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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773509/the-role-of-the-inferior-frontal-gyrus-in-vicarious-social-touch-a-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-study
#1
Leehe Peled-Avron, Laura Glasner, Hila Z Gvirts, Simone G Shamay-Tsoory
The neural mechanisms facilitating the experience of vicarious social touch are largely unknown. The right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) has been suggested as part of a simulation observation-execution neural network that plays a key role in the perception of tactile stimuli. Considering that vicarious social touch involves vicarious sharing of emotions, we hypothesized that emotional empathy, i.e., the ability to feel what another individual is feeling, modulates the neural responses to vicarious touch. To examine the role of the rIFG in vicarious touch and its modulation by levels of emotional empathy, we used anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on forty participants who observed photos depicting social touch, nonsocial touch or no touch during tDCS or sham stimulation...
April 30, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771814/using-technology-to-enhance-teaching-of-patient-centered-interviewing-for-early-medical-students
#2
Stacey Kaltman, Nicholas Talisman, Susan Pennestri, Eleri Syverson, Paige Arthur, Yianna Vovides
INTRODUCTION: Effective strategies for teaching communication skills to health professions students are needed. This article describes the design and evaluation of immersive and interactive video simulations for medical students to practice basic communication skills. METHODS: Three simulations were developed, focusing on patient-centered interviewing techniques such as using open-ended questions, reflections, and empathic responses while assessing a patient's history of present illness...
May 15, 2018: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760026/care-transitions-from-patient-and-caregiver-perspectives
#3
Suzanne E Mitchell, Vivian Laurens, Gabriela M Weigel, Karen B Hirschman, Allison M Scott, Huong Q Nguyen, Jessica Martin Howard, Lance Laird, Carol Levine, Terry C Davis, Brianna Gass, Elizabeth Shaid, Jing Li, Mark V Williams, Brian W Jack
PURPOSE: Despite concerted actions to streamline care transitions, the journey from hospital to home remains hazardous for patients and caregivers. Remarkably little is known about the patient and caregiver experience during care transitions, the services they need, or the outcomes they value. The aims of this study were to (1) describe patient and caregiver experiences during care transitions and (2) characterize patient and caregiver desired outcomes of care transitions and the health services associated with them...
May 2018: Annals of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758391/the-impact-bias-in-self-and-others-affective-and-empathic-forecasting-in-individuals-with-social-anxiety
#4
Kimberly A Arditte Hall, Jutta Joormann, Matthias Siemer, Kiara R Timpano
People tend to overestimate the intensity and duration of affect (i.e., impact bias) when making predictions about their own and others' responding, termed affective and empathic forecasting, respectively. Research links impact biases to clinical symptoms of affective disorders, but little work has been done to examine how social anxiety is related to affective and empathic forecasting biases. The current investigation included two studies examining these associations in independent samples of young adults with dimensionally distributed social anxiety symptoms...
May 7, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755917/sharing-is-caring-minimizing-the-disruption-with-palliative-care
#5
EDITORIAL
Abd Moain Abu Dabrh, Robert P Shannon, Richard J Presutti
There is an upward trend incidence of multiple chronic life-limiting conditions with a well-documented associated impact on patients and their caregivers. When patients approach the end of life, they are often faced with a challenging multidimensional burden while navigating a complex health care system. Patients and families/caregivers are faced with daily decisions, often with little or no frame of reference or medical knowledge. The "what, how, when, and where" puzzle during this challenging time can be overwhelming for patients and their families, and when clinicians do not contemplate this associated workload's impact on patients and caregivers' capacity for self-care, patients and caregivers scramble to find compensatory solutions, often putting their health care at lower priority...
March 13, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755838/application-of-laser-scanning-confocal-microscopy-in-the-soft-tissue-exquisite-structure-for-3d-scan
#6
REVIEW
Zhaoqiang Zhang, Mohamed Ibrahim, Yang Fu, Xujia Wu, Fei Ren, Lei Chen
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a new developing technology for printing individualized materials swiftly and precisely in the field of biological medicine (especially tissue-engineered materials). Prior to printing, it is necessary to scan the structure of the natural biological tissue, then construct the 3D printing digital model through optimizing the scanned data. By searching the literatures, magazines at home and abroad, this article reviewed the current status, main processes and matters needing attention of confocal laser scanning microscope (LSCM) in the application of soft tissue fine structure 3D scanning, empathizing the significance of LSCM in this field...
2018: International Journal of Burns and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754592/general-practitioners-views-on-the-influence-of-cost-on-the-prescribing-of-asthma-preventer-medicines-a-qualitative-study
#7
Jacqueline Tudball, Helen K Reddel, Tracey-Lea Laba, Stephen Jan, Anthony Flynn, Michele Goldman, Kirsty Lembke, Elizabeth Roughead, Guy B Marks, Nick Zwar
Objective Out-of-pocket costs strongly affect patient adherence with medicines. For asthma, guidelines recommend that most patients should be prescribed regular low-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) alone, but in Australia most are prescribed combination ICS-long-acting β2-agonists (LABA), which cost more to patients and government. The present qualitative study among general practitioners (GPs) explored the acceptability, and likely effect on prescribing, of lower patient copayments for ICS alone. Methods Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with 15 GPs from the greater Sydney area; the interviews were transcribed and thematically analysed...
May 14, 2018: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752662/executive-attention-and-empathy-related-responses-in-boys-with-oppositional-defiant-disorder-or-conduct-disorder-with-and-without-comorbid-anxiety-disorder
#8
Jarla Pijper, Minet de Wied, Sophie van Rijn, Stephanie van Goozen, Hanna Swaab, Wim Meeus
This is a first study that investigated the relationships between executive attention-as an important aspect of emotion regulation-and state empathy and sympathy in ODD/CD boys with (N = 31) and without (N = 18) comorbid anxiety disorder (7-12 years). Empathic reactions were evoked using three sadness-inducing film clips. One clip was highly evocative involving a bear cub losing his mother, whilst two other clips were mildly evocative involving children in common childhood situations. Self-reports of empathy and sympathy were collected and executive attention was assessed with a performance task...
May 11, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752249/virtual-antenatal-encounter-and-standardized-simulation-assessment-vanessa-pilot-study
#9
Patrick Motz, Megan Gray, Taylor Sawyer, Jennifer Kett, Douglas Danforth, Kellen Maicher, Rachel Umoren
BACKGROUND: Prenatal counseling at the limits of newborn viability involves sensitive interactions between neonatal providers and families. Empathetic discussions are currently learned through practice in times of high stress. Decision aids may help improve provider communication but have not been universally adopted. Virtual standardized patients are increasingly recognized as a modality for education, but prenatal counseling simulations have not been described. To be valuable as a tool, a virtual patient would need to accurately portray emotions and elicit a realistic response from the provider...
May 11, 2018: JMIR Serious Games
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748650/how-empathic-are-vegan-medical-professionals-compared-to-others-leads-from-a-paper-pencil-survey
#10
Christian S Kessler, Andreas Michalsen, Sophie Holler, Vijayendra S Murthy, Holger Cramer
The aim of this survey was to examine differences in personality profiles among 198 vegan (n = 64; 32.3%), vegetarian (n = 78; 39.4%) and omnivore (n = 55; 27.8%) medical professionals. Outcomes were motives for the nutritional approaches, WHO QoL-BREF, Big Five SOEP Inventory, Portraits Value Questionnaire, and Empathizing Scale. Regarding motives for particular diets, omnivores rated influence of guardians (p < 0.001), physical health (p = 0.017) and food taste (p = 0.001) as more and love of animals as less important (p < 0...
May 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747727/pregnancy-in-women-with-obesity
#11
REVIEW
Cara D Dolin, Michelle A Kominiarek
Pregnancy in women with obesity is an important public health problem with short- and long-term implications for maternal and child health. Obesity complicates almost all aspects of pregnancy. Given the growing prevalence of obesity in women, obstetric providers need to understand the risks associated with obesity in pregnancy and the unique aspects of management for women with obesity. Empathic and patient-centered care, along with knowledge, can optimize outcomes for women and children.
June 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746177/exploration-of-effective-persuasive-strategies-used-in-resisting-product-advertising-a-case-study-of-adult-health-check-ups
#12
Han-Kuang Tien, Wen Chung
This research addressed adults' health check-ups through the lens of Role Transportation Theory. This theory is applied to narrative advertising that lures adults into seeking health check-ups by causing audiences to empathize with the advertisement's character. This study explored the persuasive mechanism behind narrative advertising and reinforced the Protection Motivation Theory model. We added two key perturbation variables: optimistic bias and truth avoidance. To complete the verification hypothesis, we performed two experiments...
May 10, 2018: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742328/anonymous-body-or-first-patient-a-status-report-and-needs-assessment-regarding-the-personalization-of-donors-in-dissection-courses-in-german-austrian-and-swiss-medical-schools
#13
Friederike Hasselblatt, David A C Messerer, Oliver Keis, Tobias M Böckers, Anja Böckers
Many Anglo-American universities have undertaken a paradigm shift in how the dissection of human material is approached, such that students are encouraged to learn about the lives of body donors, and to respectfully "personalize" them as human beings, rather than treating the specimens as anonymous cadavers. For the purposes of this study, this provision of limited personal information regarding the life of a body donor will be referred to as "personalization" of body donors. At this time, it is unknown whether this paradigm shift in the personalization of body donors can be translated into the German-speaking world...
May 6, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740312/emotion-detection-deficits-and-decreased-empathy-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-and-parkinson-s-disease-affect-caregiver-mood-and-burden
#14
Maria Martinez, Namita Multani, Cassandra J Anor, Karen Misquitta, David F Tang-Wai, Ron Keren, Susan Fox, Anthony E Lang, Connie Marras, Maria C Tartaglia
Background : Changes in social cognition occur in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) and can be caused by several factors, including emotion recognition deficits and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS). The aims of this study were to investigate: (1) group differences on emotion detection between patients diagnosed with AD or PD and their respective caregivers; (2) the association of emotion detection with empathetic ability and NPS in individuals with AD or PD; (3) caregivers' depression and perceived burden in relation to patients' ability to detect emotions, empathize with others, presence of NPS; and (4) caregiver's awareness of emotion detection deficits in patients with AD or Parkinson...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737185/neuro-reciprocity-and-vicarious-trauma-in-psychiatrists
#15
Sophie Isobel, Gavin Angus-Leppan
OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to briefly overview the processes of neuro-reciprocity relevant to vicarious traumatization of psychiatrists through their clinical roles. CONCLUSIONS: High rates of trauma in mental health service users, understanding of the effects of trauma on the brain and mechanisms of neuro-reciprocity in empathic attunement suggest that psychiatrists are at high risk of vicarious trauma. Preventing vicarious trauma at an organizational level through trauma-informed approaches is of paramount importance...
May 1, 2018: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730041/explaining-individual-variation-in-paternal-brain-responses-to-infant-cries
#16
Ting Li, Marilyn Horta, Jennifer S Mascaro, Kelly Bijanki, Luc H Arnal, Melissa Adams, Ronald G Barr, James K Rilling
Crying is the principal means by which newborn infants shape parental behavior to meet their needs. While this mechanism can be highly effective, infant crying can also be an aversive stimulus that leads to parental frustration and even abuse. Fathers have recently become more involved in direct caregiving activities in modern, developed nations, and fathers are more likely than mothers to physically abuse infants. In this study, we attempt to explain variation in the neural response to infant crying among human fathers, with the hope of identifying factors that are associated with a more or less sensitive response...
May 2, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729927/in-vitro-toxicity-induced-by-quartz-nanoparticles-role-of-er-stress
#17
Sushma, Hridyesh Kumar, Iqbal Ahmad, Pradip Kumar Dutta
In recent years with the advancement of nanotoxicology, the scientific communities drastically increased the investigation of the potential toxicity of nanominerals which are present in all atmospheres as well as are used in a variety of applications. In this study, we reported how Quartz Nanoparticles (QNPs) depending on concentration induces different signature ER stress markers in A549 cells. QNPs induced concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability and this concentration dependent toxicity intensifies production of reactive oxygen species leading to oxidative stress and inflammation...
May 3, 2018: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721723/olfactory-function-relates-to-sexual-experience-in-adults
#18
Johanna Bendas, Thomas Hummel, Ilona Croy
The olfactory system contributes significantly to human social behavior and especially to mate choice and empathic functioning. In this context, previous research examining individuals with impaired olfactory function indicated an influence of the sense of smell on different aspects of sexuality. However, the applied samples, methods, and results are diverse and an involvement of confounding factors, such as breathing problems, depression or social insecurity cannot be ruled out. The present study examined the potential correlation between odor threshold in healthy participants and their sexual desire, sexual experience, and sexual performance...
May 2, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717203/multiple-brain-connectivity-during-third-party-punishment-an-eeg-hyperscanning-study
#19
A Ciaramidaro, J Toppi, C Casper, C M Freitag, M Siniatchkin, L Astolfi
Compassion is a particular form of empathic reaction to harm that befalls others and is accompanied by a desire to alleviate their suffering. This altruistic behavior is often manifested through altruistic punishment, wherein individuals penalize a deprecated human's actions, even if they are directed toward strangers. By adopting a dual approach, we provide empirical evidence that compassion is a multifaceted prosocial behavior and can predict altruistic punishment. In particular, in this multiple-brain connectivity study in an EEG hyperscanning setting, compassion was examined during real-time social interactions in a third-party punishment (TPP) experiment...
May 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709611/the-effects-of-acute-foot-shock-stress-on-empathy-levels-in-rats
#20
Aslı Karakilic, Servet Kizildag, Sevim Kandis, Guven Guvendi, Basar Koc, Gamze B Camsari, Ulas M Camsari, Mehmet Ates, Sevil Gonenc Arda, Nazan Uysal
Empathy defined as the ability to understand and the share the feelings, thoughts, and attitudes of another, is an important skill in survival and reproduction. Among many factors that affect empathy include psychological stress, anxiety states. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of acute psychological stress on empathic behavior and its association with oxytocin and vasopressin levels in amygdala and prefrontal cortex. Rats were subjected to 0.2 mA (low) and 1.6 mA (high) intensity of foot shock stress for duration of 20 minutes...
April 27, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
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