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Andrew Loftus, Harvey Pynn, Paul Parker
Terrorist acts occur every day around the world. Healthcare professionals are often present as bystander survivors in these situations, with none of the equipment or infrastructure they rely on in their day-to-day practice. Within several countries there has been a move to disseminate the actions to take in the event of such attacks: in the UK, Run, Hide, Tell , and in the USA, Fight Back This paper outlines how a very basic medical knowledge combined with everyday high-street items can render highly effective first aid and save lives...
June 15, 2018: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Anna Banasiak, John Cassidy, John Colleran
To date, DNA cleavage, caused by cleavage agents, has been monitored mainly by gel and capillary electrophoresis. However, these techniques are time-consuming, non-quantitative and require gel stains. In this work, a novel, simple and, importantly, a quantitative method for monitoring the DNA nuclease activity of potential anti-cancer drugs, at a DNA electrochemical sensor, is presented. The DNA sensors were prepared using thiol-modified oligonucleotides that self-assembled to create a DNA monolayer at gold electrode surfaces...
June 1, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Andrea Calvo-Echenique, José Cegoñino, Raúl Chueca, Amaya Pérez-Del Palomar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Spinal degeneration and instability are commonly treated with interbody fusion cages either alone or supplemented with posterior instrumentation with the aim to immobilise the segment and restore intervertebral height. The purpose of this work is to establish a tool which may help to understand the effects of intervertebral cage design and placement on the biomechanical response of a patient-specific model to help reducing post-surgical complications such as subsidence and segment instability...
August 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Brigitte Roy, Cécile Philippe, Martin J Loessner, Jacques Goulet, Sylvain Moineau
Applications for bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents are increasing. The industrial use of these bacterial viruses requires the production of large amounts of suitable strictly lytic phages, particularly for food and agricultural applications. This work describes a new approach for phage production. Phages H387 ( Siphoviridae ) and A511 ( Myoviridae ) were propagated separately using Listeria ivanovii host cells immobilised in alginate beads. The same batch of alginate beads could be used for four successive and efficient phage productions...
June 13, 2018: Viruses
Nurul Hazirah Mukhtar, Nor Akma Mamat, Hong Heng See
A sample pre-treatment method based on a dynamic mixed matrix membrane tip extraction followed by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection (CE-C4 D) was evaluated for the determination of tobramycin in human plasma. The extraction tip device consisted of a cellulose triacetate membrane tip wall immobilised with 15% (w/w) of hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB) nanoparticles as adsorbent. The extraction was performed dynamically by withdrawing/dispensing the plasma sample through the tip device followed by desorption into 20 μL of acidified aqueous solution at pH 3 prior to the CE-C4 D analysis...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Jared K Raynes, Laura J Domigan, F Grant Pearce, Juliet A Gerrard
Tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease is widely used for the removal of poly-histidine affinity tags from proteins. In solution, it is a one-time use enzyme for tag cleavage that has low stability, and is therefore a good candidate for immobilisation. Amyloid fibrils can act as a versatile nanoscaffold by providing a large surface area for biomolecule immobilisation. Immobilisation of TEV protease to amyloid fibrils grown from the surface of a small glass bead, using physisorption, successfully immobilised active TEV protease...
June 7, 2018: Biotechnology Progress
Md Rakibul Hasan, Thiruchelvi Pulingam, Jimmy Nelson Appaturi, Anis Nadyra Zifruddin, Swe Jyan Teh, Teck Wei Lim, Fatimah Ibrahim, Bey Fen Leo, Kwai Lin Thong
In this study, an amino-modified aptasensor using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-deposited ITO electrode was prepared and evaluated for the detection of pathogenic Salmonella bacteria. An amino-modified aptamer (ssDNA) which binds selectively to whole-cell Salmonella was immobilised on the COOH-rich MWCNTs to produce the ssDNA/MWCNT/ITO electrode. The morphology of the MWCNT before and after interaction with the aptamers were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques were used to investigate the electrochemical properties and conductivity of the aptasensor...
June 2, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Jake Zondagh, Alison Williams, Ikechukwu Achilonu, Heini W Dirr, Yasien Sayed
In recent years, various strategies have been used to overexpress and purify HIV-1 protease because it is an essential drug target in anti-retroviral therapy. Obtaining sufficient quantities of the enzyme, however, remains challenging. Overexpression of large quantities is prevented due to the enzyme's autolytic nature and its inherent cytotoxicity in Escherichia coli cells. Here, we describe a novel HIV-1 protease purification method using a thioredoxin-hexahistidine fusion system for the wild-type and two variant proteases...
June 4, 2018: Protein Journal
Lifu Chen, Chuhong Lin, Richard G Compton
Nafion particles doped with methyl viologen are shown to be electrocatalytic towards oxygen reduction in aqueous solution when immobilised on a carbon electrode surface, with the formation of hydrogen peroxide. In this way an efficient homogeneous electron transfer mediator, methyl viologen, can be confined to act heterogeneously with the benefits of that type of process without losing effectiveness. Kinetic and mechanistic parameters are deduced from cyclic voltammetry and from single entity nano-impact experiments, and the process is shown to occur via electron transfer to dioxygen at the Nafion particle-solution interface with the initial formation of superoxide...
May 30, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
L Prati, A Villa, A Jouve, A Beck, C Evangelisti, A Savara
Bimetallic gold based catalysts have been prepared using a sol immobilisation technique. Despite a very similar metal dispersion, different structures are revealed depending on the second metal, with alloyed systems being preferred in the case of Pd, Pt and Cu, and core-shell in the case of Ru. A positive synergistic effect between the metals has been revealed only in the cases of Pd and Cu in the oxidation of benzyl alcohol. AuPd/C has been also studied in the hydrogenation of benzaldehyde where the bimetallic catalyst revealed a different selectivity compared to the monometallic counterpart...
May 29, 2018: Faraday Discussions
Lucas Azzolin, Audrey Angelliaume, Luke Harper, Abdelfettah Lalioui, Anaïs Delgove, Yan Lefèvre
BACKGROUND: Supracondylar humeral fractures (SCHFs) are very common in paediatric patients. In France, percutaneous fixation with two lateral-entry pins is widely used after successful closed reduction. Post-operative immobilisation is typically with a long arm cast combined with a tubular-bandage sling that immobilises the shoulder and holds the arm in adduction and internal rotation to prevent external rotation of the shoulder, which might cause secondary displacement. The objective of this study was to compare this standard immobilisation technique to a posterior plaster splint with a simple sling...
May 25, 2018: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
Panuvat Chutichetpong, Nopchulee Cheeveewattanagul, Prapaporn Srilohasin, Patsamon Rijiravanich, Angkana Chaiprasert, Werasak Surareungchai
Drug susceptibility testing (DST) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis currently faces multiple challenges, including lengthy ineffective standard methods, the expensive cost of molecular tests, and large bulky diagnostic machines. In this work, a disposable MPT64 sensor was developed to rapidly determine drug susceptibility (DS-TB) and multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) using an electrochemical sandwich-immunosensor for the detection of MPT64 as an indicator of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth. Anti-MPT64 (as capture antibody; cAb) was immobilised on screen printed carbon electrodes to specifically bind with MPT64 target protein...
September 26, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Julia Ann-Therease Walker, Kye J Robinson, Christopher Munro, Thomas Gengenbach, David A Muller, Paul R Young, Linda Hl Lua, Simon Robert Corrie
Development of anti-fouling films which selectively capture or target proteins of interest is essential for controlling interactions at the "bio/nano" interface. However, in order to synthesise bio-functional films from synthetic polymers that incorporate chemical "motifs" for surface immobilization, anti-fouling, and oriented biomolecule attachment, multiple reaction steps need to be carried out at the solid/liquid interface. EKx is a zwitterionic peptide that has previously been shown to have excellent anti-fouling properties...
May 25, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Kirsten Strudwick, Megan McPhee, Anthony Bell, Melinda Martin-Khan, Trevor Russell
Acute hand and wrist injuries are a common presentation to the ED and are associated with large individual and societal costs. Appropriate management of these injuries in the ED is crucial given that optimal hand function is essential for daily activities and quality of life. This rapid review investigated best practice for the assessment and management of common closed hand and wrist injuries in the ED. Databases were searched in 2017, including PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, TRIP and the grey literature, including relevant organisational websites...
May 24, 2018: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
Alexander G R Howe, Peter J Miedziak, David J Morgan, Qian He, Peter Strasser, Jennifer K Edwards
A series of 1 wt% supported Au, Pd and AuPd nanoalloy catalysts were prepared via microwave assisted reduction of PdCl2 and HAuCl4 in a facile, one pot process. The resulting materials showed excellent activity for the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide from hydrogen and oxygen, with a synergistic effect observed on the addition of Au into a Pd catalyst. Detailed electron microscopy showed that the bimetallic particles exhibited a core-shell morphology, with an Au core surrounded by an Au-Pd shell, with a size between 10-20 nm...
May 25, 2018: Faraday Discussions
Scott M Rogers, C Richard A Catlow, Diego Gianolio, Peter P Wells, Nikolaos Dimitratos
The use of sol-immobilisation to prepare supported metal nanoparticles is an area of growing importance in heterogeneous catalysis; it affords greater control of nanoparticle properties compared to conventional catalytic routes e.g. impregnation. This work, and other recent studies, demonstrate how the properties of the resultant supported metal nanoparticles can be tailored by adjusting the conditions of colloidal synthesis i.e. temperature and solvent. We further demonstrate the applicability of these methods to the hydrogenation of nitrophenols using a series of tailored Pd/TiO2 catalysts, with low Pd loading of 0...
May 24, 2018: Faraday Discussions
Mayreli Ortiz, Ahmed Mehdi, Christophe Methivier, Serge Thorimbert, Bernold Hasenknopf, Ciara K O'Sullivan
Self-assembled monolayers formed by chemisorption of thiolated molecules on gold surfaces are widely applied for biosensing. Moreover, and due to the low stability of thiol-gold chemistry, contributions to the functionalisation of gold substrates with linkers that provide a more stable platform for the immobilisation of electroactive or biological molecules are highly appreciated. In the work reported here, we demonstrate that a carboxylated organotin compound can be successfully grafted onto gold substrates to form a highly stable organic layer with reactivity for subsequent binding to an aminated molecule...
May 21, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Maria de Fátima Alves, Ricardo Augusto Moreira de Souza Corrêa, Filipe Soares da Cruz, Diego Leoni Franco, Lucas Franco Ferreira
This paper reports the electrosynthesis and characterisation of a polymeric film derived from 2-hydroxybenzamide over a graphite electrode and its application as an enzymatic biosensor for the determination and quantification of the pesticide fenitrothion. The material was analysed by scanning electron microscopy and its electrochemical properties characterised by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The enzyme tyrosinase was immobilised over the modified electrode by the drop and dry technique...
May 16, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Lee I Garner, Andrew Hartland, Johannes Breuning, Marion H Brown
CD6 is a type I T cell surface receptor which modulates antigen receptor signalling. Its activity is regulated by binding of its membrane proximal domain (domain 3) to a cell surface ligand, CD166. CD6 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for the membrane distal domain (domain 1) perturb CD6 function including itolizumab (Alzumab™ ) which has reached the clinic for treatment of autoimmune disease. We characterised molecular and functional properties of several CD6 mAbs including itolizumab to define potential mechanisms of action...
May 17, 2018: Immunology
Roger A Sheldon, Dean Brady
In the period 1985 to 1995 applications of biocatalysis, driven by the need for more sustainable manufacture of chemicals and catalytic, (enantio)selective methods for the synthesis of pharmaceutical intermediates, largely involved the available hydrolases. This was followed, in the next two decades, by revolutionary developments in protein engineering and directed evolution for the optimisation of enzyme function and performance that totally changed the biocatalysis landscape. In the same period, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology revolutionised the use of whole cell biocatalysis in the synthesis of commodity chemicals by fermentation...
May 17, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
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