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Matthieu Picher, Kerstin Bücker, Thomas LaGrange, Florian Banhart
We implement a parametric study with single electron pulses having a 7 ns duration to find the optimal conditions for imaging, diffraction, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in the single-shot approach. Photoelectron pulses are generated by illuminating a flat tantalum cathode with 213 nm nanosecond laser pulses in a 200 kV transmission electron microscope (TEM) with thermionic gun and Wehnelt electrode. For the first time, an EEL spectrometer is used to measure the energy distribution of single nanosecond electron pulses which is crucial for understanding the ideal imaging conditions of the single-shot approach...
March 13, 2018: Ultramicroscopy
S Sengottuvel, Pathan Fayaz Khan, N Mariyappa, Rajesh Patel, S Saipriya, K Gireesan
Cutaneous measurements of electrogastrogram (EGG) signals are heavily contaminated by artifacts due to cardiac activity, breathing, motion artifacts, and electrode drifts whose effective elimination remains an open problem. A common methodology is proposed by combining independent component analysis (ICA) and ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) to denoise gastric slow-wave signals in multichannel EGG data. Sixteen electrodes are fixed over the upper abdomen to measure the EGG signals under three gastric conditions, namely, preprandial, postprandial immediately, and postprandial 2 h after food for three healthy subjects and a subject with a gastric disorder...
March 1, 2018: SLAS Technology
Charrise M Ramkissoon, Pau Herrero, Jorge Bondia, Josep Vehi
The artificial pancreas (AP) system is designed to regulate blood glucose in subjects with type 1 diabetes using a continuous glucose monitor informed controller that adjusts insulin infusion via an insulin pump. However, current AP developments are mainly hybrid closed-loop systems that include feed-forward actions triggered by the announcement of meals or exercise. The first step to fully closing the loop in the AP requires removing meal announcement, which is currently the most effective way to alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia due to the delay in insulin action...
March 16, 2018: Sensors
Jung-Un Kim, Hang-Bong Kang
In object detection systems for autonomous driving, LIDAR sensors provide very useful information. However, problems occur because the object representation is greatly distorted by changes in distance. To solve this problem, we propose a LIDAR shape set that reconstructs the shape surrounding the object more clearly by using the LIDAR point information projected on the object. The LIDAR shape set restores object shape edges from a bird's eye view by filtering LIDAR points projected on a 2D pixel-based front view...
March 16, 2018: Sensors
Isabel Aparici-Espert, Miguel A Miranda, Virginie Lhiaubet-Vallet
Photosensitization by drugs is a problem of increasing importance in modern life. This phenomenon occurs when a chemical substance in the skin is exposed to sunlight. Photosensitizing drugs are reported to cause severe skin dermatitis, and indeed, it is generally advised to avoid sunbathing and to apply sunscreen. In this context, the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac is a photosensitive drug, especially when administered in topical form. In this work, efforts have been made to design and study an innovative pro-drug/pro-filter system containing diclofenac and the UVA filter avobenzone in order to develop a safer use of this topical drug...
March 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Xu Zhao, Lihua Dou, Zhong Su, Ning Liu
A snake robot is a type of highly redundant mobile robot that significantly differs from a tracked robot, wheeled robot and legged robot. To address the issue of a snake robot performing self-localization in the application environment without assistant orientation, an autonomous navigation method is proposed based on the snake robot's motion characteristic constraints. The method realized the autonomous navigation of the snake robot with non-nodes and an external assistant using its own Micro-Electromechanical-Systems (MEMS) Inertial-Measurement-Unit (IMU)...
March 16, 2018: Sensors
Qiang Zhang, Tianyuan Xin, Xiaoke Lu, Yuexia Wang
We exploited novel two-dimensional (2D) carbon selenide (CSe) with a structure analogous to phosphorene, and probed its electronics and optoelectronics. Calculating phonon spectra using the density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) method indicated that 2D CSe possesses dynamic stability, which made it possible to tune and equip CSe with outstanding properties by way of X-doping (X = O, S, Te), i.e., X substituting Se atoms. Then systematic investigation on the structural, electronic, and optical properties of pristine and X-doped monolayer CSe was carried out using the density functional theory (DFT) method...
March 16, 2018: Materials
Kurtis H Dekker, Rubin Hazarika, Matheus A Silveira, Kevin J Jordan
Optical cone beam computed tomography (CT) scanning of radiochromic gel dosimeters, using a CCD camera and a low stray light convergent source, provides fast, truly 3D radiation dosimetry with high accuracy. However, a key limiting factor in radiochromic gel dosimetry at large (⩾10 cm diameter) volumes is the initial attenuation of the dosimeters. It is not unusual to observe a 5-10×  difference in signal intensity through the dosimeter center versus through the surrounding medium in pre-irradiation images...
March 16, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Jyoti Singh Kirar, R K Agrawal
This paper presents a novel algorithm (CVSTSCSP) for determining discriminative features from an optimal combination of temporal, spectral and spatial information for motor imagery brain computer interfaces. The proposed method involves four phases. In the first phase, EEG signal is segmented into overlapping time segments and bandpass filtered through frequency filter bank of variable size subbands. In the next phase, features are extracted from the segmented and filtered data using stationary common spatial pattern technique (SCSP) that can handle the non- stationarity and artifacts of EEG signal...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Caterina Musolino, Giacomo Oteri, Alessandro Allegra, Manuela Mania, Angela D'Ascola, Angela Avenoso, Vanessa Innao, Andrea Gaetano Allegra, Salvatore Campo
Bisphosphonates are formidable inhibitors of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption employed for therapy of multiple myeloma (MM) subjects with osteolytic lesions. Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is an uncommon drug-induced adverse event of these agents. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small, noncoding RNAs nucleotides, which are essential post-transcriptional controllers of gene expression. They have a central role in the normal bone development. The goal of our study was to investigate 18 miRNAs, whose targets were previously validated and described in MM subjects without ONJ, in peripheral lymphocytes of MM subjects with bisphosphonate-induced ONJ...
March 15, 2018: Annals of Hematology
Shefali Setia Verma, Navya Josyula, Anurag Verma, Xinyuan Zhang, Yogasudha Veturi, Frederick E Dewey, Dustin N Hartzel, Daniel R Lavage, Joe Leader, Marylyn D Ritchie, Sarah A Pendergrass
The DrugBank database consists of ~800 genes that are well characterized drug targets. This list of genes is a useful resource for association testing. For example, loss of function (LOF) genetic variation has the potential to mimic the effect of drugs, and high impact variation in these genes can impact downstream traits. Identifying novel associations between genetic variation in these genes and a range of diseases can also uncover new uses for the drugs that target these genes. Phenome Wide Association Studies (PheWAS) have been successful in identifying genetic associations across hundreds of thousands of diseases...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Cheryl Suwen Law, Siew Yee Lim, Abel Santos
This study presents a nanofabrication approach that enables the production of nanoporous anodic alumina distributed Bragg reflectors (NAA-DBRs) with finely engineered light filtering features across the spectral regions. The photonic stopband (PSB) of these NAA-based photonic crystal (PC) structures is precisely tuned by an apodization strategy applied during stepwise pulse anodization with the aim of engineering the effective medium of NAA-DBRs in depth. We systematically assess the effect of different fabrication parameters such as apodization function (i...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yushi Uetera, Hiroshi Yasuhara, Naohito Kumada, Yoshiki Misawa, Yoshiyuki Terada, Yoshio Satou, Tamaki Suhara, Kunio Kawamura
Recently, the use of filters has come into light for sanitizing water plants. This study investigated the role of heat-tolerant ultrafilters (UFs) for the remediation of reverse osmosis (RO) plants using periodic thermal disinfection. Two completely identical RO plants (RO plants A & B) were installed in 2006 for surgical hand antisepsis in the operating theater. RO water was stored in the 300-liter storage tank and re-circulated in the 190 meter-long loop delivering water to 12 faucets in each RO plant...
March 15, 2018: PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
Matthew V Helliwell, Yihong Zhang, Aziza El Harchi, Chunyun Du, Jules C Hancox, Christopher E Dempsey
Cardiac potassium channels encoded by human Ether-à-go-go Related Gene (hERG) are major targets for structurally diverse drugs associated with acquired long QT syndrome. This study characterized hERG channel inhibition by a minimally structured high affinity hERG inhibitor, Cavalli-2, composed of three phenyl groups linked by polymethylene spacers around a central amino group, chosen to probe the spatial arrangement of side chain groups in the high-affinity drug binding site of the hERG pore. hERG current (IhERG ) recorded at physiological temperature from HEK 293 cells was inhibited with an IC50 of 35...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Hisao Tsukamoto, Masahiro Higashi, Hideyoshi Motoki, Hiroki Watanabe, Christian Ganser, Koichi Nakajo, Yoshihiro Kubo, Takayuki Uchihashi, Yuji Furutani
Canonical K+ channels are tetrameric and highly K+ selective, whereas two-pore domain K+ (K2P) channels form dimers, but with a similar pore architecture. A two-pore domain potassium channel TWIK1 (KCNK1 or K2P1) allows permeation of Na+ and other monovalent ions, resulting mainly from the presence of Thr118 in the P1 domain. However, the mechanistic basis for this reduced selectivity is unclear. Using ion-exchange-induced difference infrared spectroscopy, we analyzed WT TWIK1 and T118I (highly K+ selective) and L228F (substitution in the P2 domain) TWIK1 variants and found that in the presence of K+ ions, WT and both variants exhibit an amide-I band at 1680 cm-1 This band corresponds to interactions of the backbone carbonyls in the selectivity filter with K+ , a feature very similar to that of the canonical K+ channel KcsA...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Stefanie Amend, Roland Frankenberger, Susanne Lücker, Eugen Domann, Norbert Krämer
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to establish Lactobacillus casei in a completely automated Streptococcus mutans-based artificial mouth model and to investigate secondary caries inhibiting properties of glass ionomer cements / resin composite groups in vitro. METHODS: Sixty extracted, caries-free human third molars were used for preparation of standardized class-V-cavities. Specimens were restored with a resin-modified (Photac Fil; PF) as well as a conventional glass ionomer cement (Ketac Molar; KM) and one resin composite bonded with and without conduction of etch-and-rinse technique (Prime&Bond NT, Ceram X mono; C+ERT, C)...
March 12, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Mengli Xiao, Yongbo Zhang, Huimin Fu, Zhihua Wang
High-precision navigation algorithm is essential for the future Mars pinpoint landing mission. The unknown inputs caused by large uncertainties of atmospheric density and aerodynamic coefficients as well as unknown measurement biases may cause large estimation errors of conventional Kalman filters. This paper proposes a derivative-free version of nonlinear unbiased minimum variance filter for Mars entry navigation. This filter has been designed to solve this problem by estimating the state and unknown measurement biases simultaneously with derivative-free character, leading to a high-precision algorithm for the Mars entry navigation...
March 12, 2018: ISA Transactions
Ande Rostvall, Wen Zhang, Wiebke Dürig, Gunno Renman, Karin Wiberg, Lutz Ahrens, Pablo Gago-Ferrero
This study evaluated the performance of five different sorbents (granular activated carbon (GAC), GAC + Polonite® (GAC + P), Xylit, lignite and sand) for a set of 83 micropollutants (MPs) (pharmaceuticals, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), personal care products, artificial sweeteners, parabens, pesticide, stimulants), together representing a wide range of physicochemical properties. Treatment with GAC and GAC + P provided the highest removal efficiencies, with average values above 97%. Removal rates were generally lower for Xylit (on average 74%) and lignite (on average 68%), although they proved to be highly efficient for a few individual MPs...
March 6, 2018: Water Research
Emily E Burns, Laura J Carter, Dana W Kolpin, Jane Thomas-Oates, Alistair B A Boxall
Many studies have quantified pharmaceuticals in the environment, few however, have incorporated detailed temporal and spatial variability due to associated costs in terms of time and materials. Here, we target 33 physico-chemically diverse pharmaceuticals in a spatiotemporal exposure study into the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the wastewater system and the Rivers Ouse and Foss (two diverse river systems) in the city of York, UK. Removal rates in two of the WWTPs sampled (a conventional activated sludge (CAS) and trickling filter plant) ranged from not eliminated (carbamazepine) to >99% (paracetamol)...
March 3, 2018: Water Research
Jing Huang, Guohe Huang, Chunjiang An, Yuan He, Yao Yao, Peng Zhang, Jian Shen
Global water safety is facing great challenges due to increased population and demand. There is an urgent need to develop suitable water treatment strategy for small rural and remote communities in low-income developing countries. In order to find a low-cost solution, the reduction of E. coli using ceramic water disk coated with nano ZnO was investigated in this study. The performance of modified ceramic disk filters was influenced by several factors in the filter production process. Based on the factorial analysis, the pore size of the disk filters was the most significant factor for influencing E...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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