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i-type lysozyme

Jian Zhou, Shu Zhao, Wen-Hong Fang, Jun-Fang Zhou, Jing-Xiao Zhang, Hongyu Ma, Jiang-Feng Lan, Xin-Cang Li
Lysozymes are widely distributed immune effectors exerting muramidase activity against the peptidoglycan of the bacterial cell wall to trigger cell lysis. However, some invertebrate-type (i-type) lysozymes deficient of muramidase activity still exhibit antimicrobial activity. To date, the mechanism underlying the antimicrobial effect of muramidase-deficient i-type lysozymes remains unclear. Accordingly, this study characterized a novel i-type lysozyme, Splys-i, in the mud crab Scylla paramamosain. Splys-i shared the highest identity with the Litopenaeus vannamei i-type lysozyme (Lvlys-i2, 54% identity) at the amino acid level...
April 21, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Yuki Mitaka, Kazuya Kobayashi, Kenji Matsuura
Insects protect themselves from microbial infections through innate immune responses, including pathogen recognition, phagocytosis, the activation of proteolytic cascades, and the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides. Termites, eusocial insects inhabiting microbe-rich wood, live in closely-related family groups that are susceptible to shared pathogen infections. To resist pathogenic infection, termite families have evolved diverse immune adaptations at both individual and societal levels, and a strategy of trade-offs between reproduction and immunity has been suggested...
2017: PloS One
Aidan J Taylor, Shadi A I Zakai, David J Kelly
The outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria is a key structure in host-pathogen interactions that contains a plethora of proteins, performing a range of functions including adhesion, nutrient uptake, export of effectors and interaction with innate and adaptive components of the immune system. In addition, the OM can exclude drugs and thus contribute to antimicrobial resistance. The OM of the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni contains porins, adhesins and other virulence factors that must be specifically localized to this membrane, but the protein sorting mechanisms involved are only partially understood...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
J Bonnardel, C Da Silva, C Wagner, R Bonifay, L Chasson, M Masse, E Pollet, M Dalod, J-P Gorvel, H Lelouard
The initiation of the mucosal immune response in Peyer's patch (PP) relies on the sampling, processing, and efficient presentation of foreign antigens by dendritic cells (DCs). Among PP DCs, CD11b(+) conventional DCs (cDCs) and lysozyme-expressing DCs (LysoDCs) have distinct progenitors and functions but share many cell surface markers. This has previously led to confusion between these two subsets. In addition, another PP DC subset, termed double-negative (DN), remains poorly characterized. Here we show that both DN and CD11b(+) cDCs belong to a unique SIRPα(+) cDC subset...
April 5, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
Guomin Wu, Hongbing Deng, Tao Jiang, Hu Tu, Jiajia Chen, Yingfei Zhan, Yining Wang, Xiao Ma
Silk fibroin (SF) has become a promising biomaterial in guided bone regeneration (GBR). In an attempt to modify the size of the gaps on the surface of SF barrier membrane and improve its antibacterial activity, biological and mechanical properties, positively charged Lysozyme (LY)-Collagen Type-I (COL) composites and negatively charged SF were introduced to the negatively charged surface of SF substrates utilizing the electrostatic layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique. The morphology, chemical structures and element content of the LBL structured membranes were investigated...
March 1, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Pengfei Han, Jiao Han, Jiqiao Fan, Min Zhang, Enbo Ma, Sheng Li, Renjun Fan, Jianzhen Zhang
20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) has been implicated in regulating the immune response in insects. Conflicting conclusions on 20E regulating immunity have been reported in model holometabolous species. However, in hemimetabolous insects, the role of 20E as an immune-suppressor or activator and the mechanism remains unclear. The migratory locust Locusta migratoria is a representative member of hemimetabolous insects. Here, digital gene expression (DGE) profiles of Locusta migratoria treated with 20E were analyzed. Pattern recognition receptors [peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP-SA), PGRP-LE, and gram-negative binding protein (GNBP3)] and antimicrobial peptides (defensin, diptericin, and i-type lysozyme) were significantly induced by 20E in fat body...
July 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Abigail B Podany, Justin Wright, Regina Lamendella, David I Soybel, Shannon L Kelleher
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Defects in Paneth cell (PC) function are associated with microbial dysbiosis and intestinal inflammation. PC granules contain antimicrobial peptides, cytokines, and substantial stores of zinc (Zn). We hypothesized that Zn, transported into the granule through the Zn transporter (ZnT)2, is critical for signature PC functions. METHODS: ZnT2 was localized to PC granules using immunofluorescence and sucrose gradient fractionation in wild-type (wt) mice, and consequences of ZnT2 loss were characterized in ZnT2 knockout (ZnT2ko) mice...
May 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Dominika Wrobel, Monika Marcinkowska, Anna Janaszewska, Dietmar Appelhans, Brigitte Voit, Barbara Klajnert-Maculewicz, Maria Bryszewska, Marcel Štofik, Regina Herma, Piotr Duchnowicz, Jan Maly
Regardless of the route of administration, some or all of a therapeutic agent will appear in the blood stream, where it can act on blood cells and other components of the plasma. Recently we have shown that poly(ethylene imines) (PEIs) which interact with plasma proteins are taken up into erythrocyte membranes. These observations led us to investigate the interactions between maltose functionalized hyperbranched PEIs (PEI-Mal) and plasma proteins. Two model proteins were chosen - human serum albumin (HSA) (albumins constitute ∼60% of all plasma proteins), and lysozyme...
April 1, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Hongliang Zuo, Jiefeng Gao, Jia Yuan, Hengwei Deng, Linwei Yang, Shaoping Weng, Jianguo He, Xiaopeng Xu
Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is an important enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fatty acids. In this study, the role of the FAS gene from pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvFAS) in immune responses against Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection was studied. The expression of LvFAS could be up-regulated upon infection of V. parahaemolyticus and stimulation of lipopolysaccharide and poly (I:C). The promoter of LvFAS was predicted to harbor a NF-κB binding site and dual-luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that the NF-κB family proteins Relish, sRelish and Dorsal could activate the transcription of LvFAS...
January 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Ming Gao, Jun Ren, Kaikai Tian, Lingyun Jia
As an efficient and facile reaction, click chemistry has been growingly used in the preparation of chromatography media for immobilizing varying types of ligands. For the widely used Cu (I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide click reaction, a 1, 2, 3-triazole group will be inevitably introduced in the molecular linkage, which could give rise to unexpected non-specific adsorption especially for the media employing small compound ligands or high ligand density. Triazole-induced non-specific protein adsorption on sepharose resins was evaluated systematically in this work, by considering the effects of triazole content, length of spacer arm, and solution conditions...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Aneta Sowa-Jasiłek, Agnieszka Zdybicka-Barabas, Sylwia Stączek, Jerzy Wydrych, Krzysztof Skrzypiec, Paweł Mak, Kamil Deryło, Marek Tchórzewski, Małgorzata Cytryńska
The greater wax moth Galleria mellonella has been increasingly used as a model host to determine Candida albicans virulence and efficacy of antifungal treatment. The G. mellonella lysozyme, similarly to its human counterpart, is a member of the c-type family of lysozymes that exhibits antibacterial and antifungal activity. However, in contrast to the relatively well explained bactericidal action, the mechanism of fungistatic and/or fungicidal activity of lysozymes is still not clear. In the present study we provide the direct evidences that the G...
December 2016: Microbiological Research
Yoshito Abe, Mitsuru Kubota, Shinya Takazaki, Yuji Ito, Hiromi Yamamoto, Dongchon Kang, Tadashi Ueda, Taiji Imoto
Asn46Asp/Asp52Ser or Asn46Glu/Asp52Ser hen egg white lysozyme (HEL) mutant was designed by introducing the substituted catalytic residue Asp46 or Glu46, respectively, based on Venerupis philippinarum (Vp) lysozyme structure as a representative of invertebrate-type (i-type) lyzozyme. These mutations restored the bell-shaped pH-dependency of the enzyme activity from the sigmoidal pH-dependency observed for the Asp52Ser mutant. Furthermore both lysozyme mutants possessed retaining mechanisms like Vp lysozyme and HEL...
September 2016: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Tinashe B Ruwona, Haiyue Xu, Xu Li, Amber N Taylor, Yan-Chun Shi, Zhengrong Cui
Aluminum salts such as aluminum oxyhydroxide and aluminum hydroxyphosphate are commonly used human vaccine adjuvants. In an effort to improve the adjuvant activity of aluminum salts, we previously showed that the adjuvant activity of aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles is significantly more potent than that of aluminum oxyhydroxide microparticles. The present study was designed to (i) understand the mechanism underlying the potent adjuvant activity of aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles, relative to microparticles, and (ii) to test whether aluminum hydroxyphosphate nanoparticles have a more potent adjuvant activity than aluminum hydroxyphosphate microparticles as well...
June 8, 2016: Vaccine
Chuanpeng Zhou, Heizhao Lin, Zhong Huang, Jun Wang, Yun Wang, Wei Yu
It is well known that lysozymes are key proteins to teleosts in the innate immune system and possess high bactericidal properties. In the present study, a c-type lysozyme gene (To-lysC) was cloned from golden pompano, Trachinotus ovatus. The To-lysC cDNA is composed of 743 bp with a 36 bp of 5'-UTR, 432 bp open reading frame (ORF) and 275 bp 3'-UTR, encoding a polypeptide of 144 amino acids (GenBank accession no: KT935522). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that To-lysC showed highest similarity to Perca flavescens lysC...
July 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Ting Chen, Chunhua Ren, Yanhong Wang, Peng Luo, Xiao Jiang, Wen Huang, Chang Chen, Chaoqun Hu
The full-length cDNA coding for a novel invertebrate (i-type) lysozyme was identified in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). The newly obtained L. vannamei lysozyme is similar to the Penaeus monodon i-type lysozyme 2, but it is distant from the known L. vannamei c-type lysozyme and i-type lysozyme 1 in protein sequence; therefore, it was defined as L. vannamei i-type lysozyme 2 (lyz-i2). Expression of L. vannamei lyz-i2 transcripts were ubiquitously detected in all tissues we selected, with the highest abundance observed in the hemolymph...
July 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
José M C Ribeiro, Ines Martin-Martin, Bruno Arcà, Eric Calvo
Only adult female mosquitoes feed on blood, while both genders take sugar meals. Accordingly, several compounds associated with blood feeding (i.e. vasodilators, anti-clotting, anti-platelets) are found only in female glands, while enzymes associated with sugar feeding or antimicrobials (such as lysozyme) are found in the glands of both sexes. We performed de novo assembly of reads from adult Aedes aegypti female and male salivary gland libraries (285 and 90 million reads, respectively). By mapping back the reads to the assembled contigs, plus mapping the reads from a publicly available Ae...
2016: PloS One
Camille Detree, Apolline Chabenat, François H Lallier, Nori Satoh, Eiichi Shoguchi, Arnaud Tanguy, Jean Mary
The aim of this study was first to identify lysozymes paralogs in the deep sea mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus then to measure their relative expression or activity in different tissue or conditions. B. azoricus is a bivalve that lives close to hydrothermal chimney in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). They harbour in specialized gill cells two types of endosymbiont (gram-bacteria): sulphide oxidizing bacteria (SOX) and methanotrophic bacteria (MOX). This association is thought to be ruled by specific mechanism or actors of regulation to deal with the presence of symbiont but these mechanisms are still poorly understood...
2016: PloS One
Ta-Chiang Liu, Bhaskar Gurram, Megan Baldridge, Richard Head, Vy Lam, Chengwei Luo, Yumei Cao, Pippa Simpson, Michael Hayward, Mary Holtz, Joshua Noe, Diana Lerner, Jose Cabrera, Vincent Biank, Michael Stephens, Curtis Huttenhower, Dermot McGovern, Ramnik Xavier, Thaddeus Stappenbeck, Nita Salzman
BACKGROUND: To identify and develop novel targeted therapies for complex diseases such as Crohn's disease (CD), functional subtypes rooted in pathogenesis must be defined. One candidate method to subtype CD is to define the small intestinal Paneth cell phenotypes based on the intracellular distribution of antimicrobial proteins. We have previously shown that in CD patients, Paneth cell phenotype correlates with the patients' genotype, distinct gene expression signature, presence of granuloma (pathologic hallmark), and time to recurrence after surgery...
March 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
I Vigentini, A Praz, D Domeneghetti, S Zenato, C Picozzi, A Barmaz, R Foschino
AIM: A survey on indigenous malolactic bacteria populations isolated from wines produced in 13 different wineries of Aosta Valley, the highest vine-growing area in Europe, was carried out in order to characterize the dominant strains in spontaneous malolactic fermentation (MLF) and to reveal the appearance of psychrotrophic ones. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifty-four isolates were identify by ITS rDNA region analysis and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA gene: 80% were ascribed to Oenococcus oeni while the remaining 20% were attributed to Pediococcus damnosus species...
April 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
A Beckert, J Wiesner, H Schmidtberg, R Lehmann, A Baumann, H Vogel, A Vilcinskas
Lysozymes are enzymes that destroy bacterial cell walls by hydrolysing the polysaccharide component of peptidoglycan. In insects, there are two classes of lysozymes, the c-type with muramidase activity and the i-type whose prototypical members from annelids and molluscs possess both muramidase and isopeptidase activities. Many insect genes encoding c-type and i-type lysozymes have been identified during genome and transcriptome analyses, but only c-type lysozymes have been functionally characterized at the protein level...
June 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
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