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Pediatrics neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935825/microglia-activation-in-a-pediatric-rabbit-model-of-tuberculous-meningitis
#1
Elizabeth W Tucker, Supriya Pokkali, Zhi Zhang, Vincent P DeMarco, Mariah Klunk, Elizabeth S Smith, Alvaro A Ordonez, Marie-France Penet, Zaver Bhujwalla, Sanjay K Jain, Sujatha Kannan
Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis (TB) is the most severe form of extra-pulmonary TB and disproportionately affects young children where the developing brain has a unique host response. New Zealand white rabbits were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis via subarachnoid inoculation at postnatal day 4-8 and evaluated until 4-6 weeks post-infection. Control and infected rabbit kits were assessed for the development of neurological deficits, bacterial burden, and postmortem microbiologic and pathologic changes...
December 1, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930967/epidemiology-and-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-management-of-febrile-seizures-in-the-italian-pediatric-emergency-departments-a-prospective-observational-study
#2
Giovanna Vitaliti, Emanuele Castagno, Fulvio Ricceri, Antonio Urbino, Alberto Verrotti Di Pianella, Riccardo Lubrano, Elisa Caramaschi, Maurizio Prota, Rita Maria Pulvirenti, Patrizia Ajovalasit, Giuseppe Signorile, Carla Navone, Maria Rosaria La Bianca, Alberto Villani, Giovanni Corsello, Raffaele Falsaperla
AIM: Febrile seizures (FS) involve 2-5% of the paediatric population, among which Complex FS (CFS) account for one third of accesses for FS in Emergency Departments (EDs). The aim of our study was to define the epidemiology, the clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic approach to FS and CFSs in the Italian EDs. METHODS: A multicenter prospective observational study was performed between April 2014 and March 2015. Patients between 1 and 60 months of age, randomly accessing to ED for ongoing FS or reported FS at home were included...
November 16, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927507/sacral-alar-iliac-fixation-in-pediatric-deformity-radiographic-outcomes-and-complications
#3
Amit Jain, Khaled M Kebaish, Paul D Sponseller
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. OBJECTIVES: To assess the radiographic outcomes and complications of sacral-alar-iliac (SAI) fixation in children. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Pelvic fixation in children undergoing spinal deformity surgery can be challenging because of complex anatomy, compound biomechanical forces at the lumbosacral junction, and poor bone quality. METHODS: Radiographic and clinical records of 80 consecutive patients aged 18 years or younger who underwent posterior spinal fusion surgery with SAI fixation by one pediatric orthopedic surgeon and who had a minimum 2 years of follow-up (mean follow-up: 3...
May 2016: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926758/association-between-surgeon-scorecard-use-and-operating-room-costs
#4
Corinna C Zygourakis, Victoria Valencia, Christopher Moriates, Christy K Boscardin, Sereina Catschegn, Alvin Rajkomar, Kevin J Bozic, Kent Soo Hoo, Andrew N Goldberg, Lawrence Pitts, Michael T Lawton, R Adams Dudley, Ralph Gonzales
Importance: Despite the significant contribution of surgical spending to health care costs, most surgeons are unaware of their operating room costs. Objective: To examine the association between providing surgeons with individualized cost feedback and surgical supply costs in the operating room. Design, Setting, and Participants: The OR Surgical Cost Reduction (OR SCORE) project was a single-health system, multihospital, multidepartmental prospective controlled study in an urban academic setting...
December 7, 2016: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923375/the-surgical-strategy-for-eosinophilic-granuloma-of-the-pediatric-cervical-spine-complicated-with-neurologic-deficit-and-or-spinal-instability
#5
Nanzhe Zhong, Wei Xu, Tong Meng, Xinghai Yang, Wangjun Yan, Jianru Xiao
BACKGROUND: Various therapeutic approaches have been proposed for the treatment of pediatric patients with eosinophilic granuloma (EG) of the cervical spine. Our aim was to discuss and present our experience with the individualized surgical intervention of pediatric cervical EG complicated with neurologic deficits and/or spinal instability. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 19 children who were diagnosed with cervical EG comor spinal/or spinal instability (evaluated by the Spinal Instability Neoplastic Score, SINS ≥ 7) and treated surgically in our institution...
December 7, 2016: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922887/regional-cerebral-abnormalities-measured-by-frequency-domain-near-infrared-spectroscopy-in-pediatric-patients-during-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#6
Fenghua Tian, Christopher Jenks, Donald Potter, Darryl Miles, Lakshmi Raman
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a form of advanced cardio-respiratory support provided to critically ill patients with severe respiratory and/or cardiovascular failure. While children undergoing ECMO therapy have significant risk for neurological morbidity, currently there is a lack of reliable bedside tool to detect the neurologic events for patients on ECMO. This study assessed the feasibility of frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for detection of intracranial complications during ECMO therapy...
December 2, 2016: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921213/pediatric-intracranial-primary-anaplastic-ganglioglioma
#7
Wolf Lüdemann, Rouzbeh Banan, Christian Hartmann, Helmut Bertalanffy, Concezio Di Rocco
BACKGROUND: Primary intracranial anaplastic gangliogliomas are rare tumors in the pediatric patient group. Most of them present with symptoms of elevated pressure or symptomatic epilepsy. Extraaxial location is far more common than axial location. On MRI examination, they mimic pilocytic astrocytomas. The outcome after surgery depends mainly on the possible amount of surgical resection, and oncological therapy is necessary to prevent recurrence of the disease. CASE REPORT: An 11-year-old boy presented with headache and double vision due to obstructive hydrocephalus...
December 5, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920683/squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-african-children-with-xeroderma-pigmentosum-three-case-reports
#8
Mamadou Kaloga, Pauline Dioussé, Boubacar Ahy Diatta, Mariama Bammo, Sarah Kourouma, Almamy Diabate, Ndiaga Gueye, Haby Dione, Moussa Diallo, Bernard Marcel Diop
INTRODUCTION: Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disease. This disease predisposes patients to early-onset skin cancers, particularly squamous cell carcinoma. Here, we report 3 pediatric cases, including 2 deaths. OBSERVATION: The subjects included 2 boys and 1 girl with skin type VI. All subjects were from consanguineous marriages, and the average age was 7.6 years. The patients all had ulcerative budding tumor lesions in the cephalic region, and the mean disease duration was 18 months...
September 2016: Case Reports in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919503/binocular-low-contrast-letter-acuity-and-the-symbol-digit-modalities-test-improve-the-ability-of-the-multiple-sclerosis-functional-composite-to-predict-disease-in-pediatric-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Amy T Waldman, Salim Chahin, Amy M Lavery, Geraldine Liu, Brenda L Banwell, Grant T Liu, Laura J Balcer
BACKGROUND: Outcome measures to capture disability, such as the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC), were developed to enhance outcome measurements for clinical trials in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS). The MSFC initially included three components: a timed 25-foot walk [T25FW], 9-hole peg test [9HPT], and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task [PASAT]. Modifications to the original MSFC, such as adding binocular low-contrast letter acuity (LCLA) or substituting the symbol digit modalities test (SDMT) for the PASAT, improved the capacity to capture neurologic impairment in adults...
November 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919116/stylohyoid-complex-eagle-syndrome-starting-in-a-9-year-old-boy
#10
Maite Gárriz-Luis, Pablo Irimia, Juan M Alcalde, Pablo Domínguez, Juan Narbona
Background There are only four previous pediatric reports of the glossopharyngeal neuralgic form of the stylohyoid complex syndrome. Stylohyoid complex has merely been described as cases of glossopharyngeal neuralgia in children. Case Report A 12-year-old boy came to our hospital because of recurrent episodes of severe cranial pain (9/10) lasting for 5 to 15 minutes. Pain affected the right tonsillar fossa, ear, and mastoid region. Since the start at the age of 9 years, the frequency of painful episodes has progressively increased: when admitted to our clinics 3 years later, the child was having up to five episodes daily in spite of analgesic, antiepileptic, and antidepressant drugs; he had abandoned school and leisure...
December 5, 2016: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918194/first-report-of-tumor-treating-fields-use-in-combination-with-bevacizumab-in-a-pediatric-patient-a-case-report
#11
Daniel O'Connell, Violet Shen, William Loudon, Daniela A Bota
We report the first case of a pediatric patient with glioblastoma (GBM; WHO grade IV astrocytoma) successfully treated with tumor treating fields (TTF). The patient was diagnosed with GBM when 13 years of age and progressed through surgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Discrete tumor growth visualized on MRI with stable neurological examination was monitored for 6 months with subsequent stable disease observed radiographically and clinically for 7 months while adherent to Optune(®) (TTF). TTF thereby played a role in forestalling recurrent GBM growth in this young woman for 7 months without significant adverse effects...
December 5, 2016: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916450/dramatic-response-after-functional-hemispherectomy-in-a-patient-with-epileptic-encephalopathy-carrying-a-de-novo-col4a1-mutation
#12
Naomi Hino-Fukuyo, Atsuo Kikuchi, Masaki Iwasaki, Yuko Sato, Yuki Kubota, Tomoko Kobayashi, Tojo Nakayama, Kazuhiro Haginoya, Natsuko Arai-Ichinoi, Tetsuya Niihori, Ryo Sato, Tasuku Suzuki, Hiroki Kudo, Ryo Funayama, Keiko Nakayama, Yoko Aoki, Shigeo Kure
We describe the first case of a successful functional hemispherectomy in a patient with epileptic encephalopathy and a de novo collagen type IV alpha 1 (COL4A1) mutation. A 4-year-old girl was COL4A1 mutation-positive and suffered from drug-resistant epilepsy, hemiplegia, and developmental delay. Magnetic resonance imaging detected no porencephaly, and she had no cataract or renal abnormality. Following a presurgical evaluation for epilepsy, she underwent a functional hemispherectomy. She has been seizure free with no intracranial hemorrhage or other perioperative complications...
December 1, 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915322/ocular-morbidity-associated-with-retinopathy-of-prematurity-in-treated-and-untreated-eyes-a-review-of-the-literature-and-data-from-a-tertiary-eye-care-center-in-southern-india
#13
Perumalsamy Vijayalakshmi, Tulika Kara, Clare Gilbert
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is an emerging cause of childhood blindness in low- and middle-income countries. We review the magnitude, causes, prevention and treatment of visual impairment caused by ROP over a time span. A review of literature on short and long term structural and functional outcomes of ROP was conducted through PubMed search primarily focusing on studies published during the last decade. Additionally, we have shared data from our institute located in Southern India. Visual Impairment in ROP-treated children ranged from 4...
November 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907953/management-of-the-pediatric-neurocritical-care-patient
#14
Christopher M Horvat, Haifa Mtaweh, Michael J Bell
Pediatric neurocritical care is a growing subspecialty of pediatric intensive care that focuses on the management of acute neurological diseases in children. A brief history of the field of pediatric neurocritical care is provided. Neuromonitoring strategies for children are reviewed. Management of major categories of acute childhood central neurologic diseases are reviewed, including treatment of diseases associated with intracranial hypertension, seizures and status epilepticus, stroke, central nervous system infection and inflammation, and hypoxic-ischemic injury...
December 2016: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903293/personalized-medicine-approach-confirms-a-milder-case-of-abat-deficiency
#15
A Besse, A K Petersen, J V Hunter, V Appadurai, S R Lalani, P E Bonnen
ABAT deficiency (OMIM 613163) is a rare inborn error of metabolism caused by recessive variants in the gene 4-aminobutyric acid transaminase (ABAT), which is responsible for both the catalysis of GABA and maintenance of nucleoside pools in the mitochondria. To date, only a few patients have been reported worldwide. Their clinical presentation has been remarkably consistent with primary features of severe psychomotor retardation, encephalopathy, hypotonia, and infantile-onset refractory epilepsy. We report a new case of ABAT deficiency that marks an important departure from previous clinical findings...
December 1, 2016: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900964/incidence-of-pediatric-acute-kidney-injury-in-hospitalized-patients
#16
Mohd Ashraf, Naveed Shahzad, Altaf Hussain, Shafat Ahmed Tak, Syed Tariq Ahmed Bukhari, Aliya Kachru
Pediatric acute kidney injury (pAKI) is a common complication associated with high mortality in children. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and mortality in hospitalized (critically ill and non-critically ill) patients. This was a retrospective study conducted during the period of June 1, 2013, to May 31, 2014, at the Postgraduate Department of Pediatrics, G. B. Pant Hospital, an Associated Hospital of Government Medical College, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India...
November 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899017/public-access-defibrillation-and-outcomes-after-pediatric-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#17
Tatsuma Fukuda, Naoko Ohashi-Fukuda, Hiroaki Kobayashi, Masataka Gunshin, Toshiki Sera, Yutaka Kondo, Naoki Yahagi
BACKGROUND: Use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) has been recommended for pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). However, there are no conclusive studies that elucidated the effectiveness of public-access defibrillation (PAD) in children. METHODS: This was a nationwide, population-based, propensity score-matched study of pediatric OHCA in Japan from 2011 to 2012, based on data from the All-Japan Utstein Registry. We included pediatric OHCA patients (aged 1-17 years) who received bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation...
November 27, 2016: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896587/psychological-and-behavioral-issues-in-the-management-of-migraine-in-children-and-adolescents
#18
REVIEW
William Qubty, Amy A Gelfand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is sometimes assumed that children and adolescents with migraine have a psychiatric or behavioral comorbidity, a belief that can be stigmatizing. This review will examine the recent literature addressing this area to determine if pediatric and adolescent migraineurs are at increased risk for psychiatric comorbidity and to discuss management strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: A large systematic review of pediatric and adolescent studies concluded anxiety and depression were not associated with onset of recurrent headaches...
December 2016: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895813/cow-s-milk-allergy-towards-an-update-of-dracma-guidelines
#19
REVIEW
Alessandro Fiocchi, Lamia Dahda, Christophe Dupont, Cristina Campoy, Vincenzo Fierro, Antonio Nieto
BACKGROUND: In 2010, the diagnosis and treatment of IgE-mediated CMA were systematized in a GRADE guideline. OBJECTIVES & METHODS: After 6 years, the state of the knowledge in diagnosis and treatment of CMA has largely evolved. We summarize here the main advances, and exemplify indicating some specific points: studies aimed at better knowledge of the effects of breastfeeding and the production of new special formulae intended for the treatment of CMA. The literature (PubMed/MEDLINE) was searched using the following algorithms: (1) [milk allergy] AND diagnosis; (2) [milk allergy] AND [formul*] OR [breast*], setting the search engine [6-years] time and [human] limits...
2016: World Allergy Organization Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893285/recent-advances-in-subtyping-tumors-of-the-central-nervous-system-using-molecular-data
#20
Jens Schittenhelm
Primary brain tumors account for substantial morbidity and mortality. They often infiltrate the brain diffusely, continue growing, and cause adverse events, such as headaches, seizures, and neurological deficits. The classification of primary brain tumors, based for decades on histology, has been fundamentally changed by the World Health Organization in 2016 by incorporation of molecular data. Areas covered: Literature from glioblastomas, high- and low-grade astrocytic, oligodendroglial, glioneuronal and ependymal tumors from the last five years were reviewed...
November 28, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
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