlipidemia, and obesity...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Andrew Scrima, Meghan G Lubner, Scott King, Gregory Kennedy, Perry J Pickhardt
OBJECTIVE: To compare performance of junior (JR)/senior (SR) abdominal radiologists using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to predict surgical intervention, bowel resection, and presence of bowel ischemia in patients with suspected small-bowel obstruction (SBO). METHODS: Retrospective, institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant, blinded, independent review of MDCT studies for suspected SBO in 179 adults (mean age, 55...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Nelson A Rodriguez-Unda, Ricardo J Bello, Emily M Clarke-Pearson, Abanti Sanyal, Carisa M Cooney, Michele A Manahan, Gedge D Rosson
BACKGROUND: Changes in breast sensation after reconstruction are expected. Return of breast sensation after reconstruction and whether nipple-sparing mastectomy offers a substantial benefit in terms of sensation has been inconsistently documented in the literature. We conducted the current study using the pressure-specified sensory device to quantify postoperative breast sensation in patients undergoing nipple-sparing versus non-nipple-sparing mastectomy. METHODS: Consecutive adult women who underwent nipple-sparing (NSM) and non-NSM (NNSM) and were at least 18 months postreconstruction were included...
October 17, 2016: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Giacomo Veronese, Federico Germini, Stella Ingrassia, Ombretta Cutuli, Valeria Donati, Luca Bonacchini, Maura Marcucci, Andrea Fabbri
BACKGROUND: Electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation is widely performed by emergency physicians. We aimed to determine the accuracy of interpretation of potential ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) ECGs by emergency physicians. METHODS: Thirty-six ECGs resulted in putative STEMI diagnoses were selected. Participants were asked to focus on whether or not the ECG in question met the diagnostic criteria for an acutely blocked coronary artery causing a STEMI...
October 19, 2016: Acute Cardiac Care
Jun Ho Kim, Kyung Hee Lee, Kyoung-Tae Kim, Hyun Jung Kim, Hyeong Sik Ahn, Yeo Ju Kim, Ha Young Lee, Yong Sun Jeon
OBJECTIVE: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of digital tomosynthesis (DTS) to that of chest radiography for the detection of pulmonary nodules by meta-analysis. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed to identify relevant original studies from January 1, 1976 to August 31, 2016. The quality of included studies was assessed by quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS-2). Per-patient data were used to calculate the sensitivity and specificity and per-lesion data were used to calculate the detection rate...
October 19, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
R T Pivik, Aline Andres, Shasha Bai, Mario A Cleves, Kevin B Tennal, Yuyuan Gu, Thomas M Badger
Since maturational processes triggering increased attunement to native language features in early infancy are sensitive to dietary factors, infant-diet related differences in brain processing of native-language speech stimuli might indicate variations in the onset of this tuning process. We measured cortical responses (ERPs) to syllables in 4 and 5 month old infants fed breast milk, milk formula, or soy formula and found syllable discrimination (P350) and syntactic-related functions (P600) but not syllable perception (P170) varied by diet, but not gender or background measures...
October 19, 2016: Developmental Neuropsychology
Jyothi Padiadpu, Priyanka Baloni, Kushi Anand, MohamedHusen Munshi, Chandrani Thakur, Abhilash Mohan, Amit Singh, Nagasuma Chandra
The global mechanisms and associated molecular alterations that occur in drug-resistant mycobacteria are poorly understood. To address this, we obtain genomics data and then construct a genome-scale response network in isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium smegmatis and apply a network-mining algorithm. Through this, we decipher global alterations in an unbiased manner and identify emergent vulnerabilities in resistant bacilli, of which redox response was prominent. Using phenotypic profiling, we find that resistant bacilli exhibit collateral sensitivity to several compounds that block antioxidant responses...
September 9, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Bhaskar Dudem, Yeong Hwan Ko, Jung Woo Leem, Joo Ho Lim, Jae Su Yu
We report the hierarchical nano/micro architectured (HNMA)-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film-based hybrid energy cells with multi-functionality to simultaneously harvest mechanical, solar, and wind energies. These films consist of nano/micro dual-scale architectures (i.e., nanonipples on inverted micro pyramidal arrays) on the PDMS surface. The HNMA-PDMS is replicable by a facile and cost-effective soft imprint lithography (SIL) using a nanoporous anodic alumina oxide (AAO) film formed on the micro-pyramidal (MP) structured silicon substrate...
October 19, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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