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Leonie N C Visser, Sanne Schepers, Marieke S Tollenaar, Hanneke C J M de Haes, Ellen M A Smets
OBJECTIVE: This qualitative study examines patients' and oncologists' views on how to best address emotions during consultations, and explores oncologists' opinions on their own communication and on strategies to improve oncologists' response to patients' emotions. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 cancer patients and 13 oncologists, after watching videotaped consultations illustrating three communication strategies for addressing emotions...
February 21, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
Lindsay J Blazin, Cherilyn Cecchini, Catherine Habashy, Erica C Kaye, Justin N Baker
Effective communication is essential to the practice of pediatric oncology. Clear and empathic delivery of diagnostic and prognostic information positively impacts the ways in which patients and families cope. Honest, compassionate discussions regarding goals of care and hopes for patients approaching end of life can provide healing when other therapies have failed. Effective communication and the positive relationships it fosters also can provide comfort to families grieving the loss of a child. A robust body of evidence demonstrates the benefits of optimal communication for patients, families, and healthcare providers...
March 11, 2018: Children
Stewart W Mercer, Yuefang Zhou, Gerry M Humphris, Alex McConnachie, Andisheh Bakhshi, Annemieke Bikker, Maria Higgins, Paul Little, Bridie Fitzpatrick, Graham C M Watt
PURPOSE: The influence of multimorbidity on the clinical encounter is poorly understood, especially in areas of high socioeconomic deprivation where burdensome multimorbidity is concentrated. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of multimorbidity on general practice consultations, in areas of high and low deprivation. METHODS: We conducted secondary analyses of 659 video-recorded routine consultations involving 25 general practitioners (GPs) in deprived areas and 22 in affluent areas of Scotland...
March 2018: Annals of Family Medicine
Dennis Küster
Small pupils elicit empathic socioemotional responses comparable to those found for emotional tears. This might be understood in an evolutionary context. Intense emotional tearing increases tear film volume and disturbs tear layer uniformity, resulting in blurry vision. A constriction of the pupils may help to mitigate this handicap, which in turn may have resulted in a perceptual association of both signals. However, direct empirical evidence for a role of pupil size in tearful emotional crying is still lacking...
January 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
I Bragard, M Guillaume, A Ghuysen, J C Servotte, I Ortiz, B Pétré
The transformations of the health system and the preferences of the patients themselves have led healthcare professionals to rethink the place and role of the patient in the healthcare system, putting the caregivercare relationship and communication at the heart of public health issues. The literature shows that empathic communication is associated with better adherence to treatment, better patient satisfaction and less litigation. However, the initial training programs of health professionals are little oriented towards this field...
February 2018: Revue Médicale de Liège
Nan Zhu, Skyler T Hawk, Lei Chang
Drawing from the dual process model of morality and life history theory, the present research examined the role of cognitive and emotional processes as bridges between basic environmental challenges (i.e., unpredictability and competition) and other-centered moral orientation (i.e., prioritizing the welfare of others). In two survey studies, cognitive and emotional processes represented by future-oriented planning and emotional attachment, respectively (Study 1, N = 405), or by perspective taking and empathic concern, respectively (Study 2, N = 424), positively predicted other-centeredness in prosocial moral reasoning (Study 1) and moral judgment dilemmas based on rationality or intuition (Study 2)...
March 8, 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
Heqing Huang, Yanchun Liu, Yulu Chen
The present study is aim to examine whether preservice preschool teachers' respond differently to physical, verbal and relational bullying, and how their years of study and trait empathy related their responses. There were 242 preservice teachers in the present study. Empathy was measured with the self-report Interpersonal Reactive Index; the Bullying Attitude Questionnaire was used to assess their perceptions of incident seriousness, their sympathy toward the victim of the bullying, and their possibility to intervene in the situation...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Phillip R Shaver, Mario Mikulincer, Jude Cassidy
According to attachment theory, a sense of attachment security (confidence that others will be available and supportive when needed) facilitates the functioning of the caregiving behavioral system and the empathic provision of care to suffering others. In this article we review what has been learned during the last decade about attachment-related individual differences in caregiving within couple relationships and prosocial behavior in the wider world. We begin with a brief account of attachment theory and the dynamic interplay of the attachment and caregiving behavioral systems...
February 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Meredith McGinley
While previous research has established links among multiple aspects of parenting, empathy, and prosocial behaviors in youth, little is known regarding the relations between helicopter parenting, a particular type of parental over control, and empathy and prosocial behaviors (Padilla-Walker, 2014). Because helicopter parenting could undermine empathic and prosocial outcomes by negatively impacting self-regulatory behaviors and promoting narcissistic tendencies (Padilla-Walker, 2014; Segrin, Woszidlo, Givertz, Bauer, & Murphy, 2012; Segrin, Woszidlo, Givertz, & Montgomery, 2013), the author sought to examine potential relationships among these constructs...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Michael Lyvers, Susan M Kohlsdorf, Mark S Edwards, Fred Arne Thorberg
The present study explored relationships between alexithymia-a trait characterized by difficulties identifying and describing feelings and an external thinking style-and negative moods, negative mood regulation expectancies, facial recognition of emotions, emotional empathy, and alcohol consumption. The sample consisted of 102 university (primarily psychology) students (13 men, 89 women) aged 18 to 50 years (M = 22.18 years). Participants completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), Negative Mood Regulation Scale (NMRS), Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21), Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET), Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)...
April 2017: American Journal of Psychology
Cortney A Franklin, Alondra D Garza
The aftermath of sexual assault warrants further attention surrounding the responses provided by those to whom survivors disclose, especially when perpetrator type or victim race may affect whether the bystander response is supportive or attributes culpability to the victim. Disclosure responses have significant consequences for survivors' posttrauma mental health and formal help-seeking behavior. The current study used a sample of 348 self-report, paper-and-pencil surveys administered during the fall 2015 semester to a purposive sample of undergraduate students with a mean age of 20...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Julia Silver, Colleen Caleshu, Sylvie Casson-Parkin, Kelly Ormond
Genetic counselors experience high rates of compassion fatigue and an elevated risk for burnout, both of which can negatively impact patient care and retention in the profession. In other healthcare professions, mindfulness training has been successfully used to address similar negative psychological sequelae and to bolster empathy, which is the foundation of our counseling work. We aimed to assess associations between mindfulness and key professional variables, including burnout, compassion fatigue, work engagement, and empathy...
March 4, 2018: Journal of Genetic Counseling
Matthew Sachs, Assal Habibi, Antonio Damasio, Jonas Kaplan
Effective social functioning relies in part on the ability to identify emotions from auditory stimuli and respond appropriately. Previous studies have uncovered brain regions engaged by the affective information conveyed by sound. But some of the acoustical properties of sounds that express certain emotions vary remarkably with the instrument used to produce them, for example the human voice or a violin. Do these brain regions respond in the same way to different emotions regardless of the sound source? To address this question, we had participants (N = 38, 20 females) listen to brief audio excerpts produced by the violin, clarinet, and human voice, each conveying one of three target emotions-happiness, sadness, and fear-while brain activity was measured with fMRI...
March 1, 2018: NeuroImage
Annmarie Cano, Angelia M Corley, Shannon M Clark, Sarah C Martinez
Chronic pain impacts individuals with pain as well as their loved ones. Yet, there has been little attention to the social context in individual psychological treatment approaches to chronic pain management. With this need in mind, we developed a couple-based treatment, "Mindful Living and Relating," aimed at alleviating pain and suffering by promoting couples' psychological and relational flexibility skills. Currently, there is no integrative treatment that fully harnesses the power of the couple, treating both the individual with chronic pain and the spouse as two individuals who are each in need of developing greater psychological and relational flexibility to improve their own and their partners' health...
February 2018: Cognitive and Behavioral Practice
Freya Thiel, Brian D Ostafin, Jana R Uppendahl, Lenka J Wichmann, Marco Schlosser, Marije Aan Het Rot
RATIONALE: Drinking alcohol is associated with various interpersonal effects, including effects on cognitive empathy. Empathic accuracy (EA) is a form of cognitive empathy concerned with perceivers' accuracy in inferring a target's thoughts and feelings. The effects of alcohol on EA have not previously been studied. OBJECTIVES: We examined the effect of a moderate alcohol dose on EA in social drinkers. METHODS: Fifty-four men with varying levels of hazardous drinking according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) participated in a randomized, double-blind, between-group study...
February 28, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Sara B Adams, Linda D Scott
The unique needs of the aging adult require caregivers who can completely comprehend the experience of this population. Purposefully educating nursing students to enhance development of empathy is crucial for the provision of adequate care. Innovative pedagogical strategies that produce opportunities for nursing students to reflect on patient care experiences are an opportunity for educators to guide the creation of meaning in practice for nursing students. The use of poetry reading and writing enhances the student reflective process in clinical practicum environments and may serve as a strategy to support empathic development in nursing students...
February 1, 2018: Creative Nursing
Lester Liao, Edwin Cheng
Empathy has been difficult to sustain and foster in medical training. Based on empirical evidence and intuitive human experience, this paper proposes that empathy can be re-conceptualized as a dynamic reservoir, referred to as an "empathy tank." Physicians and learners who have personally experienced or received much empathy will naturally have a stronger tendency and greater capacity for empathy than others who have experienced little. These instances of empathy that fill the "empathy tank" can take the form of personal experiences, re-experiencing memories, and vicarious experiences...
February 28, 2018: Medical Teacher
Rianne van Rooijen, Caroline M M Junge, Chantal Kemner
During puberty a dip in face recognition is often observed, possibly caused by heightened levels of gonadal hormones which in turn affects the re-organization of relevant cortical circuitry. In the current study we investigated whether a pubertal dip could be observed in three other abilities related to social information processing: gaze following, emotion recognition from the eyes, and empathizing abilities. Across these abilities we further explored whether these measurements revealed sex differences as another way to understand how gonadal hormones affect processing of social information...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Craig Donnachie, Sally Wyke, Kate Hunt
BACKGROUND: Receiving information about one's weight, Body Mass Index (BMI) and other indicators of health risk may prompt behaviour change. This study investigated men's reactions to receiving information on indicators of health risk prior to taking part in a men-only weight management programme, Football Fans in Training (FFIT). It also investigated the extent to which the information was reported as influencing lifestyle change and having adverse consequences. METHODS: We undertook a qualitative, semi-structured, telephone interview study with 28 men who took part in FFIT...
February 27, 2018: BMC Public Health
Man-Kyu Song, Soo-Hee Choi, Do-Hyeong Lee, Kyung-Jun Lee, Won Joon Lee, Do-Hyung Kang
Objective: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective in patients with chronic pain. However, the efficacy of CBT for impaired empathy has not been studied in this population. We investigated the effect of CBT on empathy in patients with chronic pain. Methods: Patients with severe chronic pain were recruited. Empathy was assessed before and after CBT using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). The patients underwent eight sessions over the course of 1 month conducted...
February 28, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
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