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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353161/automated-diagnosis-of-focal-liver-lesions-using-bidirectional-empirical-mode-decomposition-features
#1
U Rajendra Acharya, Joel En Wei Koh, Yuki Hagiwara, Jen Hong Tan, Arkadiusz Gertych, Anushya Vijayananthan, Nur Adura Yaakup, Basri Johan Jeet Abdullah, Mohd Kamil Bin Mohd Fabell, Chai Hong Yeong
Liver is the heaviest internal organ of the human body and performs many vital functions. Prolonged cirrhosis and fatty liver disease may lead to the formation of benign or malignant lesions in this organ, and an early and reliable evaluation of these conditions can improve treatment outcomes. Ultrasound imaging is a safe, non-invasive, and cost-effective way of diagnosing liver lesions. However, this technique has limited performance in determining the nature of the lesions. This study initiates a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system to aid radiologists in an objective and more reliable interpretation of ultrasound images of liver lesions...
January 3, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353159/trauma-attentional-dysregulation-and-the-development-of-posttraumatic-stress-an-investigation-of-risk-pathways
#2
Judith Schäfer, Ariel Zvielli, Michael Höfler, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Amit Bernstein
BACKGROUND: Fundamental questions regarding the nature and function of attentional bias (AB) to threat in the etiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remain unanswered. We tested the temporal interplay between trauma exposure, dysregulated attentional processing of threatening information pre- and post-trauma, and the development of posttraumatic intrusions. METHODS: Response time to trauma-related threat, trauma-unrelated threat, as well as to trauma-related but typically emotionally-neutral stimuli was assessed using the dot probe task before and one week after watching a violent movie scene that served as a trauma analogue...
January 11, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352781/analysis-of-the-anomalous-mean-field-like-properties-of-gaussian-core-model-in-terms-of-entropy
#3
Manoj Kumar Nandi, Sarika Maitra Bhattacharyya
Studies of the Gaussian core model (GCM) have shown that it behaves like a mean-field model and the properties are quite different from standard glass former. In this work, we investigate the entropies, namely, the excess entropy (Sex) and the configurational entropy (Sc) and their different components to address these anomalies. Our study corroborates most of the earlier observations and also sheds new light on the high and low temperature dynamics. We find that unlike in standard glass former where high temperature dynamics is dominated by two-body correlation and low temperature by many-body correlations, in the GCM both high and low temperature dynamics are dominated by many-body correlations...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352607/integrated-lung-tissue-mechanics-one-piece-at-a-time-computational-modeling-across-the-scales-of-biology
#4
REVIEW
Kelly S Burrowes, Amin Iravani, Wendy Kang
The lung is a delicately balanced and highly integrated mechanical system. Lung tissue is continuously exposed to the environment via the air we breathe, making it susceptible to damage. As a consequence, respiratory diseases present a huge burden on society and their prevalence continues to rise. Emergent function is produced not only by the sum of the function of its individual components but also by the complex feedback and interactions occurring across the biological scales - from genes to proteins, cells, tissue and whole organ - and back again...
January 12, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351873/biochar-amendment-for-batch-composting-of-nitrogen-rich-organic-waste-effect-on-degradation-kinetics-composting-physics-and-nutritional-properties
#5
Mayur Shirish Jain, Rohit Jambhulkar, Ajay S Kalamdhad
Composting is an efficient technology to reduce pathogenic bodies and stabilize the organic matter in organic wastes. This research work investigates an effect of biochar as amendment to improve the composting efficiency and its effect on degradation kinetics, physical and nutritional properties. Biochar (2.5, 5 and 10% (w/w)) were added into a mixture of Hydrilla verticillata, cow dung and sawdust having ratio of 8:1:1 (control), respectively. Biochar addition resulted in advanced thermophilic temperatures (59 °C) and could improve the physical properties of composting process...
January 9, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351550/differential-actions-of-ppar-%C3%AE-and-ppar-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-on-beige-adipocyte-formation-a-study-in-the-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue-of-obese-male-mice
#6
Tamiris Lima Rachid, Flavia Maria Silva-Veiga, Francielle Graus-Nunes, Isabele Bringhenti, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Vanessa Souza-Mello
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity compromises adipocyte physiology. PPARs are essential to adipocyte plasticity, but its isolated role in the browning phenomenon is not clear. This study aimed to examine whether activation of PPAR-α or PPAR-β/δ could induce beige cell depots in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty animals were randomly assigned to receive a control diet (C, 10% lipids) or a high-fat diet (HF, 50% lipids) for ten weeks...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351479/using-2h-water-to-quantify-the-contribution-of-de-novo-palmitate-synthesis-in-plasma-enabling-back-to-back-studies
#7
Stephen F Previs, Kithsiri Herath, Andrea R Nawrocki, Carlos G Rodriguez, Deborah Slipetz, Sheo B Singh, Ling Kang, Gowri Bhat, Thomas P Roddy, Stacey Conarello, Jenna Terebetski, Mark D Erion, David E Kelley
An increased contribution of de novo lipogenesis (DNL) may play a role in cases of dyslipidemia and adipose accretion, this suggests that inhibition of fatty acid synthesis may affect clinical phenotypes. Since it is not clear whether modulation of one step in the lipogenic pathway is more important than another, the use of tracer methods can provide a deeper level of insight regarding the control of metabolic activity. Although [2H]water is generally considered a reliable tracer for quantifying DNL in vivo (it yields a homogenous and quantifiable precursor labeling), the relatively long half-life of body water is thought to limit the ability of performing repeat studies in the same subjects; this can create a bottleneck in the development and evaluation of novel therapeutics for inhibiting DNL...
January 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351336/chemotactic-drift-speed-for-bacterial-motility-pattern-with-two-alternating-turning-events
#8
Evgeniya V Pankratova, Alena I Kalyakulina, Mikhail I Krivonosov, Sergei V Denisov, Katja M Taute, Vasily Yu Zaburdaev
Bacterial chemotaxis is one of the most extensively studied adaptive responses in cells. Many bacteria are able to bias their apparently random motion to produce a drift in the direction of the increasing chemoattractant concentration. It has been recognized that the particular motility pattern employed by moving bacteria has a direct impact on the efficiency of chemotaxis. The linear theory of chemotaxis pioneered by de Gennes allows for calculation of the drift velocity in small gradients for bacteria with basic motility patterns...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351303/automated-inverse-optimization-facilitates-lower-doses-to-normal-tissue-in-pancreatic-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy
#9
Ivaylo B Mihaylov, Eric A Mellon, Raphael Yechieli, Lorraine Portelance
PURPOSE: Inverse planning is trial-and-error iterative process. This work introduces a fully automated inverse optimization approach, where the treatment plan is closely tailored to the unique patient anatomy. The auto-optimization is applied to pancreatic stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The automation is based on stepwise reduction of dose-volume histograms (DVHs). Five uniformly spaced points, from 1% to 70% of the organ at risk (OAR) volumes, are used...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351262/imu-to-segment-assignment-and-orientation-alignment-for-the-lower-body-using-deep-learning
#10
Tobias Zimmermann, Bertram Taetz, Gabriele Bleser
Human body motion analysis based on wearable inertial measurement units (IMUs) receives a lot of attention from both the research community and the and industrial community. This is due to the significant role in, for instance, mobile health systems, sports and human computer interaction. In sensor based activity recognition, one of the major issues for obtaining reliable results is the sensor placement/assignment on the body. For inertial motion capture (joint kinematics estimation) and analysis, the IMU-to-segment (I2S) assignment and alignment are central issues to obtain biomechanical joint angles...
January 19, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351087/a-depth-encoding-pet-detector-using-light-sharing-and-single-ended-readout-with-sipms
#11
Zhonghua Kuang, Qian Yang, Xiaohui Wang, Xin Fu, Ning Ren, Ziru Sang, San Wu, Yunfei Zheng, Xianming Zhang, Zhanli Hu, Junwei Du, Dong Liang, Xin Liu, Hairong Zheng, Yongfeng Yang
Detectors with depth encoding capability and good timing resolution are required to develop a high-performance whole-body or total-body PET scanner. In this work, depth-encoding PET detectors using light sharing between two discrete crystals and single-ended readout with SiPMs were manufactured and evaluated. The detectors consisted of two unpolished LYSO crystals of 3×3×20 mm3 with different coupling materials between them and were read out by Hamamatsu 3×3 mm2 SiPMs with one-to-one coupling. The ratio of the energy of one SiPM to the total energy of two SiPMs is used to measure the depth of interaction (DOI)...
January 19, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350644/talar-fractures-radiological-and-ct-evaluation-and-classification-systems
#12
Giuseppe Caracchini, Michele Pietragalla, Alioscia De Renzis, Michele Galluzzo, Mattia Carbone, Marcello Zappia, Anna Russo, Federico Greco, Vittorio Miele
INTRODUCTION: The talus is the second largest bone of the foot. It is fundamental to ensure normal ankle-foot movements as it connects the leg and the foot. Talar fractures are usually due to high energy traumas (road accidents, high level falls). They are not common as they account for 3-5% of ankle and foot fractures and 0.85% of all body fractures. However, talar fractures not correctly diagnosed and treated can lead to avascular necrosis of the astragalus, pseudoarthrosis, early osteoarthrisis and ankle instability, declining the quality of life of patients...
January 19, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350643/calcaneal-fractures-radiological-and-ct-evaluation-and-classification-systems
#13
Michele Galluzzo, Federico Greco, Michele Pietragalla, Alioscia De Renzis, Mattia Carbone, Marcello Zappia, Nicola Maggialetti, Alfredo D'andrea, Giuseppe Caracchini, Vittorio Miele
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: The calcaneus, the more lower bone of the body, has the task of supporting the axial load from the weight of the body. Calcaneal fractures represent about 1-2% of all fractures and 60% of the tarsal bones fractures. The articular involvement has been associated with a poor functional outcome. The aim of this work is to describe the radiologic evaluation, the classification systems, the morphological preoperative diagnostic imaging features of calcaneal fractures, highlighting the correlation with the choice of treatment and predictive capacity for the fracture surgical outcome...
January 19, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350408/calibration-and-non-orthogonality-correction-of-three-axis-hall-sensors-for-the-monitoring-of-mri-workers-exposure-to-static-magnetic-fields
#14
Antoine Delmas, Lamia Belguerras, Nicolas Weber, Freddy Odille, Cédric Pasquier, Jacques Felblinger, Pierre-André Vuissoz
A Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanner uses three different electromagnetic fields (EMF) to produce body images: a static permanent magnetic field (MF), several pulsed magnetic gradients, and a radiofrequency pulse. As a result, any occupation that includes an MRI exposes workers to a strong MF. The World Health Organization has now given the monitoring of occupational EMF exposure a high priority. One design for a low-cost, compact MF exposure monitor (« MR exposimeter ») uses a set of three orthogonally assembled Hall sensors...
January 19, 2018: Bioelectromagnetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350264/linking-muscle-metabolism-and-functional-variation-to-field-swimming-performance-in-bluegill-sunfish-lepomis-macrochirus
#15
David J Ellerby, Shauna Cyr, Angela X Han, Mika Lin, Lloyd A Trueblood
Skeletal muscle has diverse mechanical roles during locomotion. In swimming fish, power-producing muscles work in concert with the accessory muscles of the fins which augment and control power transfer to the water. Although fin muscles represent a significant proportion of the locomotor muscle mass, their physiological properties are poorly characterized. To examine the relationship between muscle metabolism and the differing mechanical demands placed on distinct muscle groups, we quantified the aerobic and glycolytic capacities of the myotomal, pectoral and caudal muscles of bluegill sunfish...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350226/the-ortho-benzyne-cation-is-not-planar
#16
D Kaiser, E Reusch, P Hemberger, A Bodi, E Welz, B Engels, I Fischer
A recent review on the photoionisation of the C6H4 isomer ortho-benzyne suggests that bands reported in earlier photoelectron spectra might be due to side products or contaminations, while computations raise doubts, whether the cation has a planar geometry. We therefore reinvestigate the photoionisation of ortho-benzyne, generated by pyrolysis from benzocyclobutenedione, by photoion mass-selected threshold photoelectron (ms-TPE) spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. The experiments are accompanied by a theoretical study that investigates the structure of the ortho-benzyne cation systematically as a function of the computational method, up to CASPT2(11,14) ab initio computations...
January 19, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350197/a-three-dimensional-correction-method-for-predicting-the-readings-of-a-pinpoint-chamber-on-the-cyberknife-sup-%C3%A2-sup-m6%C3%A2-machine
#17
Yongqian Zhang, Edward Brandner, Cihat Ozhasoglu, Ron Lalonde, Dwight E Heron, M Saiful Huq
The use of small fields in radiation therapy techniques has increased substantially in particular in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). However, as field size reduces further still, the response of the detector changes more rapidly with field size, and the effects of measurement uncertainties become increasingly significant. This work presents a novel 3D dose volume-to-point correction method to predict the readings of a 0.015cc PinPoint chamber (PTW 31014) for both small static-fields and composite-field dosimetry formed by fixed cones on the CyberKnife® M6™ machine...
January 19, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350015/-application-of-finite-element-method-in-spinal-biomechanics
#18
REVIEW
Qiang Liu, Jun Zhang, Shu-Chun Sun, Fei Wang
The finite element model is one of the most important methods in study of modern spinal biomechanics, according to the needs to simulate the various states of the spine, calculate the stress force and strain distribution of the different groups in the state, and explore its principle of mechanics, mechanism of injury, and treatment effectiveness. In addition, in the study of the pathological state of the spine, the finite element is mainly used in the understanding the mechanism of lesion location, evaluating the effects of different therapeutic tool, assisting and completing the selection and improvement of therapeutic tool, in order to provide a theoretical basis for the rehabilitation of spinal lesions...
February 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349935/pitfalls-in-the-measurement-of-muscle-mass-a-need-for-a-reference-standard
#19
Fanny Buckinx, Francesco Landi, Matteo Cesari, Roger A Fielding, Marjolein Visser, Klaus Engelke, Stefania Maggi, Elaine Dennison, Nasser M Al-Daghri, Sophie Allepaerts, Jurgen Bauer, Ivan Bautmans, Maria Luisa Brandi, Olivier Bruyère, Tommy Cederholm, Francesca Cerreta, Antonio Cherubini, Cyrus Cooper, Alphonso Cruz-Jentoft, Eugene McCloskey, Bess Dawson-Hughes, Jean-Marc Kaufman, Andrea Laslop, Jean Petermans, Jean-Yves Reginster, René Rizzoli, Sian Robinson, Yves Rolland, Ricardo Rueda, Bruno Vellas, John A Kanis
BACKGROUND: All proposed definitions of sarcopenia include the measurement of muscle mass, but the techniques and threshold values used vary. Indeed, the literature does not establish consensus on the best technique for measuring lean body mass. Thus, the objective measurement of sarcopenia is hampered by limitations intrinsic to assessment tools. The aim of this study was to review the methods to assess muscle mass and to reach consensus on the development of a reference standard. METHODS: Literature reviews were performed by members of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis working group on frailty and sarcopenia...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349902/association-between-pre-sarcopenia-sarcopenia-and-bone-mineral-density-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#20
Tatiana Bering, Kiara G D Diniz, Marta Paula P Coelho, Diego A Vieira, Maria Marta S Soares, Adriana M Kakehasi, Maria Isabel T D Correia, Rosângela Teixeira, Dulciene M M Queiroz, Gifone A Rocha, Luciana D Silva
BACKGROUND: Preserved skeletal muscle is essential for the maintenance of healthy bone. Loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and muscle strength, considered a predictor of BMD, have been demonstrated in patients with cirrhosis, but they are poorly studied in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) without cirrhosis. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of low BMD and its association with body composition, muscle strength, and nutritional status in CHC. METHODS: One hundred and four subjects [mean age, 50...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
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