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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636889/complications-of-hematopoietic-stem-transplantation-fungal-infections
#1
REVIEW
Ali S Omrani, Reem S Almaghrabi
Patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are at increased risk of invasive fungal infections, especially during the early neutropenic phase and severe graft-versus-host disease. Mold-active prophylaxis should be limited to the highest risk groups. Empiric antifungal therapy for HSCT with persistent febrile neutropenia is associated with unacceptable response rates, unnecessary antifungal therapy, increased risk of toxicity, and inflated costs. Empiric therapy should not be a substitute for detailed work up to identify the cause of fever in such patients...
June 13, 2017: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634525/pseudomembranous-aspergillar-tracheobronchitis-in-a-non-neutropenic-critically-ill-patient-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#2
Sameen Khalid, Fnu Asad-Ur -Rahman, Aamer Abbass, Sigfredo Aldarondo, Khalid Abusaada
Invasive aspergillosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. Prolonged neutropenia is the most common risk factor. It has rarely been reported to occur in non-neutropenic critically ill patients in the intensive care unit setting. Mortality rate in this group has been reported to be as high as 92%. We report a case of tracheobronchial aspergillosis in a non-neutropenic critically ill patient to highlight the fact that critically ill patients admitted in the intensive care unit can develop opportunistic infections such as invasive aspergillosis even in the absence of classic risk factors and prior history of immunosuppression...
January 2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634301/microbial-glycoside-hydrolases-as-antibiofilm-agents-with-cross-kingdom-activity
#3
Brendan D Snarr, Perrin Baker, Natalie C Bamford, Yukiko Sato, Hong Liu, Mélanie Lehoux, Fabrice N Gravelat, Hanna Ostapska, Shane R Baistrocchi, Robert P Cerone, Elan E Filler, Matthew R Parsek, Scott G Filler, P Lynne Howell, Donald C Sheppard
Galactosaminogalactan and Pel are cationic heteropolysaccharides produced by the opportunistic pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively. These exopolysaccharides both contain 1,4-linked N-acetyl-d-galactosamine and play an important role in biofilm formation by these organisms. Proteins containing glycoside hydrolase domains have recently been identified within the biosynthetic pathway of each exopolysaccharide. Recombinant hydrolase domains from these proteins (Sph3h from A...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631658/a-case-of-aspergillus-tracheobronchitis-in-a-patient-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#4
Ming-Li Yuan, Gang Yang, Hong-Ling Hu, Wen Yin, Wei-Jun Tan, Su Zhao
Aspergillus tracheobronchitis (AT) is a unique form of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, which is commonly found in patients with impaired immunity. Early-stage AT presents in a nonspecific way, both clinically and radiographically, thereby delaying diagnosis and resulting in a high mortality. Owing to impaired mucociliary clearance, previous nonfungal infections, and administration of corticosteroids, among other aspects, patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are predisposed to AT, although they are mostly immunocompetent...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626542/invasive-aspergillosis-with-disseminated-skin-involvement-in-a-patient-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia-a-rare-case
#5
Duygu Mert, Gülşen Iskender, Fazilet Duygu, Alparslan Merdin, Sinan Dal Mehmet, Mehmet Dogan, Emre Tekgündüz, Mustafa Ertek, Fevzi Altuntaş
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is most commonly seen in immunocompromised patients. Besides, skin lesions may also develop due to invasive aspergillosis in those patients. A 49-year-old male patient was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia. The patient developed bullous and zosteriform lesions on the skin after the 21st day of hospitalization. The skin biopsy showed hyphae. Disseminated skin aspergillosis was diagnosed to the patient. Voricanazole treatment was initiated. The patient was discharged once the lesions started to disappear...
June 1, 2017: Hematology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620958/a-network-meta-analysis-of-primary-prophylaxis-for-invasive-fungal-infection-in-haematological-patients
#6
REVIEW
L P Leonart, F S Tonin, V L Ferreira, S T S Penteado, A Wiens, F A Motta, R Pontarolo
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Antifungal prophylaxis is an option to reduce the incidence of invasive fungal infection (IFI) in haematological patients. To date, no network meta-analysis (NMA) of high-quality evidence (double-blind randomized controlled trials) has been performed on this subject. This systematic review and NMA aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of different antifungal agents used for prophylaxis of IFI in patients with haematological disorders. METHODS: A systematic review was performed according to PRISMA and Cochrane recommendations...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619962/sarcoidosis-and-aspergillosis-a-tough-combination
#7
EDITORIAL
David W Denning
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619957/chronic-pulmonary-aspergillosis-complicating-sarcoidosis
#8
Yurdagül Uzunhan, Hilario Nunes, Florence Jeny, Maxime Lacroix, Sophie Brun, Pierre-Yves Brillet, Emmanuel Martinod, Marie-France Carette, Diane Bouvry, Caroline Charlier, Fanny Lanternier, Carole Planès, Abdellatif Tazi, Olivier Lortholary, Robert P Baughman, Dominique Valeyre
Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) complicating sarcoidosis (SA) is associated with high mortality, and there is a lack of clarity regarding the relative contributions of SA or CPA.This was a retrospective single-centre study on CPA-SA.In total, 65 patients (44 men), aged 41.4±13.5 and 48.3±11.9 years at the time of SA and CPA diagnoses, respectively, were included between 1980 and 2015. Of these, 64 had fibrocystic SA, most often advanced, with composite physiological index (CPI) >40 (65% of patients) and pulmonary hypertension (PH) (31%), and 41 patients (63%) were treated for SA (corticosteroids or immunosuppressive drugs)...
June 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619951/erj-june-podcast-chronic-pulmonary-aspergillosis-complicating-sarcoidosis
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611248/the-aspergillus-fumigatus-crza-transcription-factor-activates-chitin-synthase-gene-expression-during-the-caspofungin-paradoxical-effect
#10
Laure Nicolas Annick Ries, Marina Campos Rocha, Patrícia Alves de Castro, Rafael Silva-Rocha, Roberto Nascimento Silva, Fernanda Zanolli Freitas, Leandro José de Assis, Maria Célia Bertolini, Iran Malavazi, Gustavo H Goldman
Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes invasive aspergillosis (IA), a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised humans. The echinocandin caspofungin, adopted as a second-line therapy in combating IA, is a β-1,3-glucan synthase inhibitor, which, when used in high concentrations, reverts the anticipated A. fumigatus growth inhibition, a phenomenon called the "caspofungin paradoxical effect" (CPE). The CPE has been widely associated with increased chitin content in the cell wall due to a compensatory upregulation of chitin synthase-encoding genes...
June 13, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609608/voriconazole-concentrations-in-plasma-and-epithelial-lining-fluid-after-inhalation-and-oral-treatment
#11
Charlotte U Andersen, Lene Dahl Sønderskov, Elisabeth Bendstrup, Nina Voldby, Lindsey Cass, John Ayrton, Ole Hilberg
Adverse effects can compromise oral voriconazole treatment of pulmonary aspergillosis. Inhaled low-dose voriconazole may be an alternative treatment. In this study, six patients inhaled 40 mg voriconazole b.i.d. for two days, and six patients ingested 400 and 200 mg orally b.i.d. on day one and two, respectively. Blood samples were collected after the first inhalation, and bronchial alveolar lavage fluids and blood samples were collected for measurements of voriconazole 12 hr after the last administration. The concentration of voriconazole in epithelial lining fluid (ELF) was calculated by the urea dilution method...
June 13, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607028/chemoenzymatic-synthesis-nanotization-and-anti-aspergillus-activity-of-optically-enriched-fluconazole-analogues
#12
Shashwat Malhotra, Seema Singh, Neha Rana, Shilpi Tomar, Priyanka Bhatnagar, Mohit Gupta, Suraj K Singh, Brajendra K Singh, Anil K Chhillar, Ashok K Prasad, Christophe Len, Pradeep Kumar, Kailash C Gupta, Anjani J Varma, Ramesh C Kuhad, Gainda L Sharma, Virinder S Parmar, Nigel G J Richards
Despite recent advances in diagnostic and therapeutic advances in antifungal research, aspergillosis still remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. One strategy to address this problem is to enhance the activity spectrum of known antifungals, and we now report the first successful application of Candida antarctica lipase (CAL) for the preparation of optically enriched fluconazole analogs. Anti-Aspergillus activity was observed for an optically enriched derivative, (-)-S-2-(2' ,4' -difluorophenyl)-1-hexyl-amino-3-(1‴,2‴,4‴) triazol-1‴-yl-propan-2-ol, which exhibits MIC values of 15...
June 12, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602386/respiratory-infections-associated-with-anti-tnf%C3%AE-agents
#13
REVIEW
E Blanchard, M-E Truchetet, I Machelart, J Séneschal, C Raherison-Semjen
Anti-TNFα agents have proved effective in the treatment of various inflammatory, rheumatologic, dermatologic, and gastrointestinal diseases. Severe respiratory tract infections of bacterial or fungal origin have emerged as important complications in patients receiving such treatments. The risk of infection due to anti-TNFα therapy is difficult to assess in these patients who are immunocompromised because of the underlying disease itself and of previous or concomitant immunosuppressive drugs. This excessive infection risk seems real, particularly in the first six months following treatment initiation, and higher for patients receiving anti-TNFα monoclonal antibodies than for those receiving soluble TNFα receptor...
June 8, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601021/aspergillus-fumigatus-induced-early-inflammatory-response-in-pulmonary-microvascular-endothelial-cells-role-of-p38-mapk-and-inhibition-by-silibinin
#14
Jun Song, Weihua Pan, Yue Sun, Jing Han, Weimin Shi, Wanqing Liao
Human invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a serious infectious disease mainly caused by Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus). Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) are important ones in the human lung tissue. However, it remains unclear about the role of PMVECs in IPA. In the present study, we cocultured PMVECs with A. fumigatus. We observed that A. fumigatus induced dose- and time-dependent increases of interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) concentration in the cultures...
June 7, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595486/special-considerations-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#15
Matthew William McCarthy, Thomas J Walsh
The diagnosis and treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) are ongoing challenges in clinical practice. While important advances have recently been made, including enhanced diagnostic modalities as well as novel therapeutic and prophylactic options, more effective options are urgently needed as the population of immunocompromised patients continues to expand. Areas covered: In this paper, we review novel approaches to diagnosis of IPA, including multiplex PCR, Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry and provide a detailed review of the extended-spectrum triazole isavuconazole, which was approved in 2015 to treat IPA...
June 21, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594271/treatment-of-cyclosporin-a-retains-host-defense-against-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-in-a-non-immunosuppressive-murine-model-by-preserving-the-myeloid-cell-population
#16
Sarah Sze Wah Wong, Orhan Rasid, Paris Laskaris, Arnaud Fekkar, Jean-Marc Cavaillon, William J Steinbach, Oumaima Ibrahim-Granet
Cyclosporin A (CsA) is widely used as an immunosuppressive agent for organ transplant recipients. CsA inhibits calcineurin, which is highly conserved in mammals and fungi, and thus affects both types of organism. In mammals, the immunosuppressive effect of CsA is via hampering T cell activation. In fungi, the growth inhibitory effect of CsA is via interference with hyphal growth. The aim of this study was to determine whether CsA renders mice susceptible to invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) and whether it can protect immunosuppressed mice from infection...
June 8, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584997/cd4-t-cells-mediate-aspergillosis-vaccine-protection
#17
Diana Diaz-Arevalo, Markus Kalkum
Adaptive effector CD4(+) T cells play essential roles in the defense against fungal infections, especially against invasive aspergillosis (IA). Such protective CD4(+) T cells can be generated through immunization with specialized antifungal vaccines, as has been demonstrated for pulmonary Aspergillus fumigatus infections in mouse experiments. Adaptive transfer of fungal antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells conferred protection onto non-immunized naive mice, an experimental approach that could potentially become a future treatment option for immunosuppressed IA patients, focusing on the ultimate goal to improve their otherwise dim chances for survival...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584996/endpoint-assessment-in-rabbit-models-of-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-and-mucormycosis
#18
Vidmantas Petraitis, Ruta Petraitiene, William W Hope, Thomas J Walsh
Multiple animal models have been developed to study the pathogenesis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, as well as to evaluate the efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of various antifungal agents and vaccines. Each model is beneficial depending on the questions that are asked. In this chapter, we will discuss the endpoints assessment of the persistently neutropenic rabbit models of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and invasive pulmonary mucormycosis.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573907/cart-before-the-horse-use-of-aspergillus-pcr-to-increase-the-diagnostic-yield-from-bal-in-hematological-patients-at-risk-of-invasive-aspergillosis
#19
Olivia Catherine Smibert, Monica A Slavin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571192/youngest-case-of-allergic-broncho-pulmonary-aspergillosis-in-india-a-case-report-from-arid-zone-of-india
#20
Navgeet Mathur, Medha Mathur, Virendra Singh
Allergic Broncho Pulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA) is an immunological allergic disorder and asthmatic patients are predisposed to ABPA. Although, ABPA commonly develops in the third and fourth decades but no age group is unaffected from the disease. Youngest case of ABPA in India so far reported was four years of age. This case report is about a young child of bronchial asthma with ABPA aged four years and nine days only, from arid zone of country. Her diagnosis of ABPA was supported by clinical, serological and radiological findings...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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