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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886105/pro-tumoral-inflammatory-myeloid-cells-as-emerging-therapeutic-targets
#1
REVIEW
Gabor J Szebeni, Csaba Vizler, Lajos I Nagy, Klara Kitajka, Laszlo G Puskas
Since the observation of Virchow, it has long been known that the tumor microenvironment constitutes the soil for the infiltration of inflammatory cells and for the release of inflammatory mediators. Under certain circumstances, inflammation remains unresolved and promotes cancer development. Here, we review some of these indisputable experimental and clinical evidences of cancer related smouldering inflammation. The most common myeloid infiltrate in solid tumors is composed of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs)...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885901/the-bone-marrow-pericyte-an-orchestrator-of-vascular-niche
#2
Giuseppe Mangialardi, Andrea Cordaro, Paolo Madeddu
The concept of pericyte has been changing over years. This cell type was believed to possess only a function of trophic support to endothelial cells and to maintain vasculature stabilization. In the last years, the discovery of multipotent ability of perivascular populations led to the concept of vessel/wall niche. Likewise, several perivascular populations have been identified in animal and human bone marrow. In this review, we provide an overview on bone marrow perivascular population, their cross-talk with other niche components, relationship with bone marrow stromal stem cells, and similarities and differences with the perivascular population of the vessel/wall niche...
November 25, 2016: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882448/sirtuins-and-their-roles-in-brain-aging-and-neurodegenerative-disorders
#3
Henryk Jęśko, Przemysław Wencel, Robert P Strosznajder, Joanna B Strosznajder
Sirtuins (SIRT1-SIRT7) are unique histone deacetylases (HDACs) whose activity depends on NAD(+) levels and thus on the cellular metabolic status. SIRTs regulate energy metabolism and mitochondrial function. They orchestrate the stress response and damage repair. Through these functions sirtuins modulate the course of aging and affect neurodegenerative diseases. SIRTSs interact with multiple signaling proteins, transcription factors (TFs) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) another class of NAD(+)-dependent post-translational protein modifiers...
November 24, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878263/capn4-promotes-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-human-melanoma-cells-through-activation-of-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#4
Enwen Wang, Donglin Wang, Bing Li, Huiwen Ma, Chunmei Wang, Lili Guan, Haiwei Zhang, Lin Yi, Shaolin Li
Melanoma, as one of the most highly metastatic types of cancer, is resistant to current treatment methods, including popular targeted molecular therapy. Consequently, it is essential to develop a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in melanoma progression so that alternative treatments may be identified. To date, accumulating evidence supports the use of calpains, including calpain small subunit 1 (also known as Capn4 or CAPNS1), which affect cancer progression through many pathways, such as epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT), the Wnt/β-catenin (β-catenin) and the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways...
November 15, 2016: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877157/cross-talk-between-staphylococcus-aureus-and-other-staphylococcal-species-via-the-agr-quorum-sensing-system
#5
Jaime Canovas, Mara Baldry, Martin S Bojer, Paal S Andersen, Piotr K Grzeskowiak, Marc Stegger, Peter Damborg, Christian A Olsen, Hanne Ingmer
Staphylococci are associated with both humans and animals. While most are non-pathogenic colonizers, Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing severe infections. S. aureus virulence is controlled by the agr quorum sensing system responding to secreted auto-inducing peptides (AIPs) sensed by AgrC, a two component histidine kinase. agr loci are found also in other staphylococcal species and for Staphylococcus epidermidis, the encoded AIP represses expression of agr regulated virulence genes in S...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871562/anesthetizing-a-child-for-a-large-compressive-mediastinal-mass-with-distraction-techniques-and-music-therapies-as-the-sole-agents
#6
Adam C Adler, Emily R Schwartz, Jennifer M Waters, Paul A Stricker
Anesthetic management of the child with an anterior mediastinal mass is challenging. The surgical/procedural goal typically is to obtain a definitive tissue diagnosis to guide treatment; the safest approach to anesthesia is often one that alters cardiorespiratory physiology the least. In severe cases, this may translate to little or no systemic sedatives/analgesics. Distraction techniques, designed to shift attention away from procedure-related pain (such as counting, listening to music, non-procedure-related talk), may be of great benefit, allowing for avoidance of pharmaceuticals...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871224/insights-into-the-human-mesenchymal-stromal-stem-cell-identity-through-integrative-transcriptomic-profiling
#7
Beatriz Roson-Burgo, Fermin Sanchez-Guijo, Consuelo Del Cañizo, Javier De Las Rivas
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells (MSCs), isolated under the criteria established by the ISCT, still have a poorly characterized phenotype that is difficult to distinguish from similar cell populations. Although the field of transcriptomics and functional genomics has quickly grown in the last decade, a deep comparative analysis of human MSCs expression profiles in a meaningful cellular context has not been yet performed. There is also a need to find a well-defined MSCs gene-signature because many recent biomedical studies show that key cellular interaction processes (i...
November 21, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868024/cross-talk-between-cancer-initiating-cells-and-immune-cells-considerations-for-combination-therapies
#8
COMMENT
Amy S Codd, Saly Al-Taei, Zsuzsanna Tabi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853635/tumor-infiltrating-tim-3-t-cells-proliferate-avidly-except-when-pd-1-is-co-expressed-evidence-for-intracellular-cross-talk
#9
Jing Li, Gulidanna Shayan, Lyndsay Avery, Hyun-Bae Jie, Neil Gildener-Leapman, Nicole Schmitt, Bin Feng Lu, Lawrence P Kane, Robert L Ferris
Programmed Death 1 (PD-1) and T cell Ig and mucin domain-3 protein (Tim-3) are immune checkpoint receptors highly expressed on tumor infiltrating T lymphocytes (TIL). PD-1 inhibits T cell activation and type-1 T cell responses, while Tim-3 is proposed to mark more extensively exhausted cells, although the mechanisms underlying Tim-3 function are not clear. Trials of anti-PD-1 therapy have identified a large subset of non-responder patients, likely due to expression of alternative checkpoint molecules like Tim-3...
2016: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835604/gankyrin-sustains-pi3k-gsk-3%C3%AE-%C3%AE-catenin-signal-activation-and-promotes-colorectal-cancer-aggressiveness-and-progression
#10
Feng He, Huacui Chen, Ping Yang, Qianlong Wu, Tong Zhang, Chengxing Wang, Jianchang Wei, Zhuanpeng Chen, He Hu, Wanglin Li, Jie Cao
High levels of angiogenesis, metastasis and chemoresistance are major clinical features of colorectal cancer (CRC), a lethal disease with a high incidence worldwide. Aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway contributes to CRC progression. However, little is known about regulatory mechanisms of the β-catenin activity in cancer progression. Here we report that Gankyrin was markedly upregulated in primary tumor tissues from CRC patients and was associated with poor survival. Moreover, we demonstrated that overexpressing Gankyrin promoted, while knockdown of Gankyrin impaired, the aggressive phenotype of proliferation, angiogenesis, chemoresistance and metastasis of CRC cells both in vitro and in vivo...
November 8, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820781/inhibition-of-t-cell-alloreactivity-by-bronchial-epithelium-is-impaired-in-lung-transplant-recipients-through-pathways-involving-tgf-%C3%AE-il-10-and-hla-g
#11
C Dupin, E Lhuillier, S Létuvé, M Pretolani, G Thabut, H Mal, E D Carosella, C Schilte, P Mordant, V Bunel, C Danel, N Rouas-Freiss, O Brugière
BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) after lung transplantation (LTx) results from bronchial epithelial cell (BECs) damages, thought to be orchestrated by T cells primed by antigen-presenting cell (APC) presenting allo-antigens. In this cell cross-talk, BECs are also suspected to play a pivotal immunosuppressive role in T cell alloreactivity. We studied the immunomodulating role of BECs in a human ex-vivo model of allogeneic T cell response, both in healthy subjects and LTx recipients...
November 3, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813208/an-interactive-training-programme-to-treat-body-image-disturbance
#12
Lucinda J Gledhill, Katri K Cornelissen, Piers L Cornelissen, Ian S Penton-Voak, Marcus R Munafò, Martin J Tovée
OBJECTIVES: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a life-threatening mental health condition. A core feature is a disturbance of body image, such that sufferers see themselves as fatter than they actually are. DESIGN: We tested the effectiveness of a novel training programme to recalibrate our participants' perception of body size. METHODS: In a novel adaptation of a cognitive bias training programme, participants judged the body size of a series of female bodies and were given feedback to improve their accuracy over four daily training sessions...
November 3, 2016: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813068/1-st-embl-dfg-women-in-science-network-conference-heidelberg-2016-from-genes-cells-and-the-immune-system-towards-therapies-meeting-report
#13
Renata Stripecke, Cécile Gouttefangeas, Irmgard Förster
The 1(st) EMBL/DFG Women in Science (WiS) Conference "From Genes, Cells and the Immune System towards Therapies" was held on 19(th) - 20(th) September 2016 in Heidelberg, Germany. The WiS conference was funded by nine Collaborative Research Centers (CRCs) of the German Research Council (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG; Table 1) and benefited from an outstanding hosting environment at the Advanced Training Center of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL). Scientific talks focused at genetic, cellular and immunologic mechanisms, and immune therapy, and progress from all stages of development covering basic research to clinical developments was described...
November 2016: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808097/is-the-blue-colour-convention-for-inhaled-reliever-medications-important-a-uk-based-survey-of-healthcare-professionals-and-patients-with-airways-disease
#14
Monica Fletcher, Jane Scullion, John White, Bronwen Thompson, Toby Capstick
In many countries, short-acting β2-agonist inhalers have traditionally been coloured blue. This inhaled therapy has also conventionally been known as a 'reliever' by patients and healthcare professionals (HCPs), in comparison with 'preventer' medications (inhaled steroids). With the rapidly changing market in inhaled therapy for COPD and asthma and growing numbers of devices, there has been some concern that the erosion of traditional colour conventions is leading to patients (and HCPs) becoming confused about the role of different therapies...
November 3, 2016: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807828/anxa7-gtpase-as-tumor-suppressor-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-opportunities
#15
Ximena Leighton, Ofer Eidelman, Catherine Jozwik, Harvey B Pollard, Meera Srivastava
Chromosomal abnormalities, including homozygous deletions and loss of heterozygosity at 10q, are commonly observed in most human tumors, including prostate, breast, and kidney cancers. The ANXA7-GTPase is a tumor suppressor, which is frequently inactivated by genomic alterations at 10q21. In the last few years, considerable amounts of data have accumulated describing inactivation of ANXA7-GTPase in a variety of human malignancies and demonstrating the tumor suppressor potential of ANXA7-GTPase. ANXA7-GTPase contains a calcium binding domain that classifies it as a member of the annexin family...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806346/cross-talk-between-microbiota-and-immune-fitness-to-steer-and-control-response-to-anti-pd-1-pdl-1-treatment
#16
REVIEW
Andrea Botticelli, Ilaria Zizzari, Federica Mazzuca, Paolo Antonio Ascierto, Lorenza Putignani, Luca Marchetti, Chiara Napoletano, Marianna Nuti, Paolo Marchetti
Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors (ICIs) are improving the survival of cancer patients, however only the 20-30% of treated patients present clinical benefits. Toxicity represents the major cause of reduced dosage, delayed drug administration and therapy discontinuation. Hence in the context of multiple treatment possibilities, the identification of predictive markers of response and toxicity is a challenging approach for drug selection in order to obtain the best clinical benefit while minimizing the side effects...
October 28, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797402/therapist-and-client-interactions-in-motivational-interviewing-for-social-anxiety-disorder
#17
Mia Romano, Jelena Arambasic, Lorna Peters
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to assess the bidirectional associations between therapist and client speech during a treatment based on motivational interviewing (MI) for social anxiety disorder. METHOD: Participants were 85 adults diagnosed with social anxiety who received MI prior to entering cognitive behavioral therapy. MI sessions were sequentially coded using the Motivational Interviewing Skill Code 2.5. RESULTS: Therapist MI-consistent behaviors, including open questions as well as positive and negative reflections, were more likely to be followed by client change exploration (change talk and counter-change talk)...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793597/impact-of-general-cognition-and-executive-function-deficits-on-addiction-treatment-outcomes-systematic-review-and-discussion-of-neurocognitive-pathways
#18
REVIEW
Sara Domínguez-Salas, Carmen Díaz-Batanero, Oscar Martin Lozano-Rojas, Antonio Verdejo-García
This systematic review aims to examine growing evidence linking cognitive-executive functions with addiction treatment outcomes, and to discuss significant cognitive predictors drawing upon addiction neuroscience theory. We conducted a systematic search to identify studies using measures of general cognition and executive functions in patients with substance use disorders for the purpose of predicting two treatment outcomes: therapeutic adherence and relapse. Forty-six studies were selected, and sample characteristics, timing of assessments, and cognitive measures were analyzed...
October 25, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793131/what-s-all-the-talk-about-topic-modelling-in-a-mental-health-internet-support-group
#19
Bradley Carron-Arthur, Julia Reynolds, Kylie Bennett, Anthony Bennett, Kathleen M Griffiths
BACKGROUND: The majority of content in an Internet Support Group (ISG) is contributed by 1 % of the users ('super users'). Computational methods, such as topic modelling, can provide a large-scale quantitative objective description of this content. Such methods may provide a new perspective on the nature of engagement on ISGs including the role of super users and their possible effect on other users. METHODS: A topic model was computed for all posts (N = 131,004) in the ISG BlueBoard using Latent Dirichlet Allocation...
October 28, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791997/stem-cells-and-vascular-regenerative-medicine
#20
J-F Stoltz, D Bensoussan, N De Isla, L Zhang, Z Han, J Magdalou, C Huselstein, J S Ye, N Li, V Decot, L Reppel
Most human tissues do not regenerate spontaneously, which is why "cell therapy" are promising alternative treatments. The Principe is simple: patients' or donors' cells are collected and introduced into the injured tissues or organs directly or in a porous 3D material, with or without modification of their properties. This concept of regenerative medicine is an emerging field which can be defined as "the way to improve health and quality of life by restoring, maintaining, or enhancing tissue and organ functions"...
October 27, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
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