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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922907/organ-vouchers-and-barter-markets-saving-lives-reducing-suffering-and-trading-in-human-organs
#1
Mark J Cherry
The essays in this issue of The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy explore an innovative voucher program for encouraging kidney donation. Discussions cluster around a number of central moral and political/theoretical themes: (1) What are the direct and indirect health care costs and benefits of such a voucher system in human organs? (2) Do vouchers lead to more effective and efficient organ procurement and allocation or contribute to greater inequalities and inefficiencies in the transplantation system? (3) Do vouchers contribute to the inappropriate commodification of human body parts? (4) Is there a significant moral difference between such a voucher system and a market in human organs for transplantation? This paper argues that while kidney vouchers constitute a step in the right direction, fuller utilization of market-based incentives, including, but not limited to, barter exchanges (e...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922904/the-body-as-gift-commodity-or-something-in-between-ethical-implications-of-advanced-kidney-donation
#2
Julian J Koplin
An innovative program recently initiated at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Medical Center allows people to donate a kidney in exchange for a voucher that a loved one can redeem for a kidney if and when needed. As a relatively new practice, the ethical implications of advanced kidney donation have not yet been widely discussed. This paper reflects on some of the bioethical issues at stake in this new donation program, as well as some broader philosophical issues related to the meaning and moral salience of commodification...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922903/banking-on-living-kidney-donors-a-new-way-to-facilitate-donation-without-compromising-on-ethical-values
#3
Dominique E Martin, Gabriel M Danovitch
Public surveys conducted in many countries report widespread willingness of individuals to donate a kidney while alive to a family member or close friend, yet thousands suffer and many die each year while waiting for a kidney transplant. Advocates of financial incentive programs or "regulated markets" in kidneys present the problem of the kidney shortage as one of insufficient public motivation to donate, arguing that incentives will increase the number of donors. Others believe the solutions lie-at least in part-in facilitating so-called "altruistic donation;" harnessing the willingness of relatives and friends to donate by addressing the many barriers which serve as disincentives to living donation...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922902/from-directed-donation-to-kidney-sale-does-the-argument-hold-up
#4
James Stacey Taylor
The UCLA Medical Center has initiated a "voucher program" under which a person who donated a kidney would receive a voucher that she could provide to someone of her choosing who could then use it to move to the top of the renal transplantation waiting list. If the use of such vouchers as incentives for donors is morally permissible, then cash payments for kidneys are also morally permissible. But, that argument faces five objections. First, there are some goods whose nature allows them to be exchanged for similar goods but renders them monetarily inalienable...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922654/student-s-perception-about-innovative-teaching-learning-practices-in-forensic-medicine
#5
Sanjay Gupta, Utsav N Parekh, Jaishree D Ganjiwale
BACKGROUND: Since decades, Forensic Medicine is mainly taught by didactic methods but in last couple of years some other teachinglearning and assessment methods are also introduced at some places which also lacks uniformity. Feedback from learners is most fundamental aspect to assess effectiveness of applied methods, but is not implemented in practice at most medical schools in India. Unfortunately, medical students are deprived of this practical empowerment and thus may not be efficient enough to contribute potentially to the justice system during their professional life...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922593/cysteine-silac-mass-spectrometry-enables-the-identification-and-quantitation-of-scrambled-inter-chain-disulfide-bonds-preservation-of-native-heavy-light-chain-pairing-in-bispecific-iggs-generated-by-controlled-fab-arm-exchange
#6
Ewald T J van den Bremer, Aran F Labrijn, Ramon van den Boogaard, Patrick Priem, Kai Scheffler, Joost P M Melis, Janine Schuurman, Paul Parren, Rob N de Jong
Bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) are one of the most versatile and promising pharmaceutical innovations for countering heterogeneous and refractory disease by virtue of their ability to bind two distinct antigens. One critical quality attribute of bsAb formation requiring investigation is the potential randomization of cognate heavy chain (H)/light (L) chain pairing, which could occur to a varying extent dependent on bsAb format and the production platform. To assess the content of such HL chain-swapped reaction products with high sensitivity, we developed cysteine-SILAC, a method that facilitates the detailed characterization of disulfide-bridged peptides by mass-spectrometry...
September 18, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922540/ape1-ref-1-knockdown-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-characterizing-gene-expression-changes-and-identifying-novel-pathways-using-single-cell-rna-sequencing
#7
Fenil Shah, Emery Goossens, Nadia M Atallah, Michelle Grimard, Mark R Kelley, Melissa L Fishel
Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1 or APE1) is a multifunctional protein that regulates numerous transcription factors associated with cancer-related pathways. Because APE1 is essential for cell viability, generation of APE1 knockout cell lines and determining a comprehensive list of genes regulated by APE1 has not been possible. To circumvent this challenge, we utilized single-cell RNA Sequencing to identify differentially expressed genes in relation to APE1 protein levels within the cell...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922513/purpose-processes-partnerships-and-products-4ps-to-advance-participatory-socio-environmental-modeling
#8
Steven Gray, Alexey Voinov, Michael Paolisso, Rebecca Jordan, Todd BenDor, Pierre Bommel, Pierre Glynn, Beatrice Hedelin, Klaus Hubacek, Josh Introne, Nagesh Kolagani, Bethany Laursen, Christina Prell, Laura Schmitt-Olabisi, Alison Singer, Eleanor Sterling, Moira Zellner
Including stakeholders in environmental model building and analysis is an increasingly popular approach to understanding ecological change. This is because stakeholders often hold valuable knowledge about socio-environmental dynamics and collaborative forms of modeling produce important boundary objects used to collectively reason about environmental problems. Although the number of participatory modeling (PM) case studies and the number of researchers adopting these approaches has grown in recent years, the lack of standardized reporting and limited reproducibility have prevented PM's establishment and advancement as a cohesive field of study...
September 18, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922040/professional-generational-and-gender-differences-in-perception-of-organisational-values-among-israeli-physicians-and-nurses-implications-for-retention
#9
Sigalit Warshawski, Sivia Barnoy, Ilya Kagan
The global health workforce today is more age diverse than ever before and spans three generations: baby boomers, X and Y generations. Each generation has a distinct set of characteristics, values, and beliefs. This diversity can lead to increased creativity and a greater richness of values and skills, but at the same time it can also lead to value clashes, disrespect, and conflicts. This study aimed to examine professional, generational, and gender differences in the perception of the importance of organisational values among nurses and physicians working in both hospitals and outpatient clinics in Israel...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922038/a-mixed-methods-study-of-emotional-exhaustion-energizing-and-depleting-work-within-an-innovative-healthcare-team
#10
Cindy L Cain, Caitlin Taborda-Whitt, Monica Frazer, Sandra Schellinger, Katie M White, Jason Kaasovic, Brenda Nelson, Allison Chant
This mixed methods study documents emotional exhaustion experiences among care team members during the development of an innovative team approach for caring for adults with serious illness. A mixed methods study design was employed to examine depleting work experiences that may produce emotional exhaustion, and energizing aspects of the work that may increase meaningfulness of work, thus reducing emotional exhaustion. The population studied included team members involved in care for adults with serious illness (n = 18)...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921969/flow-electrolysis-cells-for-the-synthetic-organic-chemistry-laboratory
#11
Derek Pletcher, Robert A Green, Richard C D Brown
Electrosynthesis has much to offer to the synthetic organic chemist. But in order to be widely accepted as a routine procedure in an organic synthesis laboratory, electrosynthesis needs to be presented in a much more user-friendly way. The literature is largely based on electrolysis in a glass beaker or H-cells that often give poor performance for synthesis with a very slow rate of conversion and, often, low selectivity and reproducibility. Flow cells can lead to much improved performance. Electrolysis is participating in the trend toward continuous flow synthesis, and this has led to a number of innovations in flow cell design that make possible selective syntheses with high conversion of reactant to product with a single passage of the reactant solution through the cell...
September 18, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921829/vegetation-demographics-in-earth-system-models-a-review-of-progress-and-priorities
#12
Rosie A Fisher, Charles D Koven, William R L Anderegg, Bradley O Christoffersen, Michael C Dietze, Caroline Farrior, Jennifer A Holm, George Hurtt, Ryan G Knox, Peter J Lawrence, Jeremy W Lichststein, Marcos Longo, Ashley M Matheny, David Medvigy, Helene C Muller-Landau, Thomas L Powell, Shawn P Serbin, Hisashi Sato, Jacquelyn Shuman, Benjamin Smith, Anna T Trugman, Toni Viskari, Hans Verbeeck, Ensheng Weng, Chonggang Xu, Xiangtao Xu, Tao Zhang, Paul Moorcroft
Numerous current efforts seek to improve the representation of ecosystem ecology and vegetation demographic processes within Earth System Models (ESMs). These developments are widely viewed as an important step in developing greater realism in predictions of future ecosystem states and fluxes. Increased realism, however, leads to increased model complexity, with new features raising a suite of ecological questions that require empirical constraints. Here, we review the developments that permit the representation of plant demographics in ESMs, and identify issues raised by these developments that highlight important gaps in ecological understanding...
September 18, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921824/characterization-of-lacquer-films-from-the-middle-and-late-chinese-warring-states-period-476-221bc
#13
P J Jin, Y L Hu, Z B Ke
The famous lacquer wares excavated from the Jiuliandun Tombs of the middle and late Warring States period (476-221 BC) were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy/energy as well as dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS), Raman spectroscopy (RS), optical microscopy (OM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed a multilayer structure in the lacquer film, including a Qihui layer (a layer made of lacquer and various plasters), undercoat layer (or finishing coat) and colored paint layer mixed with various inorganic particles, such as quartz (SiO2 ) and hydroxyapatite [Ca5 (PO4 )3 (OH)], as fillers in the Qihui layers or orpiment (As2 S3 ) and cinnabar (HgS), which were used as a yellow or red pigment, respectively...
September 18, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921676/perioperative-passport-empowering-people-with-diabetes-along-their-surgical-journey
#14
E Page, F Akiboye, S Jackson, C Kerry, R Round, G Rayman
AIM: To determine whether a handheld 'perioperative passport' could improve the experience of perioperative care for people with diabetes and overcome some of the communication issues commonly identified in inpatient extracts. METHODS: Individuals with diabetes undergoing elective surgery requiring at least an overnight stay were identified via a customized information technology system. Those allocated to the passport group were given the perioperative passport before their hospital admission...
September 18, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921650/antibody-drug-conjugates-as-cancer-therapeutics-past-present-and-future
#15
Heather E Vezina, Monette Cotreau, Tae H Han, Manish Gupta
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) represent an innovative therapeutic approach that provides novel treatment options and hope for patients with cancer. By coupling monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to cytotoxic small-molecule payloads with a plasma-stable linker, ADCs offer the potential for increased drug specificity and fewer off-target effects than systemic chemotherapy. As evidence for the potential of these therapies, many new ADCs are in various stages of clinical development. Because their structure poses unique challenges to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characterization, it is critical to recognize the differences between ADCs and conventional chemotherapy in the design of ADC clinical development strategies...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921643/bridging-adult-experience-to-pediatrics-in-oncology-drug-development
#16
Ruby Leong, Hong Zhao, Gregory Reaman, Qi Liu, Yaning Wang, Clinton F Stewart, Gilbert Burckart
Pediatric drug development in the United States has grown under the current regulations made permanent by the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act of 2012. Over 1200 pediatric studies have now been submitted to the US FDA, but there is still a high rate of failure to obtain pediatric labeling for the indication pursued. Pediatric oncology represents special problems in that the disease is most often dissimilar to any cancer found in the adult population. Therefore, the development of drug dosing in pediatric oncology patients represents a special challenge...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921617/re-traser-an-innovative-device-for-the-treatment-of-nasal-telangiectasias-lasers-in-surgery-and-medicine-2017-49-6-625-631
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921488/report-from-the-first-european-dermato-epidemiology-network-forum
#18
A Ascott, S M Langan, I García-Doval, M A Descalzo, S A J Schmidt, T Nijsten, L M Hollestein
The first European Dermato-Epidemiology Network (EDEN) forum was held on 30-31 March 2017 in Madrid, Spain. Dermatoepidemiology describes the study of causes, prevention, health services research and evaluation of interventions of skin diseases. EDEN aims to promote high-quality research, share expertise and facilitate collaboration. These aims were achieved during the EDEN forum by including a preconference course on skin cancer epidemiology; having excellent world-leading guest speakers on causality, quality of care, pharmacoepidemiology and missing data analysis; and including delegates who presented and discussed innovative research findings...
September 17, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921425/uncovering-innovation-features-and-emerging-technologies-in-molecular-biology-through-patent-analysis
#19
Cristiano Gonçalves Pereira, Geciane Silveira Porto
Scientific research at universities has a crucial role in leveraging a country's innovative potential. Sectors that require greater investments in technology for the development of their research, such as biotechnology, need to be aware of the frontier state-of-the-art technology and the knowledge incrusted within it. Although the information available in scientific articles is well explored in academic environment, the patent literature, where much of the technological information is present, is still poorly accessed...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921045/-what-is-beauty-manifest-for-an-aesthetic-character-medicine
#20
REVIEW
W Harth
Aesthetic medicine has in recent decades attained a growing social significance and firm place in the medical profession image. In a short time, a variety of technical procedures and processes have been developed and applied by specialized physicians. A further leading medical discussion regarding the central question "What is beauty" is missing compared with the technologically innovative progress. Beauty is characterized by an individual and subjective pleasure. Social media and fashion trends exert a central influence on common beauty ideals and aesthetic medicine...
September 18, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
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