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Mehdi Alilou, Niha Beig, Mahdi Orooji, Anant Madabhushi, Prabhakar Rajiah, Michael Yang, Robert Gilkeson, Philip Linden, Vamsidhar Velcheti, Sagar Rakshit, Niyoti Reddy, Frank Jacono
PURPOSE: Distinguishing between benign granulmoas and adenocarcinomas is confounded by their similar visual appearance on routine CT scans. Unfortunately, owing to the inability to discriminate these lesions radigraphically, many patients with benign granulomas are subjected to unnecessary surgical wedge resections and biopsies for pathologic confirmation of cancer presence or absence. This suggests the need for improved computerized characterization of these nodules in order to distinguish between these two classes of lesions on CT scans...
March 14, 2017: Medical Physics
Niha Ansari, Shobhana K Menon
Determination of time since death (TSD) plays very important role in forensic examination as it narrows down field of suspects and aids in deceased identification. This study utilizes the fluorescence property of vitreous humor (VH) tryptophan to determine TSD using o-phthalaldehyde (OPA). The detection limit of these fluorometric studies was found to be 8 ppb indicating sensitivity and high accuracy in TSD determination. The study was performed on selected 76 cadaver with known TSD ranging from 3 to 90 h. Excellent correlation between VH tryptophan and TSD was obtained with a coefficient of correlation R(2) = 0...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Vaishnavi Amarr Reddy, Qian Wang, Niha Dhar, Nadimuthu Kumar, Prasanna Nori Venkatesh, Chakravarthy Rajan, Deepa Panicker, Vishweshwaran Sridhar, Hui-Zhu Mao, Rajani Sarojam
Many aromatic plants, such as spearmint, produce valuable essential oils in specialized structures called peltate glandular trichomes (PGTs). Understanding the regulatory mechanisms behind the production of these important secondary metabolites will help design new approaches to engineer them. Here, we identified a PGT-specific R2R3-MYB gene, MsMYB, from comparative RNA-Seq data of spearmint and functionally characterized it. Analysis of MsMYB-RNAi transgenic lines showed increased levels of monoterpenes, and MsMYB-overexpressing lines exhibited decreased levels of monoterpenes...
February 3, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Christy L Avery, Christina L Wassel, Melissa A Richard, Heather M Highland, Stephanie Bien, Niha Zubair, Elsayed Z Soliman, Myriam Fornage, Suzette J Bielinski, Ran Tao, Amanda A Seyerle, Sanjiv J Shah, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Steven Buyske, Jerome I Rotter, Wendy S Post, Stephen S Rich, Lucia A Hindorff, Janina M Jeff, Ralph V Shohet, Nona Sotoodehnia, Dan Yu Lin, Eric A Whitsel, Ulrike Peters, Christopher A Haiman, Dana C Crawford, Charles Kooperberg, Kari E North
BACKGROUND: The electrocardiographically measured QT interval (QT) is heritable and its prolongation is an established risk factor for several cardiovascular DISEASES: Yet, most QT genetic studies have been performed in European ancestral populations, possibly reducing their global relevance. OBJECTIVE: To leverage diversity and improve biologic insight, we fine-mapped 16 of the 35 previously identified QT loci (46%) in populations of African American (n=12,410) and Hispanic/Latino (n=14,837) ancestry...
December 14, 2016: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Anand Lodha, Niha Ansari, Shahil Shah, M V Rao, Shobhana K Menon
Present study represents a novel approach of PCR ready-human DNA extraction method from skeletal remains using copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) for personnel identification. To achieve rapid, cost effective, sensitive and non-hazardous method for DNA extraction we utilized CuNPs synthesized using microwave. The applicability of this approach was first tested in blood samples and afterwards, this system was extended to skeletal remains' samples also. This method yields good quality DNA that are ready for PCR reactions from small quantities of blood and skeletal remains...
December 8, 2016: Forensic Science International
Stephanie A Bien, Genevieve L Wojcik, Niha Zubair, Christopher R Gignoux, Alicia R Martin, Jonathan M Kocarnik, Lisa W Martin, Steven Buyske, Jeffrey Haessler, Ryan W Walker, Iona Cheng, Mariaelisa Graff, Lucy Xia, Nora Franceschini, Tara Matise, Regina James, Lucia Hindorff, Loic Le Marchand, Kari E North, Christopher A Haiman, Ulrike Peters, Ruth J F Loos, Charles L Kooperberg, Carlos D Bustamante, Eimear E Kenny, Christopher S Carlson
Investigating genetic architecture of complex traits in ancestrally diverse populations is imperative to understand the etiology of disease. However, the current paucity of genetic research in people of African and Latin American ancestry, Hispanic and indigenous peoples in the United States is likely to exacerbate existing health disparities for many common diseases. The Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology, Phase II (PAGE II), Study was initiated in 2013 by the National Human Genome Research Institute to expand our understanding of complex trait loci in ethnically diverse and well characterized study populations...
2016: PloS One
Nora Franceschini, Cara L Carty, Yingchang Lu, Ran Tao, Yun Ju Sung, Ani Manichaikul, Jeff Haessler, Myriam Fornage, Karen Schwander, Niha Zubair, Stephanie Bien, Lucia A Hindorff, Xiuqing Guo, Suzette J Bielinski, Georg Ehret, Joel D Kaufman, Stephen S Rich, Christopher S Carlson, Erwin P Bottinger, Kari E North, D C Rao, Aravinda Chakravarti, Paula Q Barrett, Ruth J F Loos, Steven Buyske, Charles Kooperberg
Despite the substantial burden of hypertension in US minority populations, few genetic studies of blood pressure have been conducted in Hispanics and African Americans, and it is unclear whether many of the established loci identified in European-descent populations contribute to blood pressure variation in non-European descent populations. Using the Metabochip array, we sought to characterize the genetic architecture of previously identified blood pressure loci, and identify novel cardiometabolic variants related to systolic and diastolic blood pressure in a multi-ethnic US population including Hispanics (n = 19,706) and African Americans (n = 18,744)...
2016: PloS One
Niha Ansari, Anand Lodha, Shobhana K Menon
In this work, we report the smart application of AgNPs based sensors for determination of time since death (TSD) via recognition and quantification of vitreous humor (VH) cystine as well as provide the portability for on spot determination of TSD. The lower detection limit was found to be 7.0ng/ml with prominent selectivity. It was found that there is a linear correlation between the VH cystine concentration and TSD as the concentration of cystine increases up to 96h±3.9h. Further for the first time TSD determination is given a smart approach and it proves to have a great utility up to 24h±2...
December 15, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Shahzad A Pandith, Niha Dhar, Satiander Rana, Wajid Waheed Bhat, Manoj Kushwaha, Ajai P Gupta, Manzoor A Shah, Ram Vishwakarma, Surrinder K Lattoo
Plants effectively defend themselves against biotic and abiotic stresses by synthesizing diverse secondary metabolites, including health-protective flavonoids. These display incredible chemical diversity and ubiquitous occurrence and confer impeccable biological and agricultural applications. Chalcone synthase (CHS), a type III plant polyketide synthase, is critical for flavonoid biosynthesis. It catalyzes acyl-coenzyme A thioesters to synthesize naringenin chalcone through a polyketidic intermediate. The functional divergence among the evolutionarily generated members of a gene family is pivotal in driving the chemical diversity...
August 2016: Plant Physiology
Ann-Katrein Bär, Niha Phukan, Jully Pinheiro, Augusto Simoes-Barbosa
Infections by parasitic protozoans are largely neglected, despite threatening millions of people, particularly in developing countries. With descriptions of the microbiota in humans, a new frontier of investigation is developing to decipher the complexity of host-parasite-microbiota relationships, instead of the classic reductionist approach, which considers host-parasite in isolation. Here, we review with specific examples the potential roles that the resident microbiota can play at mucosal interfaces in the transmission of parasitic protozoans and in the progress of infection and disease...
December 2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Niha Dhar, Sumeer Razdan, Satiander Rana, Wajid W Bhat, Ram Vishwakarma, Surrinder K Lattoo
Withania somnifera, a multipurpose medicinal plant is a rich reservoir of pharmaceutically active triterpenoids that are steroidal lactones known as withanolides. Though the plant has been well-characterized in terms of phytochemical profiles as well as pharmaceutical activities, limited attempts have been made to decipher the biosynthetic route and identification of key regulatory genes involved in withanolide biosynthesis. This scenario limits biotechnological interventions for enhanced production of bioactive compounds...
2015: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ulrike Peters, Stephanie Bien, Niha Zubair
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a complex disease that develops as a consequence of both genetic and environmental risk factors. A small proportion (3-5%) of cases arise from hereditary syndromes predisposing to early onset CRC as a result of mutations in over a dozen well defined genes. In contrast, CRC is predominantly a late onset 'sporadic' disease, developing in individuals with no obvious hereditary syndrome. In recent years, genome wide association studies have discovered that over 40 genetic regions are associated with weak effects on sporadic CRC, and it has been estimated that increasingly large genome wide scans will identify many additional novel genetic regions...
October 2015: Gut
Cevahir Aydın, Haluk Ataoğlu
Candida albicans is a polymorphic fungus that may be observed as both commensal and opportunistic pathogen in humans. As one of the major components of Candida cell wall structure, mannan plays an important role in the fungus-host cell interaction and in virulence. The ability to switch from yeast to hypha form of microorganism is crutial in the development of C.albicans infections. Hyphal form has different antigenic properties compared to yeast form and structural changes occur in the yeast cell wall during transition from yeast to hypha form...
January 2015: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Jian Gong, Niha Zubair
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2015: International Journal of Epidemiology
Niha Zubair, Charles Kooperberg, Jingmin Liu, Chongzhi Di, Ulrike Peters, Marian L Neuhouser
BACKGROUND: The consumption and blood concentrations of lycopene are both positively and inversely associated with the risk of several chronic diseases. The inconsistences in lycopene disease association studies may stem from a lack of knowledge about the genetic variation in the synthesis, metabolism, and deposition of transport and binding proteins, which potentially influence serum lycopene concentrations. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between variation across the genome and serum concentrations of lycopene in a multiethnic population...
February 2015: Journal of Nutrition
Satiander Rana, Wajid Waheed Bhat, Niha Dhar, Shahzad A Pandith, Sumeer Razdan, Ram Vishwakarma, Surrinder K Lattoo
BACKGROUND: Pharmacological investigations position withanolides as important bioactive molecules demanding their enhanced production. Therefore, one of the pivotal aims has been to gain knowledge about complete biosynthesis of withanolides in terms of enzymatic and regulatory genes of the pathway. However, the pathway remains elusive at the molecular level. P450s monooxygenases play a crucial role in secondary metabolism and predominantly help in functionalizing molecule core structures including withanolides...
November 23, 2014: BMC Biotechnology
Wajid Waheed Bhat, Sumeer Razdan, Satiander Rana, Niha Dhar, Tariq Ahmad Wani, Parvaiz Qazi, Ram Vishwakarma, Surrinder K Lattoo
Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth. is a highly reputed medicinal herb utilised in the preparation of a number of herbal drug formulations, principally due to the presence of novel monoterpene iridoid glycosides kenned as picrosides. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase catalyses an important rate-limiting step in phenylpropanoid pathway and supplies precursors like cinnamic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, etc., to a variety of secondary metabolites including picrosides. The imperilled status of P. kurrooa coupled with lack of information regarding biogenesis of picrosides necessitates deciphering the biosynthetic pathway for picrosides...
September 1, 2014: Gene
Niha Dhar, Satiander Rana, Sumeer Razdan, Wajid Waheed Bhat, Aashiq Hussain, Rekha S Dhar, Samantha Vaishnavi, Abid Hamid, Ram Vishwakarma, Surrinder K Lattoo
Oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs) positioned at a key metabolic subdividing junction execute indispensable enzymatic cyclization of 2,3-oxidosqualene for varied triterpenoid biosynthesis. Such branch points present favorable gene targets for redirecting metabolic flux toward specific secondary metabolites. However, detailed information regarding the candidate OSCs covering different branches and their regulation is necessary for the desired genetic manipulation. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to characterize members of OSC superfamily from Withania somnifera (Ws), a medicinal plant of immense repute known to synthesize a large array of biologically active steroidal lactone triterpenoids called withanolides...
June 13, 2014: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Niha Zubair, Chris W Kuzawa, Nanette R Lee, Thomas W McDade, Linda S Adair
BACKGROUND: With modernization, cardiometabolic disease risk has increased in low and middle-income countries. To better understand cardiometabolic disease etiology, we evaluated the patterning risk factors in a susceptible young adult population. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants included 1,621 individuals from the 2005 Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. Using cluster analysis, we grouped individuals by the following biomarkers: triglycerides, HDL and LDL cholesterol, C-reactive protein, blood pressure, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and fasting glucose...
2014: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Wajid Waheed Bhat, Satiander Rana, Niha Dhar, Sumeer Razdan, Shahzad A Pandith, Ram Vishwakarma, Surrinder K Lattoo
Picrorhiza kurrooa synthesizes a large array of pharmacologically important monoterpenoid iridoid glycosides called picrosides. Although chemical profile and pharmacological activities of P. kurrooa have been extensively studied, limited attempts have been made to decipher the biosynthetic route and to identify the key regulatory genes involved in picroside biosynthesis. In the present study, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, a key enzyme involved in electron transfer to cytochrome P450s was identified from P...
June 2014: Functional & Integrative Genomics
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