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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318845/specifying-the-effects-of-physician-s-communication-on-patients-outcomes-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#1
Mara van Osch, Sandra van Dulmen, Liesbeth van Vliet, Jozien Bensing
OBJECTIVE: To experimentally test the effects of physician's affect-oriented communication and inducing expectations on outcomes in patients with menstrual pain. METHODS: Using a 2×2 RCT design, four videotaped simulated medical consultations were used, depicting a physician and a patient with menstrual pain. In the videos, two elements of physician's communication were manipulated: (1) affect-oriented communication (positive: warm, emphatic; versus negative: cold, formal), and (2) outcome expectation induction (positive versus uncertain)...
March 6, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314942/empathy-einf%C3%A3-hlung-and-aesthetic-experience-the-effect-of-emotion-contagion-on-appreciation-of-representational-and-abstract-art-using-femg-and-scr
#2
Gerger Gernot, Matthew Pelowski, Helmut Leder
Since the advent of the concept of empathy in the scientific literature, it has been hypothesized, although not necessarily empirically verified, that empathic processes are essential to aesthetic experiences of visual art. We tested how the ability to "feel into" ("Einfühlung") emotional content-a central aspect of art empathy theories-affects the bodily responses to and the subjective judgments of representational and abstract paintings. The ability to feel into was measured by a standardized pre-survey on "emotional contagion"-the ability to pick up and mirror, or in short to "feel into", emotions, which often overlaps with higher general or interpersonal empathetic abilities...
March 17, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301323/deciphering-the-modulatory-role-of-oxytocin-in-human-altruism
#3
René Hurlemann, Nina Marsh
Unlike any other species, humans frequently engage in altruistic behaviors by which they increase another individual's welfare even if this implies personal costs. The psychological motives underlying altruistic behaviors remain diverse, ranging from the ability to reciprocate trust and cooperation to bonding and empathizing with family members or even genetically unrelated others. This article explores the neuroendocrine architecture of altruism by emphasizing the crucial role of the evolutionarily highly conserved peptide hormone oxytocin as a modulator of cooperative behaviors including empathy-driven altruism...
March 16, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286867/a-technology-prototype-system-for-rating-therapist-empathy-from-audio-recordings-in-addiction-counseling
#4
Bo Xiao, Chewei Huang, Zac E Imel, David C Atkins, Panayiotis Georgiou, Shrikanth S Narayanan
Scaling up psychotherapy services such as for addiction counseling is a critical societal need. One challenge is ensuring quality of therapy, due to the heavy cost of manual observational assessment. This work proposes a speech technology-based system to automate the assessment of therapist empathy-a key therapy quality index-from audio recordings of the psychotherapy interactions. We designed a speech processing system that includes voice activity detection and diarization modules, and an automatic speech recognizer plus a speaker role matching module to extract the therapist's language cues...
April 2016: PeerJ. Computer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286487/empathy-related-responses-to-depicted-people-in-art-works
#5
Ladislav Kesner, Jiří Horáček
Existing theories of empathic response to visual art works postulate the primacy of automatic embodied reaction to images based on mirror neuron mechanisms. Arguing for a more inclusive concept of empathy-related response and integrating four distinct bodies of literature, we discuss contextual, and personal factors which modulate empathic response to depicted people. We then present an integrative model of empathy-related responses to depicted people in art works. The model assumes that a response to empathy-eliciting figural artworks engages the dynamic interaction of two mutually interlinked sets of processes: socio-affective/cognitive processing, related to the person perception, and esthetic processing, primarily concerned with esthetic appreciation and judgment and attention to non-social aspects of the image...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281909/positive-association-of-personal-distress-with-testosterone-in-opiate-addicted-patients
#6
Katrin Stange, Mathias Krüger, Eva Janke, Ralf Lichtinghagen, Stefan Bleich, Thomas Hillemacher, Annemarie Heberlein
BACKGROUND: Clinical studies report that substance addictions are associated with sociocognitive impairments. Regarding opiate addicted patients, the few existing studies point to deficits regarding empathic abilities. Previous research suggests that testosterone might be a relevant biomarker of these impairments. AIMS: We aimed to investigate whether opiate addicted patients show specific impairments in emotional (empathic concern, personal distress) and cognitive empathy compared to healthy controls...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Addictive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280350/residents-experiences-of-relationships-with-nurses-in-community-based-supported-housing-a-qualitative-study-based-on-giorgi-s-method-of-analysis-and-self-psychology
#7
Solrun Brenk Rønning, Stål Bjørkly
One of the prioritizations in the World Health Organization's (WHO) Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 is the provision of community mental health and social care services, such as supported housing. The ongoing process of such deinstitutionalization has raised issues concerning the impact on users' quality of life. The purpose of this study was to explore how residents in supported housing experience receiving professional help and how they perceived their relationships with nurses. The second aim was to investigate the relevance of Giorgi's method of analysis and self psychology in analyzing these experiences...
2017: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279134/preparation-for-pastoral-counseling-and-spiritual-care-strengthening-pastoral-felt-knowledge-and-empathy-through-the-appreciation-and-use-of-contemporary-films
#8
Ronald W Baard
Contemporary film offers something unique in the preparation and practice of pastoral counselors and spiritual caregivers by expanding both "felt knowledge" and strengthening empathic responses to care seekers. By experiencing well-chosen films, pastoral counselors and other spiritual caregivers will be better prepared to work with relevant feelings in various caregiving contexts, and clients will gain many rewards, as both their healing and growth will be enhanced. This will be especially true when pastoral and spiritual caregivers are working in areas of need where they have limited personal or professional experience...
March 2017: Journal of Pastoral Care & Counseling: JPCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276052/perception-of-emotional-prosody-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#9
B Kis, N Guberina, M Kraemer, F Niklewski, I Dziobek, J Wiltfang, M Abdel-Hamid
OBJECTIVE: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with social conflicts. The purpose of this study was to explore domains of social cognition in adult patients with ADHD. METHODS: The assessment of social cognition was based on established neuropsychological tests: the Tübinger Affect Battery (TAB) for prosody and the Cambridge Behaviour Scale (CBS) for empathy. The performance of adults with ADHD (N = 28) was compared with the performance of a control group (N = 29) matched according to basic demographic variables...
March 9, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271080/how-do-orthopaedic-surgeons-address-psychological-aspects-of-illness
#10
Ana Maria Vranceanu, Reinier B Beks, Thierry G Guitton, Stein J Janssen, David Ring
BACKGROUND: Orthopaedic surgeons have a pivotal role in transitioning the care of orthopedic patients from a biomedical to a biopsychosocial model. In an effort to foster this transition, we designed a study aimed to determine surgeons' attitudes and practice of noticing, screening, discussing psychological illness with patients, as well as making referrals to address psychosocial issues in patients in need. Additionally, we asked surgeons to rank order potential barriers to and reasons for referrals to psychosocial treatment...
January 2017: Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262939/neural-reactivity-to-emotional-faces-may-mediate-the-relationship-between-childhood-empathy-and-adolescent-prosocial-behavior
#11
John C Flournoy, Jennifer H Pfeifer, William E Moore, Allison M Tackman, Carrie L Masten, John C Mazziotta, Marco Iacoboni, Mirella Dapretto
Reactivity to others' emotions not only can result in empathic concern (EC), an important motivator of prosocial behavior, but can also result in personal distress (PD), which may hinder prosocial behavior. Examining neural substrates of emotional reactivity may elucidate how EC and PD differentially influence prosocial behavior. Participants (N = 57) provided measures of EC, PD, prosocial behavior, and neural responses to emotional expressions at ages 10 and 13. Initial EC predicted subsequent prosocial behavior...
November 2016: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262932/nonrandom-acts-of-kindness-parasympathetic-and-subjective-empathic-responses-to-sadness-predict-children-s-prosociality
#12
Jonas G Miller, Jacob N Nuselovici, Paul D Hastings
How does empathic physiology unfold as a dynamic process, and which aspect of empathy predicts children's kindness? In response to empathy induction videos, 4- to 6-year-old children (N = 180) showed an average pattern of dynamic respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) change characterized by early RSA suppression, followed by RSA recovery, and modest subsequent suppression during positive resolution of the empathic event. Children's capacity for this pattern of flexible RSA change was associated with their subjective empathic feelings, which were concurrently associated with more sympathetic and prosocial responses to others...
November 2016: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256532/insula-and-somatosensory-cortical-myelination-and-iron-markers-underlie-individual-differences-in-empathy
#13
Micah Allen, Darya Frank, James C Glen, Francesca Fardo, Martina F Callaghan, Geraint Rees
Empathy is a key component of our ability to engage and interact with others. In recent years, the neural mechanisms underlying affective and cognitive empathy have garnered intense interest. This work demonstrates that empathy for others depends upon a distributed network of regions such as the insula, parietal cortex, and somatosensory areas, which are also activated when we ourselves experience an empathized-with emotion (e.g., pain). Individuals vary markedly in their ability to empathize with others, which predicts the tendency to help others and relates to individual differences in the neuroanatomy of these areas...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253090/differential-patterns-in-mind-perception-in-subclinical-paranoia-relationships-to-self-reported-empathy
#14
Benjamin Buck, Neil Hester, David L Penn, Kurt Gray
INTRODUCTION: Although social cognition skills and biases are well-studied in paranoia, "mind perception" - perceiving the extent to which someone even possesses a thinking, feeling mind - is not. We sought to better characterise the profile of mind perception for individuals with paranoia. METHODS: We examined links between mind perception and paranoia in a large (n = 890) subclinical sample. Participants completed measures of paranoia, schizotypy, mind perception, and dispositional empathy...
March 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237740/neuroanatomical-basis-of-concern-based-altruism-in-virtual-environment
#15
Indrajeet Patil, Marco Zanon, Giovanni Novembre, Nicola Zangrando, Luca Chittaro, Giorgia Silani
Costly altruism entails helping others at a cost to the self and prior work shows that empathic concern (EC) for the well-being of distressed and vulnerable individuals is one of the primary motivators of such behavior. However, extant work has investigated costly altruism with paradigms that did not feature self-relevant and severe costs for the altruist and have solely focused on neurofunctional, and not neuroanatomical, correlates. In the current study, we used a contextually-rich virtual reality environment to study costly altruism and found that individuals who risked their own lives in the virtual world to try to save someone in danger had enlarged right anterior insula and exhibited greater empathic concern than those who did not...
February 22, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231398/living-with-melanoma-%C3%A2-for-a-day-a-phenomenological-analysis-of-medical-students-simulated-experiences
#16
M Corr, G Roulston, N King, T Dornan, C Blease, G J Gormley
BACKGROUND: Despite the rising incidence of melanoma, medical students have progressively fewer opportunities to encounter patients with this important condition. Curricula tend to attach the greatest value to intellectual forms of learning. Compared to intellectual learning, however, experiential learning affords students deep insights about a condition. Doctors who experience ill health are more empathic towards patients. However opportunities to learn about cancer experientially are limited...
February 23, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221059/emotion-focused-therapy-for-social-anxiety-disorder-results-from-a-multiple-baseline-study
#17
Ben Shahar, Eran Bar-Kalifa, Eve Alon
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of emotion-focused therapy (EFT) for adults suffering from social anxiety disorder (SAD). METHOD: Using a nonconcurrent multiple-baseline design, 12 patients (mean age = 26.75 years, SD = 5.15; 7 males) meeting criteria for SAD were treated with up to 28 sessions of EFT. EFT was based on an empathic relationship, 2-chair work for self-criticism, empty-chair work for unresolved feelings, and focusing...
March 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214722/when-high-pressure-system-constraints-and-a-social-justice-mission-collide-a-socio-structural-analysis-of-emergency-department-social-work-services
#18
Megan Moore, Margaret Cristofalo, Danae Dotolo, Nicole Torres, Alexandra Lahdya, Leyna Ho, Mia Vogel, Mollie Forrester, Bonnie Conley, Susan Fouts
The emergency department (ED) can be a critical intervention point for many patients with multifaceted needs. Social workers have long been part of interdisciplinary ED teams. This study aimed to contribute to the limited understanding of social worker-patient interactions and factors influencing social work services in this setting. This paper reports a qualitative content analysis of social work medical record notes (N = 1509) of services provided to trauma patients in an urban, public, level 1 trauma center and an in-depth analysis of semi-structured interviews with ED social workers (N = 10)...
February 11, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211000/the-implementation-and-evaluation-of-a-communication-skills-training-program-for-oncology-nurses
#19
Smita C Banerjee, Ruth Manna, Nessa Coyle, Stacey Penn, Tess E Gallegos, Talia Zaider, Carol A Krueger, Philip A Bialer, Carma L Bylund, Patricia A Parker
Many nurses express difficulty in communicating with their patients, especially in oncology settings where there are numerous challenges and high-stake decisions during the course of diagnosis and treatment. Providing specific training in communication skills is one way to enhance the communication between nurses and their patients. We developed and implemented a communication skills training program for nurses, consisting of three teaching modules: responding empathically to patients; discussing death, dying, and end-of-life goals of care; and responding to challenging interactions with families...
February 16, 2017: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209520/deconstructing-empathy-neuroanatomical-dissociations-between-affect-sharing-and-prosocial-motivation-using-a-patient-lesion-model
#20
Suzanne M Shdo, Kamalini G Ranasinghe, Kelly A Gola, Clinton J Mielke, Paul V Sukhanov, Bruce L Miller, Katherine P Rankin
Affect sharing and prosocial motivation are integral parts of empathy that are conceptually and mechanistically distinct. We used a neurodegenerative disease (NDG) lesion model to examine the neural correlates of these two aspects of real-world empathic responding. The study enrolled 275 participants, including 44 healthy older controls and 231 patients diagnosed with one of five neurodegenerative diseases (75 Alzheimer's disease, 58 behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), 42 semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), 28 progressive supranuclear palsy, and 28 non-fluent variant (nfvPPA)...
February 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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