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Medical physics

Rajkumar Bharatia, Manoj Chitale, Ganesh Narain Saxena, Raman Ganesh Kumar, Chikkalingaiah, Abhijit Trailokya, Kalpesh Dalvi, Suhas Talele
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension (HTN), being a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), is an important issue of medical and public health. High blood pressure (BP) is ranked as the third most important risk factor for attributable burden of disease in south Asia (2010). Hypertension (HTN) exerts a substantial public health burden on cardiovascular health status and healthcare systems in India. Uncontrolled hypertension among adults with hypertension is associated with increased mortality...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Sae Young Jae, Sudhir Kurl, Barry A Franklin, Jari A Laukkanen
OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether long-term changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) predict the risk of incident hypertension, independent of risk factors, in initially normotensive men. METHODS: This prospective study from the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Study included 431 male participants without hypertension who underwent symptom-limited maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing at baseline and during a second examination, 11-years later, who were re-evaluated for hypertension at 20-year follow-up...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Christopher S Evans, Katherine M Hunld, Tony Rosen, Timothy F Platts-Mills
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the proportion of visits to U.S. emergency departments (EDs) in which a diagnosis of elder abuse is reached using two nationally representative datasets. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional analysis. SETTING: U.S. ED visits recorded in the 2012 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) or the 2011 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS). PARTICIPANTS: All ED visits of individuals aged 60 and older...
October 18, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
J Schöner, G Kronenberg, A Heinz, M Endres, K Gertz
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was previously thought to be a psychological reaction precipitated by exposure to war, sexual and physical violence; however, PTSD is also prevalent after life-threatening medical events, such as stroke and myocardial infarction. After such events PTSD is often underdiagnosed despite the fact that it is clearly associated with adverse clinical outcomes including recurrence of cardiac events and increased mortality. Moreover, PTSD increases the risk of vascular events. This review summarizes the bidirectional relationship between PTSD and vascular diseases and outlines current knowledge regarding clinical features, prevalence and the putative underlying pathophysiological mechanisms...
October 17, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
Zhen Zeng, Tijiang Zhang, Yihua Zhou, Xiaoxi Chen
Meningiomas are the most common primary nonneuroglial extra-axial neoplasms, which commonly present as spherical or oval masses with a dural attachment. Meningiomas without dural attachment are rare and, according to their locations, are classified into 5 varieties, including intraventricular, deep Sylvain fissure, pineal region, intraparenchymal, or subcortical meningiomas. To the best of our knowledge, intraparenchymal meningioma with cerebriform pattern has never been reported. In this paper, we report a 34-year-old Chinese male patient who presented with paroxysmal headaches and progressive loss of vision for 10 months and blindness for 2 weeks...
2016: Case Reports in Radiology
Vibeke Strand, Eun Bong Lee, Roy Fleischmann, Rieke E Alten, Tamas Koncz, Samuel H Zwillich, David Gruben, Bethanie Wilkinson, Sriram Krishnaswami, Gene Wallenstein
OBJECTIVES: To compare patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in methotrexate (MTX)-naive patients (defined as no prior treatment or ≤3 doses) receiving tofacitinib versus MTX. METHODS: In the 24-month, phase III, randomised, controlled, ORAL Start trial (NCT01039688), patients were randomised 2:2:1 to receive tofacitinib 5 mg two times per day (n=373), tofacitinib 10 mg two times per day (n=397) or MTX (n=186). PROs assessed included Patient Global Assessment of disease (PtGA), pain, Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI), Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) and health-related quality of life (Short Form-36 [SF-36])...
2016: RMD Open
Farzaneh Karimi-Alavijeh, Saeed Jalili, Masoumeh Sadeghi
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome which underlies the increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes is considered as a group of metabolic abnormalities including central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, glucose intolerance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Recently, artificial intelligence based health-care systems are highly regarded because of its success in diagnosis, prediction, and choice of treatment. This study employs machine learning technics for predict the metabolic syndrome...
May 2016: ARYA Atherosclerosis
Lorna Awo Renner, Deborah McGill
BACKGROUND: Developing countries such as Ghana have very poor childhood cancer survival rates. There is a need to determine reasons for late presentation and treatment abandonment which are major causes of poor survival. Understanding these issues could inform effective strategies for childhood cancer control in resource-constrained settings. AIM: To explore factors influencing parental decision-making for children with cancer in Ghana with regard to health seeking and retention in treatment, in order to provide information that will guide Public Health interventions for childhood cancer control...
September 2016: Ghana Medical Journal
L Maïmoun, F Paris, O Coste, C Sultan
Participation in recreational physical activity is widely acknowledged to provide significant health benefits. Conversely, intense training imposes several constraints, such as intermittent or chronic metabolic and psychogenic training stressors and maintenance of very low body fat to maximize performance. Adolescent and adult athletic women are therefore at risk of overtraining and/or poor dietary intake, which may have several consequences for endocrine function particularly on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis...
October 14, 2016: Gynécologie, Obstétrique & Fertilité
Katelyn A Grayson-Sneed, Sandi W Smith, Robert C Smith
OBJECTIVE: To develop a more reliable coding method of medical interviewing focused on data-gathering and emotion-handling. METHODS: Two trained (30h) undergraduates rated videotaped interviews from 127 resident-simulated patient (SP) interactions. Trained on 45 videotapes, raters coded 25 of 127 study set tapes for patient-centeredness. Guetzkow's U, Cohen's Kappa, and percent of agreement were used to measure raters' reliability in unitizing and coding residents' skills for eliciting: agenda (3 yes/no items), physical story (2), personal story (6), emotional story (15), using indirect skills (4), and general patient-centeredness (3)...
October 11, 2016: Patient Education and Counseling
Alberto Ascherio, Michael A Schwarzschild
Since 2006, several longitudinal studies have assessed environmental or behavioural factors that seem to modify the risk of developing Parkinson's disease. Increased risk of Parkinson's disease has been associated with exposure to pesticides, consumption of dairy products, history of melanoma, and traumatic brain injury, whereas a reduced risk has been reported in association with smoking, caffeine consumption, higher serum urate concentrations, physical activity, and use of ibuprofen and other common medications...
November 2016: Lancet Neurology
Sunjoo Boo, Erika S Froelicher, Ju-Hui Yun, Ye-Won Kim, Ju-Yang Jung, Chang-Hee Suh
The purposes of this study were to compare the perceived and actual 10-year risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to evaluate the influence of cardiovascular risk factors on perceived CVD risk in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Korea. Additionally, the attainment of CVD prevention guideline goals by 3 levels of CVD risk (low, moderate, and high) was presented.For this cross-sectional study, data were collected from 208 patients with RA. Actual CVD risk was estimated with the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), and goal attainment was assessed based on the European League Against Rheumatism guidelines...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Elena Ricci, Paola Viganò, Sonia Cipriani, Francesca Chiaffarino, Stefano Bianchi, Giorgia Rebonato, Fabio Parazzini
BACKGROUND: The potential association between endometriosis and physical activity (PA) has been suggested in several epidemiological studies.We aimed to establish whether PA influences endometriosis risk. METHODS: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched using "physical activity" OR "exercise" combined with "endometriosis," in Medical Subject Headings and free text. We selected original articles in English, published up to April 2016, evaluating the association between endometriosis and recent or past PA (case-control or cohort studies)...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Leanne M Boehm, Eduard E Vasilevskis, Lorraine C Mion
BACKGROUND: The ABCDE bundle is a multifaceted, interprofessional intervention that is associated with reduced ventilator and delirium days as well as increased likelihood of mobility in intensive care. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to describe organizational domains that contribute to variation in ABCDE bundle implementation as reported by intensive care unit providers and to examine the capability of a conceptual framework for identifying variation in ABCDE bundle implementation...
November 2016: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
Dan Wood
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is increasing recognition of the need for life-long care in patients who have congenital urological anomalies. This study looks at the factors surrounding transition and suggests those, which may improve the success. RECENT FINDINGS: One of the most challenging phases in this care is adolescence. There are the physical and psychological changes that all adolescents go through. Patients need medical surveillance through this time in order to ensure good care and patient safety...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Urology
Javier Jerez-Roig, Nayara Priscila Dantas de Oliveira, Bartolomeu Fagundes de Lima Filho, Maria Amanda de Farias Bezerra, Monayane Grazielly Leite Matias, Lidiane Macedo Ferreira, Fabienne Louise Juvêncio Dos Santos Amaral, Dyego Leandro Bezerra Souza, Kenio Costa Lima
: Background/Study Context: Depression is a common psychiatric disorder in the elderly that leads to a decrease in quality of life and functional impairment, among other health problems. The study of depressive symptoms in institutionalized elderly is scarce in Latin America and can contribute to plan prevention and treatment actions in order to improve health conditions for the residents as well as quality of life. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms and identify its associated factors in institutionalized elderly...
October 2016: Experimental Aging Research
Ilonka Kreitschmann-Andermahr, Michael Buchfelder, Bernadette Kleist, Johannes Kohlmann, Christa Menzel, Rolf Buslei, Maria Kołtowska-Häggström, Christian Strasburger, Sonja Siegel
OBJECTIVE: Even if treated, acromegaly has a considerable impact on patient quality of life (QoL); despite this, the exact clinical determinants of QoL in acromegaly are unknown. This study retrospectively examines a cohort of treated patients with acromegaly, with the aim of identifying these determinants. METHODS: Retrospective survey analysis, with 165 patients included in the study. All patients completed a survey, which included demographic data and the clinical details of their disease, the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), the revised Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and the Bern Embitterment Inventory (BEI)...
October 17, 2016: Endocrine Practice
Sofia Geralemou, Tong J Gan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Postoperative and postdischarge nausea and vomiting have profound impact on the efficient delivery of quality healthcare. In addition to patient dissatisfaction, physical morbidities as well as unplanned hospital admissions may result. It is important to risk stratify and intervene on patients at risk. The aim of this review is to explore the benefits and shortcomings of the scoring systems commonly used today. RECENT FINDINGS: Two widely-used risk stratification systems identify and score patient-, anesthesia-, and surgery-related risk factors for postoperative/postdischarge nausea and vomiting in the adult population...
September 29, 2016: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Margaret Cupples, Neil Heron
This paper will review the current role of general practitioners (GPs) in providing cardiovascular prevention for patients after attendance at a cardiac rehabilitation program. Long-term implementation of preventive strategies is needed for continued impact on reducing risk of cardiovascular events and GPs have a major role in providing ongoing continuing medical care. Awareness of patients' social, cultural and physical circumstances allows the GP to identify individuals' needs for support in engaging in secondary prevention: relevant brief interventions can promote behaviour change in physical activity, diet and smoking habits, as well as promoting mental health and adherence to optimal medical therapy...
October 14, 2016: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
Cécile M Yelnik, Monica Richey, Virginia Haiduc, Sotiria Everett, Meng Zhang, Doruk Erkan
OBJECTIVE: To determine if a cardiovascular disease prevention (CVD) counseling program for lupus patients decreases the prevalence of CVD risk factors. METHODS: The assessment phase of three-year CVD prevention counseling program included the evaluation of CVD risk factors, diet, exercise habits, and medications. The education phase included discussion of the above risk factors as well as CVD and thrombosis prevention strategies. Patients were prospectively followed every 3-6 months for risk assessment and continued education by a nurse practitioner and a medical doctor...
October 16, 2016: Arthritis Care & Research
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