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Mariusz G Fleszar, Jerzy Wiśniewski, Małgorzata Krzystek-Korpacka, Błażej Misiak, Dorota Frydecka, Joanna Piechowicz, Katarzyna Lorenc-Kukuła, Andrzej Gamian
Nitric oxide (NO) is a small molecule involved in the regulation of many physiological processes. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of nervous system, immune and inflammatory responses, and blood flow. NO is synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) during two-step oxidation of l-arginine to l-citrulline. Intermediates and derivatives of NO metabolism, such as l-arginine, l-citrulline, asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA), symmetrical dimethylarginine (SDMA), and dimethylamine (DMA), are investigated as potential biomarkers...
2018: Chromatographia
Paulino Vigil-De Gracia, Jack Ludmir, Jorge Ng, Osvaldo Reyes-Tejada, Casilda Nova, Arnaldo Beltré, Vicente Y Chong M, Jorge Collantes, Eduardo Turcios, Roberto Lewis, Santiago Cabrera
OBJECTIVE: To determine if the use of Magnesium Sulfate post-delivery reduces the risk of eclampsia in severe preeclampsia exposed to at least 8 hours of Magnesium prior to delivery. DESIGN: Randomized multicentre controlled trial. SETTING: Latin America. POPULATION: Women with severe preeclampsia that had received 4 grams loading dose followed by 1 gram per hour for 8 hours maintenance dose prior to delivery. METHODS: 1113 women were randomized...
June 7, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
C Volling, B L Coleman, K Katz, A E Simor, M Muller, J Powis, J McElhaney, A McGeer
OBJECTIVES: To compare immunogenicity, reactogenicity and acceptability of high- and standard-dose trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (HDTIV, SDTIV) in 18-64 year olds. METHODS: We randomized 18-64-year-olds to HDTIV or SDTIV in two consecutive years. We collected serum on Days 0 and 21, measured hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titers, and compared seroconversion, Day 21 titers, seroprotection, reactogenicity, acceptability. RESULTS: Immunogenicity was evaluable in 42 of 47 2014 participants, all 33 both year participants, and 87 of 90 2015-only participants...
May 18, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Pierrick Bourrat
In this paper I critically evaluate Reisman and Forber's (Philos Sci 72(5):1113-1123, 2005) arguments that drift and natural selection are population-level causes of evolution based on what they call the manipulation condition. Although I agree that this condition is an important step for identifying causes for evolutionary change, it is insufficient. Following Woodward, I argue that the invariance of a relationship is another crucial parameter to take into consideration for causal explanations. Starting from Reisman and Forber's example on drift and after having briefly presented the criterion of invariance, I show that once both the manipulation condition and the criterion of invariance are taken into account, drift, in this example, should better be understood as an individual-level rather than a population-level cause...
May 14, 2018: Acta Biotheoretica
Martin P Than, Sally J Aldous, Richard W Troughton, Christopher J Pemberton, A Mark Richards, Christopher M A Frampton, Christopher M Florkowski, Peter M George, Samantha Bailey, Joanna M Young, Louise Cullen, Jaimi H Greenslade, William A Parsonage, Brendan M Everett, W Frank Peacock, Allan S Jaffe, John W Pickering
BACKGROUND: Increased cardiac troponin I or T detected by high-sensitivity assays (hs-cTnI or hs-cTnT) confers an increased risk of adverse prognosis. We determined whether patients presenting with putatively normal, detectable cTn concentrations [> limit of detection and < upper reference limit (URL)] have increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) or all-cause mortality. METHODS: A prospective 5-year follow-up of patients recruited in the emergency department with possible acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and cTn concentrations measured with hs-cTnI (Abbott) and hs-cTnT (Roche) assays...
May 14, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
Ziyan Wang, Baozhen Sun, Fei Zhu
Glutaminyl-peptide cyclotransferase (QPCT) catalyzes the posttranslational modification of an N-terminal glutamate of proteins to pyroglutamate. This renders the protein more resistant to protease degradation, more susceptible to hydrophobic interactions, aggregation, and neurotoxic. In this study, we evaluated the influence of QPCT in the crab Scylla paramamosain infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or with Vibrio alginolyticus. A cDNA clone, encompassing the entire 2445 bp of the S. paramamosain QPCT gene, containing a 1113 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 370 amino acid protein was cloned from S...
April 27, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Mario Gaudino, Natalia Ivascu, Melissa Cushing, Christopher Lau, Ivancarmine Gambardella, Antonino Di Franco, Lucas B Ohmes, Monica Munjal, Leonard N Girardi
Background: The optimal technique for brain perfusion during circulatory arrest remains controversial. Concern exists that retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) via the superior vena cava (SVC) is unable to perfuse the brain. We evaluated whether RCP blood circulates through the brain parenchyma in humans during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). We hypothesized that a significant difference in the levels of S-100β (a protein with very high neuro-sensitivity) between the blood infused in the SVC and the effluent blood returning in the left carotid artery (CA) during RCP, should be regarded as a sign of the circulation of RCP blood through the brain parenchyma...
March 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Calvin J Rushing, Gabriel P Galan, Roman Ivankiv, Adam J Oxios, Viraj R Rathnayake, Madelin C Ramil, Fredric Chussid, Steven M Spinner
The American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS) annual conference has served as a premiere platform to disseminate the latest innovations and research in the field of foot and ankle surgery. The quality of national society conferences is often assessed indirectly by analyzing the the journal publication rate of the abstracts presented. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the journal publication rate for abstracts (oral manuscripts and posters) accepted for presentation at the ACFAS conference from 2010 to 2014...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Thomas R Daugaard, Hans-Christian Pommergaard, Andreas A Rostved, Allan Rasmussen
BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation is major surgery with a high risk of complications. Existing scoring systems for evaluating complications after surgery are not specific for liver transplantation. Nor are they designed to evaluate the relation to recipient survival or graft loss. We wished to uncover the relation between postoperative complications and one-year risk of death or retransplantation, and to develop a prognostic score for complications based on our findings. METHOD: The study was a retrospective cohort study including 253 adult liver recipients...
April 25, 2018: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
Michael C Dewan, Abbas Rattani, Saksham Gupta, Ronnie E Baticulon, Ya-Ching Hung, Maria Punchak, Amit Agrawal, Amos O Adeleye, Mark G Shrime, Andrés M Rubiano, Jeffrey V Rosenfeld, Kee B Park
OBJECTIVE Traumatic brain injury (TBI)-the "silent epidemic"-contributes to worldwide death and disability more than any other traumatic insult. Yet, TBI incidence and distribution across regions and socioeconomic divides remain unknown. In an effort to promote advocacy, understanding, and targeted intervention, the authors sought to quantify the case burden of TBI across World Health Organization (WHO) regions and World Bank (WB) income groups. METHODS Open-source epidemiological data on road traffic injuries (RTIs) were used to model the incidence of TBI using literature-derived ratios...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Asli Akyol, Aylin Ayaz, Elif Inan-Eroglu, Cansu Cetin, Gulhan Samur
BACKGROUND: Plate colour was previously shown to alter the amount of food consumption due to its environmental effect on food intake. However, different studies have indicated that the effect of plate colour cannot be generalized. In light of this finding, the main objective of this study was to determine whether food consumption during an open buffet meal was different when using same-sized white, red or black plates. METHODS: This study was a crossover study conducted with 54 female participants aged 18-30 years with normal BMIs...
April 21, 2018: Nutrition Journal
C Yu, M J Sheriff, A C C Ng, S Brazete, J Gullick, D B Brieger, L Kritharides, H C Lowe
Chest pain is the second most common presenting symptom to emergency departments (ED) in Australia, although up to 85% of these patients do not have an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Cardiologist-led rapid access chest pain clinics (RACPC) have been proposed overseas to assist in the management of such patients, with prompt outpatient assessment if patients are deemed low risk and discharged from the ED. The use of RACPCs in Australia has been only recently proposed; we therefore sought to examine one such RACPC in an Australian context...
December 11, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Jose Lopez-Lopez, Jennifer Garay, Edwin Wandurraga, Paul A Camacho, Fernando Higuera-Escalante, Daniel Cohen, Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
INTRODUCTION: Guidelines recommend early detection of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the capacity to identify DM2 in subjects that were screened for DM2 simultaneously with all three of the tests recommended-fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and a 2-hour post 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). METHODS AND RESULTS: The present analysis of an anonymous database of 1113 adults from a reference clinical laboratory in Bucaramanga, Colombia, was an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional secondary source study...
2018: PloS One
Stephen T Magill, Jacob S Young, Ricky Chae, Manish K Aghi, Philip V Theodosopoulos, Michael W McDermott
OBJECTIVE Prior studies have investigated preoperative risk factors for meningioma; however, no association has been shown between meningioma tumor size and tumor grade. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between tumor size and grade in a large single-center study of patients undergoing meningioma resection. METHODS A retrospective chart review of patients undergoing meningioma resection at the University of California, San Francisco, between 1985 and 2015 was performed. Patients with incomplete information, spinal meningiomas, multiple meningiomas, or WHO grade III meningiomas were excluded...
April 2018: Neurosurgical Focus
Anosheh Afghahi, Natasha Purington, Summer S Han, Manisha Desai, Emma Pierson, Maya B Mathur, Tina Seto, Caroline A Thompson, Joseph Rigdon, Melinda L Telli, Sunil S Badve, Christina N Curtis, Robert B West, Kathleen Horst, Scarlett L Gomez, James M Ford, George W Sledge, Allison W Kurian
Purpose: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in pretreatment biopsies are associated with improved survival in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We investigated whether higher peripheral lymphocyte counts are associated with lower breast cancer-specific mortality (BCM) and overall mortality (OM) in TNBC. Experimental Design: Data on treatments and diagnostic tests from electronic medical records of two health care systems were linked with demographic, clinical, pathologic, and mortality data from the California Cancer Registry...
March 26, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
K M Appleton, H Tuorila, E J Bertenshaw, C de Graaf, D J Mela
Background: There are consistent, evidence-based global public health recommendations to reduce intakes of free sugars. However, the corresponding evidence for recommending reduced exposure to sweetness is less clear. Objective: Our aim was to identify and review the published evidence investigating the impact of dietary exposure to sweet-tasting foods or beverages on the subsequent generalized acceptance, preference, or choice of sweet foods and beverages in the diet...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Sarbast K Kheravii, Robert A Swick, Mingan Choct, Shu-Biao Wu
BACKGROUND: Measures to improve bird performance have been sought due to the imminent phase out of in-feed antibiotics in poultry and continued demand for higher poultry feeding efficiency. Increasing grain particle size and dietary fibre may improve gizzard function, digestive efficiency and nutrient absorption. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect increased particle size of corn and inclusion of sugarcane bagasse (SB) on mRNA expression of genes encoding digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters in broilers...
March 20, 2018: BMC Genomics
Ling Sun, Xuejun Zhou, Jianguang Jiang, Xuan Zang, Xin Chen, Haiyan Li, Haitao Cao, Qingjie Wang
BACKGROUND: Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is an emerging biomarker for risk stratification in cardiovascular disease. Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important complication in patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In this retrospectively observational study, we aimed to determine the role of GDF-15 and the risk of AKI in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. METHODS: The medical records of 1195 patients with AMI were reviewed...
2018: PloS One
Adam D Lewis, Ruth E Hogg, Manju Chandran, Lillian Musonda, Lorraine North, Usha Chakravarthy, Sobha Sivaprasad, Geeta Menon
AIMS: A paucity of literature exists on prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in sub-Saharan Africa. We aim to estimate the prevalence of DR and visual impairment in Zambia's Copperbelt province through a cross-sectional study. METHODS: All patients with a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus attending a DR screening programme were eligible to participate. Fundus photographs were graded in accordance with the DR grading system used in the UK National Health service (NHS)...
March 5, 2018: Eye
Hanna Carlsson, Christina Ekerfelt, Anna J Henningsson, Lars Brudin, Ivar Tjernberg
BACKGROUND: Determinants of a subclinical course of Lyme borreliosis (LB) remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the extent, sex and age profiles of subclinical Borrelia seroconversion in a LB endemic area in Sweden and to map blood cellular Borrelia-specific immune marker patterns in individuals with a previous subclinical LB course compared with patients previously diagnosed with Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB). METHODS: A large group of 1113 healthy blood donors was screened for multiple IgG anti-Borrelia antibodies and asked to complete a health inquiry regarding previous LB...
March 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
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