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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928643/how-situational-context-impacts-empathic-responses-and-brain-activation-patterns
#1
Yawei Cheng, Chenyi Chen, Jean Decety
Clinical empathy, which is defined as the ability to understand the patient's experience and feelings from the patient's perspective, is acknowledged to be an important aspect of quality healthcare. However, how work experience modulates the empathic responses and brain activation patterns in medical professions remains elusive. This fMRI study recruited one hundred female nurses, who varied the length of work experience, and examined how their neural response, functional connectivity, and subjective evaluations of valence and arousal to perceiving another individual in physical pain are modulated by the situational context in which they occur (i...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922009/the-development-and-initial-validation-of-the-countertransference-management-scale
#2
Andrés E Pérez-Rojas, Beatriz Palma, Avantika Bhatia, John Jackson, Earta Norwood, Jeffrey A Hayes, Charles J Gelso
Countertransference is an important aspect of the therapeutic relationship that exists in therapies of all theoretical orientations, and depending on how it is managed, it can either help or hinder treatment. Management of countertransference has been measured almost exclusively with the Countertransference Factors Inventory (Van Wagoner, Gelso, Hayes, & Diemer, 1991) and its variations, all of which focus on 5 therapist qualities theorized to facilitate management: self-insight, conceptualizing ability, empathy, self-integration, and anxiety management...
September 2017: Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922008/crying-in-psychotherapy-the-perspective-of-therapists-and-clients
#3
Sarah Knox, Clara E Hill, Graham Knowlton, Harold Chui, Nathan Pruitt, Kevin Tate
Eighteen U.S.-based doctoral students in counseling or clinical psychology were interviewed by phone regarding experiences of crying in therapy. Specifically, they described crying as therapists with their clients, as clients with their therapists, and experiences when their therapists cried in the participants' therapy. Data were analyzed using consensual qualitative research. When crying with their clients, therapists expressed concern about the appropriateness/impact of crying, cried only briefly and because they felt an empathic connection with their clients, thought that the crying strengthened the relationship, discussed the event with their supervisor, and wished they had discussed the event more fully with clients...
September 2017: Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912745/emotional-empathic-responses-to-dynamic-negative-affective-stimuli-is-gender-dependent
#4
Kim P C Kuypers
Empathy entails the ability to recognize emotional states in others and feel for them. Since empathy does not take place in a static setting, paradigms utilizing more naturalistic, dynamic stimuli instead of static stimuli are perhaps more suited to grasp the origin of this highly complex social skill. The study was set up to test the effect of stimulus dynamics and gender on empathic responses. Participants were 80 healthy volunteers (N = 40 males) aged 22.5 years on average. Behavioral empathy was tested with the multifaceted empathy test, including static emotional stimuli, and the multidimensional movie empathy test (MMET), including dynamic stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904379/a-screening-mechanism-differentiating-true-from-false-pain-during-empathy
#5
Ya-Bin Sun, Xiao-Xiao Lin, Wen Ye, Ning Wang, Jin-Yan Wang, Fei Luo
Empathizing with another's suffering is important in social interactions. Empathic behavior is selectively elicited from genuine, meaningful pain but not from fake, meaningless scenarios. However, the brain's screening mechanism of false information from meaningful events and the time course for the screening process remains unclear. Using EEG combined with principle components analysis (PCA) techniques, here we compared temporal neurodynamics between the observation of pain and no-pain pictures as well as between true (painful expressions and needle-penetrated arms) and false (needle-penetrated faces with neutral expressions) pain pictures...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898341/-shared-decision-making-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#6
Valentina Serrano, Laura Larrea-Mantilla, René Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Gabriela Spencer-Bonilla, Germán Málaga, Ian Hargraves, Víctor M Montori
Patients with diabetes mellitus often have several medical problems and carry a burden imposed by their illness and treatment. Health care often ignores the values, preferences and context of patients, leading to treatments that do not fit into patients’ overwhelmed lives. Shared Decision Making (SDM) emerges as a way to answer the question: “What’s best for the patient?”. SDM promotes an empathic conversation between patients and clinicians that integrates the best evidence available with their values, preferences and context...
May 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892500/are-attitudes-toward-peace-and-war-the-two-sides-of-the-same-coin-evidence-to-the-contrary-from-a-french-validation-of-the-attitudes-toward-peace-and-war-scale
#7
Nicolas Van der Linden, Christophe Leys, Olivier Klein, Pierre Bouchat
Bizumic et al. (2013) have recently shown that attitudes towards peace and war reflect two distinct constructs rather than two poles of a single dimension. We present an attempt at validating the French version of their 16-item Attitudes toward Peace and War Scale (APWS) on five distinct (mainly Belgian) French-speaking samples (total N = 808). Confirmatory factor and criterion validity analyses confirmed that attitudes toward peace and war, although negatively related, are distinct in terms of their antecedents and consequences...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892175/-almost-forgetting-to-care-an-unanticipated-source-of-empathy-loss-in-clerkship
#8
Cheryl L Holmes, Harry Miller, Glenn Regehr
CONTEXT: The erosion of empathy in medical students is well documented. Both the hidden curriculum associated with poor role modelling and a sense of burnout have been proposed as key factors, but the precise mechanisms by which this loss of empathy occurs have not been elaborated. OBJECTIVES: In the context of a course designed to help students manage the hidden curriculum, we collected data that raised questions about current conceptualisations of the aspects of medical training that lead to loss of empathy...
July 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891381/the-impact-of-empathy-and-reappraisal-on-emotional-intensity-recognition
#9
Navot Naor, Simone G Shamay-Tsoory, Gal Sheppes, Hadas Okon-Singer
Empathy represents a fundamental ability that allows for the creation and cultivation of social bonds. As part of the empathic process, individuals use their own emotional state to interpret the content and intensity of other people's emotions. Therefore, the current study was designed to test two hypotheses: (1) empathy for the pain of another will result in biased emotional intensity judgment; and (2) changing one's emotion via emotion regulation will modulate these biased judgments. To test these hypotheses, in experiment one we used a modified version of a well-known task that triggers an empathic reaction We found that empathy resulted in biased emotional intensity judgment...
September 11, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885134/gay-seouls-expanding-religious-spaces-for-non-heterosexuals-in-south-korea
#10
Joseph Yi, Gowoon Jung, Saul Serna Segura, Joe Phillips, Jerry Z Park
What sorts of Protestant Christian congregations offer space for worship and dialogue among persons with different sexual orientations? The academic literature finds or assumes that non-heterosexuals are stigmatized or invisible in theologically conservative congregations and are welcomed in progressive, affirming congregations. This article develops an alternative claim that some conservative or evangelical congregations offer attractive spaces for many non-heterosexuals to worship and dialogue. We illustrate with an exploratory study of four, inclusive congregations in South Korea-two theologically progressive, two evangelical-whose pastors welcomed everybody regardless of sexual orientation or gender identity...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883780/intended-career-choice-in-family-medicine-in-slovenia-an-issue-of-gender-family-background-or-empathic-attitudes-in-final-year-medical-students
#11
Marija Petek Ster, Polona Selic
BACKGROUND: Among a variety of complex factors affecting a decision to take family medicine as a future specialisation, this study focused on demographic characteristics and assessed empathic attitudes in final year medical students. METHODS: A convenience sampling method was employed in two consecutive academic years of final year medical students at the Faculty of Medicine in Ljubljana, Slovenia, in May 2014 and May 2015. A modified version of the 16-item Jefferson Scale of Empathy - Student Version (JSE-S) was administered to examine self-reported empathic attitudes...
June 2017: Materia Socio-medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868237/examining-the-relationship-between-burnout-and-empathy-in-healthcare-professionals-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Helen Wilkinson, Richard Whittington, Lorraine Perry, Catrin Eames
OBJECTIVE: Empathy and burnout are two related yet distinct constructs that are relevant to clinical healthcare staff. The nature of their relationship is uncertain and this review aimed to complete a rigorous, systematic exploration of the literature investigating the relationship between burnout and empathy in healthcare staff. DESIGN: A systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidance...
September 2017: Burnout Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867152/cognitive-and-affective-empathy-among-adolescent-siblings-of-children-with-a-physical-disability
#13
Lidia Perenc, Ryszard Pęczkowski
BACKGROUND: This study is a continuation of research on possible psychosocial benefits resulting from exposure to sibling with disability present in the family system. The issue seems to be especially important in Poland because of growing number of children with a disability and inconsistent results of previously performed studies. OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to examine the differences in the intensity of cognitive and affective empathy in adolescents who either have or do not have siblings with physical disability...
August 31, 2017: Disability and Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865941/a-field-study-of-the-association-between-cd38-gene-and-altruistic-behavior-empathic-response-as-a-mediator
#14
Jinting Liu, Pingyuan Gong, Hong Li, Xiaolin Zhou
Inspired by the enhancement effects of oxytocin on empathic responses and altruistic behaviors, we conducted a field study with a real fundraising event and investigated to what extent oxytocin pathway genes (CD38 and OXTR) modulate individual differences in charitable donation. Participants were informed that a teacher in their university was diagnosed with uremia and could not afford the cost of medication. They were given the opportunity to donate any amount of money and report their empathic responses to the misfortune of the teacher...
August 12, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856869/the-influence-of-gender-on-the-relationship-between-psychopathy-and-five-moral-foundations
#15
Leah Efferson, Andrea Glenn, Rheanna Remmel, Ravi Iyer
Previous research has demonstrated that individuals higher in psychopathy are less concerned about preventing harm and preserving fairness than individuals lower in psychopathy, yet it is unclear whether this is true for both genders. Females have been shown to be more concerned about moral issues related to preventing harm, being fair and maintaining purity, and males are more concerned about in-group loyalty and respecting authority. In addition, females on average are more empathic, less willing to cause harm and may be less sensitive to fairness...
August 30, 2017: Personality and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852151/hypnotic-analgesia-reduces-brain-responses-to-pain-seen-in-others
#16
Claire Braboszcz, Edith Brandao-Farinelli, Patrik Vuilleumier
Brain responses to pain experienced by oneself or seen in other people show consistent overlap in the pain processing network, particularly anterior insula, supporting the view that pain empathy partly relies on neural processes engaged by self-nociception. However, it remains unresolved whether changes in one's own pain sensation may affect empathic responding to others' pain. Here we show that inducing analgesia through hypnosis leads to decreased responses to both self and vicarious experience of pain. Activations in the right anterior insula and amygdala were markedly reduced when participants received painful thermal stimuli following hypnotic analgesia on their own hand, but also when they viewed pictures of others' hand in pain...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842297/professor-samuel-h-yalkowsky-scientist-mentor-and-molecular-empath
#17
Paul Myrdal, Ken Morris, Rodolfo Pinal, Neera Jain, Peter L D Wildfong, George Zografi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 24, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834602/does-training-in-the-circle-of-security-framework-increase-relational-understanding-in-infant-child-and-family-workers
#18
Catherine McMahon, Anna Huber, Jane Kohlhoff, Anna-Lisa Camberis
This article evaluated whether attendance at Circle of Security training workshops resulted in attendees showing greater empathy and attachment-related knowledge and understanding, and fewer judgmental responses to viewing a stressful parent-child interaction. Participants were 202 practitioners who attended and completed a 2-day (n = 70), 4-day (n = 105), or 10-day (n = 27) COS training workshop in Australia or New Zealand in 2015. In a pre/post design, participant reactions to a video clip of a challenging parent-child interaction were coded for empathic, judgmental, or attachment-focused language...
September 2017: Infant Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831270/effects-of-vicarious-pain-on-self-pain-perception-investigating-the-role-of-awareness
#19
Esslin L Terrighena, Ge Lu, Wai Ping Yuen, Tatia Mc Lee, Kati Keuper
The observation of pain in others may enhance or reduce self-pain, yet the boundary conditions and factors that determine the direction of such effects are poorly understood. The current study set out to show that visual stimulus awareness plays a crucial role in determining whether vicarious pain primarily activates behavioral defense systems that enhance pain sensitivity and stimulate withdrawal or appetitive systems that attenuate pain sensitivity and stimulate approach. We employed a mixed factorial design with the between-subject factors exposure time (subliminal vs optimal) and vicarious pain (pain vs no pain images), and the within-subject factor session (baseline vs trial) to investigate how visual awareness of vicarious pain images affects subsequent self-pain in the cold-pressor test...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830300/-it-s-sometimes-hard-to-tell-what-patients-are-playing-at-how-healthcare-professionals-make-sense-of-why-patients-and-families-complain-about-care
#20
Mary Adams, Jill Maben, Glenn Robert
This article draws from sociological and socio-legal studies of dispute between patients and doctors to examine how healthcare professionals made sense of patients' complaints about healthcare. We analyse 41 discursive interviews with professional healthcare staff working in eight different English National Health Service settings to explore how they made sense of events of complaint and of patients' (including families') motives for complaining. We find that for our interviewees, events of patients' complaining about care were perceived as a breach in fundamental relationships involving patients' trust or patients' recognition of their work efforts...
August 1, 2017: Health (London)
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