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Ying Huang, Wen Wang, Zhiqiang Xu, Jianlin Pan, Zhe Zhao, Qian Ren
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. In this study, the function of microRNA-7 (miR-7) in host-virus interaction was investigated. Replication of White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was enhanced with the overexpression of miR-7 and inhibited with the downregulation of miR-7 by using anti-miRNA oligonucleotide AMO-miR-7. The target gene of miR-7 was predicted using bioinformatics methods. Results showed that crab myeloid differentiation factor 88 (Myd88) could be targeted by miR-7...
May 15, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Yo Okamura, Mari Inada, Gehad Elsaid Elshopakey, Toshiaki Itami
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play key roles in many physiological processes. In particular, the sterilization mechanism of bacteria using ROS in macrophages is a very important function for biological defense. Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and aldehyde oxidase (AOX), members of the molybdo-flavoenzyme subfamily, are known to generate ROS. Although these enzymes occur in many vertebrates, some insects, and plants, little research has been conducted on XDHs and AOXs in crustaceans. Here, we cloned the entire cDNA sequences of XDH (MjXDH: 4328 bp) and AOX (MjAOX: 4425 bp) from Marsupenaeus japonicus (kuruma shrimp) using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and random amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)...
May 16, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Pakkakul Sangsuriya, Walaiporn Charoensapsri, Jantiwan Sutthangkul, Saengchan Senapin, Ikuo Hirono, Anchalee Tassanakajon, Piti Amparyup
Melanization, mediated by the prophenoloxidase (proPO)-activating system, is an important innate immune response in invertebrates. The implication of the proPO system in antiviral response and the suppression of host proPO activation by the viral protein have previously been demonstrated in shrimp. However, the molecular mechanism of viral-host interactions in the proPO cascade remains largely unexplored. Here, we characterized the viral protein, namely, WSSV164, which was initially identified from the forward suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library of the PmproPO1/2 co-silenced black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon that was challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)...
May 4, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Zi Yang, Xiaomin Xu, Fang Li, Feng Yang
White spot syndrome virus immediate early (IE) gene wsv249 encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase that can interact with a shrimp ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme to mediate ubiquitination. In this study, to understand the transcriptional regulation of wsv249, a serial of 5'-truncated mutations were made on its promoter and the activities of mutated promoters was analyzed. Four 25 bp regions potentially containing either positive or negative regulatory elements were identified. Notably, the deletion of -275/-250, which abolished a cAMP-response element (CRE), greatly reduced the promoter activity by 84...
May 10, 2018: Virus Research
S Sivakumar, S Vimal, S Abdul Majeed, S Santhosh Kumar, G Taju, N Madan, T Rajkumar, S Thamizhvanan, K V Shamsudheen, V Scaria, S Sivasubbu, A S Sahul Hameed
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-infected shrimp samples collected from grow-out ponds located at Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India, showed WSSV negative and positive by PCR using primer sets specific to ORF119 and VP28 gene of WSSV, respectively. This indicated the deletion of genetic fragments in the genome of WSSV. The WSSV isolate along with lab strain of WSSV was subjected to next-generation sequencing. The sequence analysis revealed a deletion of 13,170 bp at five positions in the genome of WSSV-NS (new strain) relative to WSSV-TH and WSSV-LS (lab strain)...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Zengzhi Yuan, Meng Chen, Jingting Wang, Zhuoyu Li, Xuyun Geng, Jinsheng Sun
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a dangerous threat to shrimp farming that also attacks a wide range of crustaceans. Knowledge of the surface protein-protein interactions between the pathogen and host is very crucial to unraveling the molecular pathogenesis mechanisms of WSSV. In this study, LvBiP (Litopenaeus vannamei immunoglobulin heavy-chain-binding protein) was identified as a novel WSSV binding protein of L. vannamei by a biotinylation based affinity chromatography method. By using pull-down and ELISA assays, the binding of recombinant LvBiP to WSSV was proved to be specific and ATP- dependent...
May 5, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Jamie Bojko, Paul D Stebbing, Alison M Dunn, Kelly S Bateman, Fraser Clark, Rose C Kerr, Sarah Stewart-Clark, Ása Johannesen, Grant D Stentiford
The green crab Carcinus maenas is an invader on the Atlantic coast of Canada and the USA. In these locations, crab populations have facilitated the development of a legal fishery in which C. maenas is caught and sold, mainly for use as bait to capture economically important crustaceans such as American lobster Homarus americanus. The paucity of knowledge on the symbionts of invasive C. maenas in Canada and their potential for transfer to lobsters poses a potential risk of unintended transmission. We carried out a histological survey for symbionts of C...
May 7, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Xin-Ying Sun, Qing-Hui Liu, Jie Huang
The isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) was applied to identify differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in Litopenaeus vannamei in response to different virulence white spot syndrome virus infection. A total of 2,780 unique peptides corresponding to 754 proteins were identified. The number of significant differentially expressed proteins was 161, including 38 up-regulated ones and 123 down-regulated ones in low-virulence infection library compared with normal-virulence infection library...
May 4, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Ziyan Wang, Baozhen Sun, Fei Zhu
Glutaminyl-peptide cyclotransferase (QPCT) catalyzes the posttranslational modification of an N-terminal glutamate of proteins to pyroglutamate. This renders the protein more resistant to protease degradation, more susceptible to hydrophobic interactions, aggregation, and neurotoxic. In this study, we evaluated the influence of QPCT in the crab Scylla paramamosain infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or with Vibrio alginolyticus. A cDNA clone, encompassing the entire 2445 bp of the S. paramamosain QPCT gene, containing a 1113 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 370 amino acid protein was cloned from S...
April 27, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Xinjia Lv, Shihao Li, Chengsong Zhang, Jianhai Xiang, Fuhua Li
As a kind of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) in crustacean, anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) have broad spectrum antimicrobial activities. In the present study, we identified four ALF genes, EcALF2-5 , from the ridgetail prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda . Tissue distribution analysis showed that EcALF2 and EcALF4 transcripts were mainly located in gill, epidermis, and stomach, while EcALF3 and EcALF5 were mainly in hemocytes. Peptides corresponding to the LPS binding domain (LBD) of EcALFs were synthesized for analyzing their antimicrobial activities...
April 27, 2018: Marine Drugs
Camilla A Santos, Sónia C S Andrade, Ana K Teixeira, Flávio Farias, Karin Kurkjian, Ana C Guerrelhas, João L Rocha, Pedro M Galetti, Patrícia D Freitas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Lingwei Ruan, Jiazhen Sun, Congzhao Zhou, Hong Shi, Kaiyu Lei
Chibby, a vital inhibitor molecule of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, participates in development and stem cell differentiation through the regulation of β-catenin. Our previous studies have demonstrated that Litopenaeus vannamei β-catenin (Lv-β-catenin) was involved in WSSV infection and could inhibit virus replication by modulating the host immune system. In the study, a Chibby homolog from L. vannamei (designed as Lv-Chibby) was isolated and its role in WSSV infection was investigated. Sequence analysis suggested that Lv-Chibby was a novel homolog of Chibby family...
April 21, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Kehong Zhang, Keiichiro Koiwai, Hidehiro Kondo, Ikuo Hirono
Penaeidins are a unique family of antimicrobial peptides specific to penaeid shrimp and have been reported mainly function as anti-bacterial and anti-fungal. In order to investigate whether penaeidins could also respond to virus or not, we examined the effect of WSSV on MjPen-II (penaeidin in kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus) expression. In the control group, MjPen-II transcript level can be detected in almost all test tissues but was expressed most strongly in hemocytes. After WSSV infection, MjPen-II transcript level was significantly downregulated in hemocytes...
April 20, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Baozhen Sun, Xiyi Qian, Fei Zhu
The role of the nuclease, HARBI1-like protein (mjHARBI1-like) in the innate immunity of Marsupenaeus japonicus was explored in this study. The 1361 bp cDNA sequence of mjHARBI1-like was cloned from M. japonicus using RACE. RT-qPCR analysis results showed that the gills and hepatopancreas of M. japonicus were the main tissues where mjHARBI1-like is expressed. In addition, it was also found that white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or Vibrio alginolyticus challenge could stimulate mjHARBI1-like expression. After mjHARBI1-likewas inhibited, expression of immune genes such as toll, p53, myosin, and proPO were significantly downregulated (P < 0...
April 19, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Tongtong Kong, Yi Gong, Yan Liu, Xiaobo Wen, Ngoc Tuan Tran, Jude Juventus Aweya, Yueling Zhang, Hongyu Ma, Huaiping Zheng, Shengkang Li
Phagocytosis and apoptosis are key cellular innate immune responses against bacteria and virus in invertebrates. Class B scavenger receptors (SRBs), which contain a CD36 domain, are critical pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of phagocytosis for bacteria and apoptotic cells. In the present study, we identified a member of SRB subfamily in mud crab Scylla paramamosain, named Sp-SRB. The full-length cDNA of Sp-SRB is 2593 bp with a 1629 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein of 542 amino acids, and predicted to contain a CD36 domain with two transmembrane regions at the C- and N-terminals...
April 18, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Shengwen Niu, Linwei Yang, Hongliang Zuo, Jiefu Zheng, Shaoping Weng, Jianguo He, Xiaopeng Xu
Chitinases are a group of hydrolytic enzymes that hydrolyze chitin and widely exist in organisms. Studies in mammals have demonstrated that chitinases play important roles in regulation of humoral and cellular immune responses. In arthropods, although it is well known that chitinases are involved in growth, molting and development, the current knowledge on the role of chitinases in immunity, especially in immune regulation, remains largely unknown. In this study, a chitinase (LvChi5) from Litopenaeus vannamei was representatively selected for studying its immune function...
April 17, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Liang Qiu, Meng-Meng Chen, Xiao-Yuan Wan, Qing-Li Zhang, Chen Li, Xuan Dong, Bing Yang, Jie Huang
Shrimp hemocyte iridescent virus (SHIV) is a recently reported shrimp virus, which threats the cultured white-leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and can cause huge economic loss in shrimp farming industry in China. A quantitative real time polymerase chain reactio (qPCR) assay was developed using a TaqMan probe to detect and quantify SHIV. A pair of qPCR primers, which amplify a 188 bp DNA fragment, and a TaqMan probe were selected from ATPase gene (ORF114R) of the SHIV genome. The primers and TaqMan probe used in this assay were shown to be specific for SHIV and did not react with White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), Vibrio parahaemolyticus causing acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (VPAHPND ), and Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP), or healthy shrimp DNA...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Vidhyapriya Murugan, Krishnan Sankaran
In ELISA, a popular analytical diagnostic tool, the stable non-covalent immobilization (coating) of hydrophilic proteins/peptides on to hydrophobic polystyrene surface has remained a major common challenge. Recombinant bacterial lipid modification of proteins in Escherichia coli system has been shown in this study to solve this problem owing to the hydrophobic anchorage provided by three fatty acyl groups in N-acyl-S-diacylglyceryl Cys at the N-terminus. Exploiting this first post-translational protein engineering, the most abundantly expressed white spot syndrome viral protein ICP11 was lipid-modified and tested as a new target in a new ELISA method useful to shrimp farming...
April 14, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Zhi Wang, Baozhen Sun, Fei Zhu
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant catechin in green tea and exhibits potential antibacterial and anticancer activities. In this study, EGCG was used in pathogen-challenge experiments in shrimp to discover its effect on the innate immune system of an invertebrate. Kuruma shrimp Marsupeneaus japonicus was used as an experimental model and challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and the Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus. Pathogen-challenge experiments showed that EGCG pretreatment significantly delayed and reduced mortality upon WSSV and V...
April 12, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Xin Huang, Keke Han, Tingting Li, Wen Wang, Qian Ren
L-type lectins (LTLs) play important roles in the secretory pathway of animals, including selective protein trafficking, sorting, and targeting. They have a leguminous lectin domain and can bind to high-mannose-type oligosaccharides. In this study, a novel LTL, designated as MrVIP36, was identified from Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The full-length cDNA of MrVIP36 was 1687 bp with a 972 bp open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 323 deduced amino acids. The deduced MrVIP36 protein contained an LTL-like domain (LTLD) and a transmembrane domain...
April 2, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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