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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140964/whole-body-computed-tomography-in-severely-injured-patients
#1
Stefan Huber-Wagner, Karl-Georg Kanz, Marc Hanschen, Martijn van Griensven, Peter Biberthaler, Rolf Lefering
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on the relevant and recent studies on whole-body computed tomography (WBCT) imaging of severely injured patients. RECENT FINDINGS: The advantages of WBCT in time saving, diagnostic accuracy and even in survival have been proven in numerous studies. WBCT can also be beneficial in haemodynamically unstable major trauma patients. The CT scanner should be located close to the emergency department or even in the trauma room. The issue of radiation is still quite important, however, iterative as well as split-bolus protocols can nowadays reduce radiation significantly...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140640/using-workers-compensation-claims-data-to-characterize-occupational-injuries-in-the-commercial-grain-elevator-industry
#2
Sai K Ramaswamy, Gretchen A Mosher
Workplace injuries in the grain handling industry are common, yet little research has characterized worker injuries in grain elevators across all hazard types. Learning from past injuries is essential for preventing future occurrences, but the lack of injury information for the grain handling industry hinders this effort. The present study addresses this knowledge gap by using data from over 7000 workers' compensation claims reported from 2008 to 2016 by commercial grain handling facilities in the U.S. to characterize injury costs and severity...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140637/hazard-identification-and-risk-assessment-for-improving-farm-safety-on-canadian-farms
#3
Hassan S Chattha, Kenneth W Corscadden, Qamar U Zaman
Agriculture is one of the most hazardous industries worldwide. The number of serious accidents on farms, despite sophisticated technology, development of effective prevention methods, and high-quality training and improved skill levels of farmers, is still very high. The purpose of this study was to develop and apply a generic farm safety protocol to hazards that have been identified in previously published literature and demonstrate the potential benefits of such a protocol with a view to raising awareness of farm safety...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140165/improved-total-body-irradiation-survival-by-delivery-of-two-radiation-mitigators-that-target-distinct-cell-death-pathways
#4
Justin Steinman, Michael Epperly, Wen Hou, John Willis, Hong Wang, Renee Fisher, Bing Liu, Ivet Bahar, Travis McCaw, Valerian Kagan, Hulya Bayir, Jian Yu, Peter Wipf, Song Li, M Saiful Huq, Joel S Greenberger
The acute lethality of total-body irradiation (TBI) involves damage to multiple organs, including bone marrow and intestine. Ionizing radiation mitigators that are effective when delivered 24 h or later after TBI include the anti-apoptotic drug, JP4-039 and the anti-necroptotic drug, necrostatin-1. In contrast to effective delivery of JP4-039 at 24 h after TBI, necrostatin-1 is most effective when delivery is delayed until 48 h, a time that correlates with the elevation of necroptosis-inducing inflammatory cytokines and necroptosis-induced serine phosphorylation of receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase-3 (RIP3) in tissues...
November 15, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139331/kinematic-modeling-of-a-7-degree-of-freedom-spatial-hybrid-manipulator-for-medical-surgery
#5
Amanpreet Singh, Ekta Singla, Sanjeev Soni, Ashish Singla
The prime objective of this work is to deal with the kinematics of spatial hybrid manipulators. In this direction, in 1955, Denavit and Hartenberg proposed a consistent and concise method, known as D-H parameters method, to deal with kinematics of open serial chains. From literature review, it is found that D-H parameter method is widely used to model manipulators consisting of lower pairs. However, the method leads to ambiguities when applied to closed-loop, tree-like and hybrid manipulators. Furthermore, in the dearth of any direct method to model closed-loop, tree-like and hybrid manipulators, revisions of this method have been proposed from time-to-time by different researchers...
November 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139077/spatiotemporal-patterns-and-source-attribution-of-nitrogen-pollution-in-a-typical-headwater-agricultural-watershed-in-southeastern-china
#6
Wenjun Chen, Bin He, Daniel Nover, Weili Duan, Chuan Luo, Kaiyan Zhao, Wen Chen
Excessive nitrogen (N) discharge from agriculture causes widespread problems in aquatic ecosystems. Knowledge of spatiotemporal patterns and source attribution of N pollution is critical for nutrient management programs but is poorly studied in headwaters with various small water bodies and mini-point pollution sources. Taking a typical small watershed in the low mountains of Southeastern China as an example, N pollution and source attribution were studied for a multipond system around a village using the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) model...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138959/body-image-assessment-among-community-mental-health-providers
#7
Virginia Ramseyer Winter, Anna Brett, Danielle Pevehouse-Pfeiffer, Elizabeth A O'Neill, Nancy Ellis-Ordway
Although research suggests an association between body image and mental health, with poor body image related to several mental illnesses, there is no research exploring mental health clinicians' body image screening practices. This study aims to fill this gap among a sample of community mental health providers (N = 216). Using a cross-sectional design, clinicians in Community Health Centers were recruited through email using purposeful and snowball sampling in a Midwest state. The majority of participants identified as women (88...
November 14, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138956/nurses-attitudes-and-practices-towards-provision-of-survivorship-care-for-people-with-a-haematological-cancer-on-completion-of-treatment
#8
Raymond Javan Chan, Elise Button, Alison Thomas, Priscilla Gates, Patsy Yates
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to assess cancer nurses' perceptions of responsibility, confidence levels and practice in relation to survivorship care for people with a haematological malignancy on completion of treatment. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional survey was conducted. An online survey was distributed to members of two Australian professional bodies. RESULTS: A total of 310 cancer nurses participated in the study, representing a response rate of 28%...
November 14, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138608/sleep-positions-and-nocturnal-body-movements-based-on-free-living-accelerometer-recordings-association-with-demographics-lifestyle-and-insomnia-symptoms
#9
Eivind Schjelderup Skarpsno, Paul Jarle Mork, Tom Ivar Lund Nilsen, Andreas Holtermann
Background: In order to establish normative values for body positions and movements during sleep, the objective of this study was to explore the distribution of sleep positions and extent of nocturnal body moments and the association with sex, age, body-mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, and insomnia symptoms. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study comprised data on a working population (363 men and 301 women) who participated in the Danish Physical Activity Cohort with Objective Measurements (DPHACTO)...
2017: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138399/the-industrial-anaerobe-clostridium-acetobutylicum-uses-polyketides-to-regulate-cellular-differentiation
#10
Nicolaus A Herman, Seong Jong Kim, Jeffrey S Li, Wenlong Cai, Hiroyuki Koshino, Wenjun Zhang
Polyketides are an important class of bioactive small molecules valued not only for their diverse therapeutic applications, but also for their role in controlling interesting biological phenotypes in their producing organisms. While numerous polyketides are known to be derived from aerobic organisms, only a single family of polyketides has been identified from anaerobic organisms. Here we uncover a family of polyketides native to the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum, an organism well-known for its historical use as an industrial producer of the organic solvents acetone, butanol, and ethanol...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138279/the-secreted-neurotrophin-sp%C3%A3-tzle-3-promotes-glial-morphogenesis-and-supports-neuronal-survival-and-function
#11
Jaeda C Coutinho-Budd, Amy E Sheehan, Marc R Freeman
Most glial functions depend on establishing intimate morphological relationships with neurons. Significant progress has been made in understanding neuron-glia signaling at synaptic and axonal contacts, but how glia support neuronal cell bodies is unclear. Here we explored the growth and functions of Drosophila cortex glia (which associate almost exclusively with neuronal cell bodies) to understand glia-soma interactions. We show that cortex glia tile with one another and with astrocytes to establish unique central nervous system (CNS) spatial domains that actively restrict glial growth, and selective ablation of cortex glia causes animal lethality...
November 14, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137096/synchronous-multiple-carcinoma-with-small-intestine-and-pulmonary-neuroendocrine-involvement-a-case-report
#12
Binbin Shan, Quanmao Zhang, Yuan Li, Fucai Han
RATIONALE: In clinical work, neuroendocrine synchronous multiplicity carcinoma was relatively rare. Most were confirmed by the pathological diagnosis of a certain part of the body combined with the imaging of the whole body, while cases that had both pathological and immunohistochemistry diagnosis were few. PATIENT CONCERNS: A patient who presented with abdominal pain visited our hospital, and was diagnosed with lesions in both the small intestine and lung. DIAGNOSES: Both were considered primary tumors by imaging, and diagnosed as neuroendocrine carcinomas by pathology...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136143/time-varying-cycle-average-and-daily-variation-in-ambient-air-pollution-and-fecundability
#13
Carrie J Nobles, Enrique F Schisterman, Sandie Ha, Germaine M Buck Louis, Seth Sherman, Pauline Mendola
STUDY QUESTION: Does ambient air pollution affect fecundability? SUMMARY ANSWER: While cycle-average air pollution exposure was not associated with fecundability, we observed some associations for acute exposure around ovulation and implantation with fecundability. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Ambient air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and decrements in semen quality. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: The LIFE study (2005-2009), a prospective time-to-pregnancy study, enrolled 501 couples who were followed for up to one year of attempting pregnancy...
November 10, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135997/performances-of-the-piper-scalable-child-human-body-model-in-accident-reconstruction
#14
Chiara Giordano, Xiaogai Li, Svein Kleiven
Human body models (HBMs) have the potential to provide significant insights into the pediatric response to impact. This study describes a scalable/posable approach to perform child accident reconstructions using the Position and Personalize Advanced Human Body Models for Injury Prediction (PIPER) scalable child HBM of different ages and in different positions obtained by the PIPER tool. Overall, the PIPER scalable child HBM managed reasonably well to predict the injury severity and location of the children involved in real-life crash scenarios documented in the medical records...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135398/the-effect-of-obesity-on-dyspnea-exercise-capacity-walk-work-and-workload-in-patients-with-copd
#15
Hülya Şahin, İlknur Naz, Yelda Varol, Berna Kömürcüoğlu
Introduction: COPD and obesity are major public health problems that cause mortality and morbidity all over the world. The combined of COPD and obesity is predicted to increase further in the coming years. Obesity primarily affects the pulmonary system by altering respiratory functions, exercise capacity, pulmonary gas exchange, and endurance and power of respiratory muscles. In this study, we aimed to compare the dyspnea sensation, exercise capacity, walk work and workload in obese COPD patients compared to preobese and normal overweight COPD patients...
September 2017: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134922/exploring-the-relationship-between-postmigratory-stressors-and-mental-health-for-asylum-seekers-and-refused-asylum-seekers-in-the-uk
#16
Gareth Morgan, Steve Melluish, Alice Welham
Numerous studies have linked the high rates of traumatic events experienced by refugees to the elevated rate of mental health problems in these populations. A growing body of evidence has also highlighted the importance of considering postmigratory stressors when making sense of displaced person distress. This study explored the relationship between mental health and postmigratory stress for asylum seekers and refused asylum seekers in Britain. The study further examined if those refused asylum experienced elevated distress and postmigratory stress compared to those awaiting the outcome of asylum applications...
January 1, 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134744/acute-oral-sodium-propionate-supplementation-raises-resting-energy-expenditure-and-lipid-oxidation-in-fasted-humans
#17
Edward S Chambers, Claire S Byrne, Karen Aspey, Yanjie Chen, Saadiyah Khan, Douglas J Morrison, Gary Frost
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), produced from fermentation of dietary fibre by the gut microbiota, have been suggested to modulate energy metabolism. Previous work using rodent models have demonstrated that oral supplementation of the SCFA propionate raises resting energy expenditure (REE) by promoting lipid oxidation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of oral sodium propionate on REE and substrate metabolism in humans. Eighteen healthy volunteers (9 females and 9 males; Age: 25±1 y; Body Mass Index: 24...
November 13, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134659/annual-research-review-the-persistent-and-pervasive-impact-of-being-bullied-in-childhood-and-adolescence-implications-for-policy-and-practice
#18
REVIEW
Louise Arseneault
BACKGROUND: We have known for some time that being bullied was associated with children's and adolescents' adjustment difficulties and well-being. In recent years, we have come to recognise that the impact of childhood bullying victimisation on the development of mental health problems is more complex. This paper aims to review the evidence for an independent contribution of childhood bullying victimisation to the development of poor outcomes throughout the life span, including mental, physical and socioeconomic outcomes, and discuss the implications for policy and practice...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133922/essential-role-of-mitochondrial-stat3-in-p38-mapk-mediated-apoptosis-under-oxidative-stress
#19
Xinlai Cheng, Christiane Peuckert, Stefan Wölfl
Stat3 is an oncogene, frequently associated with malignant transformation. A body of evidence implicates that phospho-Stat3(Y705) contributes to its nucleic translocation, while phospho-Stat3(S727) leads to the accumulation in mitochondria. Both are of importance for tumor cell proliferation. In comparison to well-characterized signaling pathways interplaying with Stat3(Y705), little is known about Stat3(S727). In this work, we studied the influence of Stat3 deficiency on the viability of cells exposed to H2O2 or hypoxia using siRNA and CRISPR/Cas9 genome-editing...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133332/built-to-last-the-sustainability-of-health-system-improvements-interventions-and-change-strategies-a-study-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#20
Jeffrey Braithwaite, Luke Testa, Gina Lamprell, Jessica Herkes, Kristiana Ludlow, Elise McPherson, Margie Campbell, Joanna Holt
INTRODUCTION: The sustainability of healthcare interventions and change programmes is of increasing importance to researchers and healthcare stakeholders interested in creating sustainable health systems to cope with mounting stressors. The aim of this protocol is to extend earlier work and describe a systematic review to identify, synthesise and draw meaning from studies published within the last 5 years that measure the sustainability of interventions, improvement efforts and change strategies in the health system...
November 12, 2017: BMJ Open
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