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Carlos M Guardia, Raffaella De Pace, Rafael Mattera, Juan S Bonifacino
Selective transport of transmembrane proteins to different intracellular compartments often involves the recognition of sorting signals in the cytosolic domains of the proteins by components of membrane coats. Some of these coats have as their key components a family of heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes named AP-1 through AP-5. AP complexes play important roles in all cells, but their functions are most critical in neurons because of the extreme compartmental complexity of these cells. Accordingly, various diseases caused by mutations in AP subunit genes exhibit a range of neurological abnormalities as their most salient features...
March 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Viviana Izzo, Bruno Charlier, Elena Bloise, Marine Pingeon, Marianna Romano, Antonietta Finelli, Alfonso Vietri, Valeria Conti, Valentina Manzo, Maria Alfieri, Amelia Filippelli, Fabrizio Dal Piaz
Exposure of healthcare workers to anticancer drugs requires the combined action of environmental and biological monitoring to assess the effective level of exposure to these chemicals, to improve awareness and to avoid adverse health effects on this category of workers. Cancer chemotherapeutic drugs show different mechanisms of action due to diverse chemical structures; consequently, they differ in hydrophobicity, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Therefore, the appearance, accumulation and elimination of each of these molecules in body fluids and tissues might be extremely variable; this prompts the need for a rapid and versatile analytical protocol for the biological monitoring of possible exposure of workers involved in the manipulation, administration and disposal of cancer chemotherapeutic drugs...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Tobias M R Houlton, Caroline Wilkinson
Shrunken heads are a mummification phenomenon unique to South America. Ceremonial tsantsa are ritually reduced heads from enemy victims of the Shuar, Achuar, Awajún (Aguaruna), Wampís (Huambisa), and Candoshi-Shapra cultures. Commercial shrunken heads are comparatively modern and fraudulently produced for the curio-market, often using stolen bodies from hospital mortuaries and graves. To achieve shrinkage and desiccation, heads undergo skinning, simmering (in water) and drying. Considering the intensive treatments applied, this research aims to identify how the facial structure can alter and impact identification using post-mortem depiction...
March 6, 2018: Forensic Science International
Bradley Fawver, Jaimie A Roper, Carolina Sarmento, Chris J Hass
We investigated the impact of initial body position on the displacement and velocity of center of pressure adjustments made during gait initiation. Twenty-nine healthy adults (21 ± 1y) initiated forward gait following six seconds of sustained forward posture based on percentage of their forward maximum voluntary lean (0, 5, 10, 20, 50%). Final center of pressure positions for each trial were back-calculated, as a percentage of maximum voluntary lean, using average anteroposterior constant error to the target during the last second of feedback...
March 17, 2018: Human Movement Science
Tomoki Tokuda
We propose a novel method to test the existence of community structure in undirected, real-valued, edge-weighted graphs. The method is based on the asymptotic behavior of extreme eigenvalues of a real symmetric edge-weight matrix. We provide a theoretical foundation for this method and report on its performance using synthetic and real data, suggesting that this new method outperforms other state-of-the-art methods.
2018: PloS One
Wilson Huanca-Mamani, Raúl Arias-Carrasco, Steffany Cárdenas-Ninasivincha, Marcelo Rojas-Herrera, Gonzalo Sepúlveda-Hermosilla, José Carlos Caris-Maldonado, Elizabeth Bastías, Vinicius Maracaja-Coutinho
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been defined as transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides, which lack significant protein coding potential and possess critical roles in diverse cellular processes. Long non-coding RNAs have recently been functionally characterized in plant stress-response mechanisms. In the present study, we perform a comprehensive identification of lncRNAs in response to combined stress induced by salinity and excess of boron in the Lluteño maize, a tolerant maize landrace from Atacama Desert, Chile...
March 20, 2018: Genes
Hüseyin Ilgü, Jean-Marc Jeckelmann, Claire Colas, Zöhre Ucurum, Avner Schlessinger, Dimitrios Fotiadis
The l-arginine/agmatine transporter AdiC is a prokaryotic member of the SLC7 family, which enables pathogenic enterobacteria to survive the extremely acidic gastric environment. Wild-type AdiC from Escherichia coli, as well as its previously reported point mutants N22A and S26A, were overexpressed homologously and purified to homogeneity. A size-exclusion chromatography-based thermostability assay was used to determine the melting temperatures ( T m s) of the purified AdiC variants in the absence and presence of the selected ligands l-arginine (Arg), agmatine, l-arginine methyl ester, and l-arginine amide...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Sebastian Povlsen, Bo Povlsen
The diagnosis of thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) has long been a controversial and challenging one. Despite common presentations with pain in the neck and upper extremity, there are a host of presenting patterns that can vary within and between the subdivisions of neurogenic, venous, and arterial TOS. Furthermore, there is a plethora of differential diagnoses, from peripheral compressive neuropathies, to intrinsic shoulder pathologies, to pathologies at the cervical spine. Depending on the subdivision of TOS suspected, diagnostic investigations are currently of varying importance, necessitating high dependence on good history taking and clinical examination...
March 20, 2018: Diagnostics
Matthew Aizpuru, Christopher Staley, William Reisman, Michael B Gottschalk, Mara L Schenker
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the determinants of length of stay (LOS) for patients surgically treated for femur fractures. DESIGN: Retrospective medical record review. SETTING: Urban Level I Trauma Center. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred twenty-one patients operatively treated for femur fractures between July 12, 2015 and July 12, 2016. INTERVENTION: Intramedullary nailing, open reduction internal fixation, arthroplasty, or other (percutaneous screw or multiple hardware/technique) definitive fixation of femur fracture...
April 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Michelle Hershman, Raymond Carmody, Unni K Udayasankar
History A 19-year-old woman with no pertinent medical history was brought to the emergency department after being found unconscious on her bathroom floor by her roommate. In the preceding weeks, she had reported intractable nausea and vomiting, for which she had been taking ondansetron. No other medications had been prescribed. The day prior to presentation, she had contacted her mother and described increasing confusion. Glasgow coma scale score on arrival in the emergency department was 4. Intravenous naloxone was administered, without immediate response...
April 2018: Radiology
Meg Perceval, Kairi Kõlves, Victoria Ross, Prasuna Reddy, Diego De Leo
Farmers and farm workers have been recognised as a group at high risk of suicide in Australia. This study aims to identify and better understand environmental factors associated with suicide among Australian farmers and farm workers. Qualitative analysis was undertaken in accordance with the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research. Male and female focus groups were conducted separately with people who lived or worked on a farm in six farming communities. Qualitative analyses showed that a number of environmental influences may contribute to the increased risk of suicide: extreme climatic events; isolation; service availability; access to, and frequent use of firearms; death and suffering of animals; government and legislation; technology; and property values...
March 20, 2018: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
D B Krupp, Thomas R Cook
Inequality is widely believed to incite conflict, but the evidence is inconsistent. We argue that the spatial scale of competition-the extent to which individuals compete locally, with their interaction partners, or globally, with the entire population-can help settle the question. We built a mathematical model of the evolution of conflict under inequality and tested its predictions in an experimental game with 1,205 participants. We found that inequality increases conflict, destroys wealth, and engenders risk taking...
March 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Mijanur R Molla, Alexander Böser, Akshita Rana, Karina Schwarz, Pavel A Levkin
Efficient delivery of nucleic acids into cells is of great interest in the field of cell biology and gene therapy. Despite a lot of research, transfection efficiency and structural diversity of gene-delivery vectors are still limited. A better understanding of the structure-function relationship of gene delivery vectors is also essential for the design of novel and intelligent delivery vectors, efficient in "difficult-to-transfect" cells and in vivo clinical applications. Most of the existing strategies for the synthesis of gene-delivery vectors require multiple steps and lengthy procedures...
March 20, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Denise Aumer, Fiona N Mumoki, Christian W W Pirk, Robin F A Moritz
Social insects are characterized by the division of labor. Queens usually dominate reproduction, whereas workers fulfill non-reproductive age-dependent tasks to maintain the colony. Although workers are typically sterile, they can activate their ovaries to produce their own offspring. In the extreme, worker reproduction can turn into social parasitism as in Apis mellifera capensis. These intraspecific parasites occupy a host colony, kill the resident queen, and take over the reproductive monopoly. Because they exhibit a queenlike behavior and are also treated like queens by the fellow workers, they are so-called pseudoqueens...
March 20, 2018: Die Naturwissenschaften
Joseph Christensen, Sean Spence, David Watson, Anjan Shah, Benjamin Maxson, Anthony Infante, Roy Sanders, Hassan R Mir
OBJECTIVE: To review the orthopaedic injuries from watercraft treated surgically at our institution and report the mechanisms, fractures, and complications encountered. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. SETTING: Level I trauma center. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: There were 216 fractures from watercraft in 146 patients. Average age was 33 years (range 4-78 years), there were 68% males (99/146), and 16% of the injuries occurred in children...
April 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Jennifer Bido, Roya Ghazinouri, Jamie E Collins, Desirée Diez Portela, Luis Alcantara, Thomas S Thornhill, Jeffrey N Katz
BACKGROUND: Medical missions to low and middle-income countries are increasingly frequent, with an estimated 6,000 trips sponsored by U.S. organizations accounting for approximately 200,000 surgical cases and $250 million in costs annually. However, these missions have received little critical evaluation. This paper describes the research program Operation Walk (Op-Walk) Boston, and proposes an evaluation model for similar surgical missions. METHODS: We propose an evaluation model, borrowing from the work of Donabedian and enriched by evidence from our research program...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Costantino Errani, Shinji Tsukamoto, Giulio Leone, Alberto Righi, Manabu Akahane, Yasuhito Tanaka, Davide Maria Donati
BACKGROUND: Recent clinical studies have suggested that denosumab is associated with tumor response and reduced surgical morbidity in patients with giant-cell tumor of bone (GCTB). We therefore evaluated the recurrence-free survival rate of patients who had GCTB in an extremity and were treated with surgery and denosumab, to determine the influence of denosumab and clinical factors on the risk of local recurrence. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 408 patients treated for GCTB in an extremity in a single institution from 1990 through 2013...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Chun-De Liao, Jau-Yih Tsauo, Hung-Chou Chen, Tsan-Hon Liou
OBJECTIVE: Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT), including radial shock wave (RaSW) and focused shock wave (FoSW) types, is widely used for managing tendinopathies. The difference in efficacy between the 2 shock wave characteristics with different dosage levels remains controversial, and the purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine it for patients with lower extremity (LE) tendinopathy. DESIGN: A comprehensive search of online databases and search engines was performed...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Kristina Griffin, Michael O'Hearn, Carla C Franck, Carol A Courtney
STUDY DESIGN: Case Report. PURPOSE: Stroke is the most common cause of long-term disability. Dysesthesia, an unpleasant sensory disturbance, is common following thalamic stroke and evidence-based interventions for this impairment are limited. The purpose of this case report was to describe a decrease in dysesthesia following manual therapy intervention in a patient with history of right lacunar thalamic stroke. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 66-year-old female presented with tingling and dysesthesia in left hemisensory distribution including left trunk and upper/lower extremities, limiting function...
March 20, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Claudia Salomone B, Isabel Ogueta C, Carlos Reyes V, Gloria Durán S, Noemí Aguirre, Angélica Wietstruck
Congenital erythropoietic porphyria is an extremely rare, autosomal recessive, non-acute cutaneous porphyria, caused by uroporphyrinogen III synthase deficiency, codificated by UROS gene on the chromosome 10q26.2. Porphyrins deposit in cornea, bones and teeth. The first symptoms could be manifested in early childhood, with skin fragility, vesicles and bullae. Severe course produces acral tissues mutilation, eye involvement, hemolytic anemia and hypersplenism. The treatment is complex and it is based in the photoprotection...
April 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
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