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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922906/ethical-and-logistical-issues-raised-by-the-advanced-donation-program-pay-it-forward-scheme
#1
Lainie Friedman Ross, James R Rodrigue, Robert M Veatch
The advanced donation program was proposed in 2014 to allow an individual to donate a kidney in order to provide a voucher for a kidney in the future for a particular loved one. In this article, we explore the logistical and ethical issues that such a program raises. We argue that such a program is ethical in principle but there are many logistical issues that need to be addressed to ensure that the actual program is fair to both those who do and do not participate in this program.
October 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922905/kidney-vouchers-and-inequity-in-transplantation
#2
Samuel J Kerstein
This article probes the voucher program from an ethical perspective. It focuses mainly on an issue of inequity. A disparity exists in US kidney transplantation. Although African-Americans suffer far higher rates of ESRD than whites, African-Americans are much less likely than whites to get a transplant (Ilori et al., 2015, 1). The article explores the voucher program in light of this disparity. It motivates the view that, at least in the short term, more whites than African-Americans are likely to take advantage of the voucher program...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922904/the-body-as-gift-commodity-or-something-in-between-ethical-implications-of-advanced-kidney-donation
#3
Julian J Koplin
An innovative program recently initiated at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Medical Center allows people to donate a kidney in exchange for a voucher that a loved one can redeem for a kidney if and when needed. As a relatively new practice, the ethical implications of advanced kidney donation have not yet been widely discussed. This paper reflects on some of the bioethical issues at stake in this new donation program, as well as some broader philosophical issues related to the meaning and moral salience of commodification...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922903/banking-on-living-kidney-donors-a-new-way-to-facilitate-donation-without-compromising-on-ethical-values
#4
Dominique E Martin, Gabriel M Danovitch
Public surveys conducted in many countries report widespread willingness of individuals to donate a kidney while alive to a family member or close friend, yet thousands suffer and many die each year while waiting for a kidney transplant. Advocates of financial incentive programs or "regulated markets" in kidneys present the problem of the kidney shortage as one of insufficient public motivation to donate, arguing that incentives will increase the number of donors. Others believe the solutions lie-at least in part-in facilitating so-called "altruistic donation;" harnessing the willingness of relatives and friends to donate by addressing the many barriers which serve as disincentives to living donation...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922695/strategies-for-detecting-colon-cancer-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#5
REVIEW
William A Bye, Tran M Nguyen, Claire E Parker, Vipul Jairath, James E East
BACKGROUND: Patients with longstanding ulcerative colitis and colonic Crohn's disease have an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) compared with the general population. This review assessed the evidence that endoscopic surveillance may prolong life by allowing earlier detection of CRC or its pre-cursor lesion, dysplasia, in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of cancer surveillance programs for diagnosis of IBD-associated colorectal cancer and in reducing the mortality rate from colorectal cancer in patients with IBD...
September 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922617/training-the-next-generation-of-biobankers-a-two-year-master-s-course-in-the-management-of-biobanks
#6
Emmanuelle Gormally, Isabelle Hardy, Elodie Caboux, Jeanne-Hélène di Donato, Pierre Hainaut, Paul Hofman
The growing complexity of biobanking requires dedicated professional staff who are trained in multiple aspects of the biobanking process, including technical, managerial, regulatory, and ethical aspects, and who have a good understanding of the challenges of biospecimen research, but also of the challenges related to the sustainability of future biobanks. Up to the present, biobanking staff have been trained in an ad-hoc manner, usually through specific short duration courses, for example, summer schools. In this article, we describe the development/establishment of a systematic 2-year training program at the Master level intended for students with a background in life sciences and providing them with a professional qualification as a "Biobank Manager...
September 18, 2017: Biopreservation and Biobanking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922581/the-crisis-of-patient-physician-trust-and-bioethics-lessons-and-inspirations-from-china
#7
Jing-Bao Nie, Lun Li, Grant Gillett, Joseph D Tucker, Arthur Kleinman
Trust is indispensable not only for interpersonal relationships and social life, but for good quality healthcare. As manifested in the increasing violence and tension in patient-physician relationships, China has been experiencing a widespread and profound crisis of patient-physician trust. And globally, the crisis of trust is an issue that every society, either developing or developed, has to face in one way or another. Yet, in spite of some pioneering works, the subject of patient-physician trust and mistrust - a crucial matter in healthcare especially because there are numerous ethical implications - has largely been marginalized in bioethics as a global discourse...
September 18, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922456/adolescents-lived-experiences-of-making-health-choices-an-ethical-point-of-view
#8
Tanja Moilanen, Anna-Maija Pietilä, Margaret Coffey, Sanna Sinikallio, Mari Kangasniemi
This study describes and interprets adolescents' lived experiences of their rights, duties and responsibilities in relation to their health choices. Fourteen focus group interviews with 67 adolescents aged 15 and 16 were conducted and analysed using the phenomenological hermeneutical method. Adolescents' lived experiences of their rights in relation to their health choices were described as things that were allowed. Duties and responsibilities were perceived as something that they were required to carry out for their own health or other people's health...
September 18, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922278/defining-the-critical-elements-for-the-most-common-procedures-in-spine-surgery-a-consensus-of-orthopaedic-and-neurosurgical-surgeons
#9
Joseph L Laratta, Samuel Cohen-Tanugi, Jamal N Shillingford, Joseph M Lombardi, Lawrence G Lenke, K Daniel Riew, Ronald A Lehman, Steven C Ludwig
STUDY DESIGN: Survey. OBJECTIVE: To define the critical elements of common spine surgeries. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Despite significant relevance to the field of spine surgery, the term "critical element" of surgery has not been clearly defined. Every surgical procedure involves numerous steps, each with its own potential for complications and harm to the patient. Despite its crucial role in surgical training, billing, and the ethicality of concurrent surgery, the term "critical element" of surgery has not been defined...
September 15, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921810/bones-morphogenic-protein-4-and-retinoic-acid-combined-treatment-comparative-analysis-for-in-vitro-differentiation-potential-of-murine-mesenchymal-stem-cells-derived-from-bone-marrow-and-adipose-tissue-into-germ-cells
#10
Maryam H Shirzeily, Neda Khanlarkhani, Fardin Amidi, Farshad H Shirzeily, Fereydoon S Aval, Aligholi Sobhani
Nowadays, infertility is no longer considered as an unsolvable disorder due to progresses in germ cells derived from stem lineage with diverse origins. Technical and ethical challenges push researchers to investigate various tissue sources to approach more efficient gametes. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the efficacy of a combined medium, retinoic acid (RA) together with Bone Morphogenic Protein-4 (BMP4), on differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells (BMMSCs) and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) into germ cells...
September 18, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921637/to-serve-or-not-to-serve-ethical-and-policy-implications
#11
Leonard A Jason
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) is one of the nation's more influential health-related non-profit organizations. It plays a large role in shaping health policy by commissioning panels to develop "white papers" describing research and recommendations on a variety of health topics. These white paper publications are often used to help make policy decisions at the legislative and executive levels. Such a prominent institution might seem like a natural ally for policy-related collaborative efforts. As community psychologists, we strongly endorse efforts to positively influence public policy at the national level...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921621/-but-we-want-to-work-the-movement-of-child-workers-in-peru-and-the-actions-for-reducing-child-labor
#12
Isidro Maya Jariego
The program Edúcame Primero (Educate Me First) is an evidence-based practice for eradicating child labor that has been applied with positive results in Colombia, Peru, and several Central American countries. In this article, we describe the difficulties of implementing the program in two poor areas of Lima (Peru) between 2014 and 2016. Specifically, we discuss three ethical challenges faced during the implementation of the program: (a) the existence of a movement of working children that defends the right of children to work; (b) the polarization of some community-based associations and government institutions on how to deal with the problems of working children; and (c) the use of network indicators in the evaluation of the community's level of cohesion...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921599/the-stories-we-tell-introduction-to-the-special-issue-on-ethical-challenges-in-community-psychology-research-and-practice
#13
Rebecca Campbell, Michael Morris
This Special Issue examines ethical challenges in community psychology research and practice. The literature on ethics in community psychology has remained largely abstract and aspirational, with few concrete examples and case studies, so the goal of this Special Issue was to expand our written discourse about ethical dilemmas in our field. In these articles, researchers and practitioners share stories of specific ethical challenges they faced and how they sought to resolve them. These first-person narratives examine how ethical challenges come about, how community psychology values inform ethical decision making, and how lessons learned from these experiences can inform an ethical framework for community psychology...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921557/accountability-collaboration-and-social-change-ethical-tensions-in-an-action-research-project-to-address-untested-sexual-assault-kits-saks
#14
Rebecca Campbell, Giannina Fehler-Cabral
We conducted a collaborative action research project with stakeholders in Detroit, Michigan, to develop long-term policy strategies to resolve ~11,000 untested rape kits that were discovered in a police storage facility in August 2009. In our research, we uncovered overwhelming evidence of victim-blaming behaviors and fundamental disrespect of rape survivors by the police, which directly contributed to their decisions not to submit kits for forensic testing. We had an ethical responsibility to report these negative findings accurately and completely, and in doing so, we were concerned that police stakeholders might disengage from the action research project and hamper our other ethical responsibilities to promote general and public welfare...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921556/dating-and-sexual-violence-research-in-the-schools-balancing-protection-of-confidentiality-with-supporting-the-welfare-of-survivors
#15
Jill D Sharkey, Lauren A Reed, Erika D Felix
Rigorous research and program evaluation are needed to understand the experience of dating and sexual violence among youth and the impact of prevention and intervention efforts. Our dilemma in doing this work occurred when youth disclosed dating and sexual violence on a research survey. What responsibility do researchers have to protect survivors' confidentiality as a research participant versus taking steps to ensure the student has the opportunity to access help? In our evaluation of a pilot dating violence prevention program, our protocols employed widely used procedures for providing resources to participants upon their completion of the survey and de-identifying survey data...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921486/expression-of-concern-to-evaluation-of-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-using-reverse-nutech-functional-score-and-expanded-disability-status-scale-after-human-embryonic-stem-cell-therapy
#16
Geeta Shroff
The Editors-in-Chief of Clinical and Translational Medicine are issuing an editorial expression of concern to alert readers that concerns have been raised regarding the ethics of this study [1]. Appropriate editorial action will be taken once this has been fully investigated. The author disagrees with this notice.
September 18, 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921476/expression-of-concern-to-role-of-physiotherapy-in-the-mobilization-of-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury-undergoing-human-embryonic-stem-cells-transplantation
#17
Geeta Shroff, Dipin Thakur, Varun Dhingra, Deepak Singh Baroli, Deepanshu Khatri, Rahul Dev Gautam
The Editors-in-Chief of Clinical and Translational Medicine are issuing an editorial expression of concern to alert readers that concerns have been raised regarding the ethics of this study [1]. Appropriate editorial action will be taken once this has been fully investigated. Geeta Shroff disagrees with this notice. Dipin Thakur, Varun Dhingra, Deepak Singh Baroli, Deepanshu Khatri and Rahul Dev Gautam have not responded to our correspondence about this article.
September 18, 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921376/legal-issues-in-governing-genetic-biobanks-the-italian-framework-as-a-case-study-for-the-implications-for-citizen-s-health-through-public-private-initiatives
#18
Cinzia Piciocchi, Rossana Ducato, Lucia Martinelli, Silvia Perra, Marta Tomasi, Carla Zuddas, Deborah Mascalzoni
This paper outlines some of the challenges faced by regulation of genetic biobanking, using case studies coming from the Italian legal system. The governance of genetic resources in the context of genetic biobanks in Italy is discussed, as an example of the stratification of different inputs and rules: EU law, national law, orders made by authorities and soft law, which need to be integrated with ethical principles, technological strategies and solutions. After providing an overview of the Italian legal regulation of genetic data processing, it considers the fate of genetic material and IP rights in the event of a biobank's insolvency...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Community Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920015/working-with-bacteria-and-putting-bacteria-to-work-the-biopolitics-of-synthetic-biology-for-energy-in-the-united-kingdom
#19
Carmen McLeod, Brigitte Nerlich, Alison Mohr
The UK government has made significant investment into so called 'fourth-generation' biofuel technologies. These biofuels are based on engineering the metabolic pathways of bacteria in order to create products compatible with existing infrastructure. Bacteria play an important role in what is promoted as a potentially new biological industrial revolution, which could address some of the negative environmental legacies of the last. This article presents results from ethnographic research with synthetic biologists who are challenged with balancing the curiosity-driven and intrinsically fulfilling scientific task of working with bacteria, alongside the policy-driven task of putting bacteria to work for extrinsic economic gains...
August 2017: Energy Research & Social Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919655/the-ethics-of-germline-gene-editing
#20
Christopher Gyngell, Thomas Douglas, Julian Savulescu
Germline Gene Editing (GGE) has enormous potential both as a research tool and a therapeutic intervention. While other types of gene editing are relatively uncontroversial, GGE has been strongly resisted. In this article, we analyse the ethical arguments for and against pursuing GGE by allowing and funding its development. We argue there is a strong case for pursuing GGE for the prevention of disease. We then examine objections that have been raised against pursuing GGE and argue that these fail. We conclude that the moral case in favour of pursuing GGE is stronger than the case against...
August 2017: Journal of Applied Philosophy
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