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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817445/the-safety-of-pembrolizumab-in-metastatic-melanoma-and-rheumatoid-arthritis
#1
Akshjot Puri, Jade Homsi
Immunotherapy has been in use for the treatment of melanoma since a very long time, but only recently have the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) antibody ipilimumab and programmed cell death-1 inhibitors such as nivolimumab and pembrolizumab been shown to induce marked improvements in survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. An important concern arises in terms of the safety of the use of these agents in patients with autoimmune diseases, solid organ transplant recipients on immunosuppression, patients with a history of previous hepatitis B or C, and patients with HIV infections as these patients were excluded from pivotal immunotherapy studies...
August 16, 2017: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815897/multidrug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-three-major-threats-to-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#2
REVIEW
Michael J Satlin, Thomas J Walsh
Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are uniquely threatened by the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria because these patients rely on immediate active antimicrobial therapy to combat bacterial infections. This review describes the epidemiology and treatment considerations for three challenging MDR bacterial pathogens in HSCT recipients: MDR Enterobacteriaceae, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE)...
August 16, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815419/effect-of-sertraline-on-complications-and-survival-after-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-study
#3
Maria Tavakoli-Ardakani, Raziyeh Kheshti, Mehrpooya Maryam
Previous studies have found a connection between psychiatric problems and post-hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) complications. We sought to evaluate the effect of sertraline on engraftment time, hospitalization period, mortality, and post-transplantation complications in HSCT recipients with depression and/or anxiety. We recruited adults aged 18-60, who were candidates for autologous or allogeneic HSCT with major depression and/or anxiety disorder. They were administered 50 mg of sertraline or placebo daily for the first week, and then 100 mg for the following seven weeks...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815344/long-term-survival-after-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-complete-stat1-deficiency
#4
Samuele Naviglio, Elena Soncini, Donatella Vairo, Arnalda Lanfranchi, Raffaele Badolato, Fulvio Porta
PURPOSE: Complete signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by impairment of intracellular signaling from both type I and type II interferons (IFN). Affected patients are prone to early severe mycobacterial and viral infections, which usually result in death before 18 months of age. We previously reported a patient affected by complete STAT1 deficiency who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815213/identification-of-rab18-as-an-essential-host-factor-for-bk-polyomavirus-infection-using-a-whole-genome-rna-interference-screen
#5
Linbo Zhao, Michael J Imperiale
BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) is a human pathogen first isolated in 1971. BKPyV infection is ubiquitous in the human population, with over 80% of adults worldwide being seropositive for BKPyV. BKPyV infection is usually asymptomatic; however, BKPyV reactivation in immunosuppressed transplant patients causes two diseases, polyomavirus-associated nephropathy and hemorrhagic cystitis. To establish a successful infection in host cells, BKPyV must travel in retrograde transport vesicles to reach the nucleus. To make this happen, BKPyV requires the cooperation of host cell proteins...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814517/zinc-salts-block-hepatitis-e-virus-replication-by-inhibiting-the-activity-of-viral-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase
#6
Nidhi Kaushik, Chandru Subramani, Saumya Anang, Rajagopalan Muthumohan, Shalimar, Baibaswata Nayak, C T Ranjith-Kumar, Milan Surjit
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes an acute, self limiting hepatitis in normal individuals and leads to chronic disease in immunocompromised individuals. HEV infection in pregnant women results in a more severe outcome, with the mortality rate going upto 30%. Though the virus usually causes sporadic infection, epidemics have been reported in developing and resource starved countries. No specific anti-viral exists against HEV. A combination of interferon and ribavirin therapy has been used to control the disease with some success...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814217/faecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-em-clostridium-difficile-em-infection-a-multicentre-study-of-non-responders
#7
Roshan Razik, Majdi Osman, Alexandra Lieberman, Jessica R Allegretti, Zain Kassam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 21, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812869/entry-inhibitors-a-perspective-for-prevention-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-organ-transplantation
#8
Che C Colpitts, Raymond T Chung, Thomas F Baumert
Entry inhibitors are emerging as an attractive class of therapeutics for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Entry inhibitors target either virion-associated factors or cellular factors necessary for infection. By blocking entry into cells, entry inhibitors prevent both the establishment of persistent reservoirs and the emergence of resistant variants during viral replication. Furthermore, entry inhibitors protect naïve cells from virus-induced alterations. Combining entry inhibitors with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) may therefore improve treatment outcomes, particularly in the context of organ transplantation...
August 16, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811815/hepatosplenic-mucormycosis-post-autologous-stem-cell-transplant
#9
Samia Yasmeen, Omer Waqas, Javeria Munir, Faisal Sultan, Abdul Hameed
Mucormycosis is a life threatening fungal infection and remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplant. We report here a case of hepatosplenic mucormycosis in a patient after autologous stem cell transplant. A young man with anaplastic large cell lymphoma underwent autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant after achieving complete remission with standard chemotherapy and consolidative radiotherapy. He was found to have incidental hepatosplenic hypodensities on follow up imaging, that were proved to be mucormycosis on histopathology after getting CT-guided biopsy of splenic lesions...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811074/management-of-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacilli-infections-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-set-gesitra-seimc-reipi-recommendations
#10
REVIEW
J M Aguado, J T Silva, M Fernández-Ruiz, E Cordero, J Fortún, C Gudiol, L Martínez-Martínez, E Vidal, L Almenar, B Almirante, R Cantón, J Carratalá, J J Caston, E Cercenado, C Cervera, J M Cisneros, M G Crespo-Leiro, V Cuervas-Mons, J Elizalde-Fernández, M C Fariñas, J Gavaldà, M J Goyanes, B Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, D Hernández, O Len, R López-Andujar, F López-Medrano, P Martín-Dávila, M Montejo, A Moreno, A Oliver, A Pascual, E Pérez-Nadales, A Román-Broto, R San-Juan, D Serón, A Solé-Jover, M Valerio, P Muñoz, J Torre-Cisneros
Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are especially at risk of developing infections by multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB), as they are frequently exposed to antibiotics and the healthcare setting, and are regulary subject to invasive procedures. Nevertheless, no recommendations concerning prevention and treatment are available. A panel of experts revised the available evidence; this document summarizes their recommendations: (1) it is important to characterize the isolate's phenotypic and genotypic resistance profile; (2) overall, donor colonization should not constitute a contraindication to transplantation, although active infected kidney and lung grafts should be avoided; (3) recipient colonization is associated with an increased risk of infection, but is not a contraindication to transplantation; (4) different surgical prophylaxis regimens are not recommended for patients colonized with carbapenem-resistant GNB; (5) timely detection of carriers, contact isolation precautions, hand hygiene compliance and antibiotic control policies are important preventive measures; (6) there is not sufficient data to recommend intestinal decolonization; (7) colonized lung transplant recipients could benefit from prophylactic inhaled antibiotics, specially for Pseudomonas aeruginosa; (8) colonized SOT recipients should receive an empirical treatment which includes active antibiotics, and directed therapy should be adjusted according to susceptibility study results and the severity of the infection...
July 26, 2017: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810564/clinical-efficacy-of-conjunctival-flap-surgery-in-the-treatment-of-refractory-fungal-keratitis
#11
Honorine Nizeyimana, Dan-Dan Zhou, Xiu-Fen Liu, Xiao-Tao Pan, Cong Liu, Cheng-Wei Lu, Ji-Long Hao
The aim of the present study was to investigate the use and effectiveness of a selective, partial, pedunculated (tongue-shaped) conjunctival flap (CF) for the treatment of refractory fungal keratitis (FK) with or without perforation. A total of 31 cases of corneal diseases treated by CF surgery between April 2014 and October 2015 were evaluated. Among the 31 cases, 16 cases (male:female, 11:5) with FK were selected. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate factors associated with complications of CF surgery...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809730/transplanting-kidney-allografts-from-hepatitis-c-infected-donors-into-hepatitis-c-uninfected-recipients-re-thinking-the-thinker-trial
#12
Eric M Yoshida, Trana Hussaini
In the not so distant past, organs from hepatitis C infected donors were either discarded or rarely transplanted into HCV viremic recipients - but never allocated to non-infected patients. However, the simplicity, ease and unprecedented success rates of HCV direct acting antiviral regimens has raised the possibility of utilizing such organs in an attempt to expand the donor pool. The thinker trial reports the first of such attempts. However, caution must be exercised prior to the widespread adoption of such strategy...
August 8, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808676/efficacy-and-safety-of-doubly-regulated-vaccinia-virus-in-a-mouse-xenograft-model-of-multiple-myeloma
#13
Muneyoshi Futami, Kota Sato, Kanji Miyazaki, Kenshi Suzuki, Takafumi Nakamura, Arinobu Tojo
Multiple myeloma is a malignancy of plasma cells of the bone marrow. Although the prognosis is variable, no curative therapy has been defined. Vaccinia virus infects cancer cells and kills such cells in a variety of ways. These include direct infection, triggering of immunomediated cell death, and vascular collapse. The potential of the vaccinia virus as an anti-tumor therapy has attracted the attention of oncologists. Interestingly, our preliminary experiments revealed that myeloma cells were particularly susceptible to vaccinia virus...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807916/inhibition-of-calcineurin-or-impdh-exerts-moderate-to-potent-antiviral-activity-against-norovirus-replication
#14
Wen Dang, Yuebang Yin, Yijin Wang, Wenshi Wang, Junhong Su, Dave Sprengers, Luc J W van der Laan, Krzysztof Felczak, Krzysztof W Pankiewicz, Kyeong-Ok Chang, Marion P G Koopmans, Herold J Metselaar, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Qiuwei Pan
Norovirus is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide and has emerged as an important issue of chronic infection in transplantation patients. Since no approved antiviral is available, we evaluated the effects of different immunosuppressants and ribavirin on norovirus and explored their mechanism-of-actions by using a human norovirus (HuNV) replicon-harboring model and a surrogate murine norovirus (MNV) infectious model. Roles of corresponding drug targets were investigated by gain- or loss-of-function approaches...
August 14, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807769/reduced-intensity-haploidentical-bone-marrow-transplantation-with-post-transplant-cyclophosphamide-for-solid-tumors-in-pediatric-and-young-adult-patients
#15
Nicolas J Llosa, Kenneth R Cooke, Allen Chen, Christopher Gamper, Orly Klein, Elias Zambidis, Brandon Luber, Gary Rosner, Nicholas Siegel, Mary Jo Holuba, Nancy Robey, Masanori Hayashi, Richard J Jones, Ephraim Fuchs, Matthias Holdhoff, David M Loeb, Heather J Symons
High risk, recurrent, or refractory solid tumors in pediatric, adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients have an extremely poor prognosis despite current intensive treatment regimens. We piloted an allogeneic bone marrow transplant (alloBMT) platform using a reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) and partially HLA-mismatched (haploidentical) related donors for this population of pediatric and AYA solid tumor patients. Sixteen patients received a fludarabine, cyclophosphamide (Cy), melphalan and low dose total body irradiation (TBI) RIC haploidentical BMT (haploBMT) followed by post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and sirolimus...
August 11, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807767/a-new-clinico-biological-scoring-system-for-the-prediction-of-infection-related-mortality-and-survival-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#16
Alessandra Forcina, Paola M V Rancoita, Magda Marcatti, Raffaella Greco, Maria Teresa Lupo-Stanghellini, Matteo Carrabba, Vincenzo Marasco, Clelia Di Serio, Massimo Bernardi, Jacopo Peccatori, Consuelo Corti, Attilio Bondanza, Fabio Ciceri
Infection-related mortality (IRM) accounts for a substantial component of non-relapse mortality (NRM) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). No scores have been developed to predict IRM before transplant. Pre-transplant clinical and biochemical data were collected in a study cohort of 607 adult patients receiving allo-HSCT from January 2009 to February 2017. In a training set of 273 patients, multivariate analysis revealed that age >60 years (P=0.003), CMV host/donor serostatus different from negative/negative (P<0...
August 11, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806949/case-report-of-ocular-kaposi-s-sarcoma
#17
Jing Yang, Xiao-Fang Yin, Yong-Ping Li, Shi-You Zhou
BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is generally considered a neoplastic disorder of vascular origin and occurs in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or who have received immunosuppressive treatments after an organ transplant (Soulier et al., Blood 86(4):1276-80, 1995; Viejo-Borbolla and Schulz, AIDS Rev 5(4):222-9, 2003; Schulz, J Antimicrob Chemother 45(Suppl T3):15-27, 2000; Aversa et al. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 53(3):253-65, 2005; Mbulaiteye and Engels, Int J Cancer 119(11):2685-91, 2006; Tessari et al...
August 14, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806468/an-overview-of-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#18
Ysabella M Esteban, Jill L O de Jong, Melissa S Tesher
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening syndrome characterized by a dysregulated hyperinflammatory response associated with aberrant activation of lymphocytes and macrophages that results in hypercytokinemia. It is classically divided into two types: (1) primary or familial HLH and (2) secondary HLH. Familial HLH is generally an autosomal recessive condition, whereas secondary HLH is usually associated with infectious diseases, autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases (where it is more commonly known as macrophage activation syndrome), malignancy, immunosuppression, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, organ transplantation, HIV infection, and metabolic diseases...
August 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805791/low-circulating-mannan-binding-lectin-levels-correlate-with-increased-frequency-and-severity-of-febrile-episodes-in-myeloma-patients-who-undergo-asct-and-do-not-receive-antibiotic-prophylaxis
#19
E Eleutherakis-Papaiakovou, M-A Dimopoulos, E Kastritis, D Christoulas, M Roussou, M Migkou, M Gavriatopoulou, D Fotiou, I Panagiotidis, D C Ziogas, N Kanellias, C Papadimitriou, E Terpos
Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) who undergo autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) are susceptible to severe infections. Low levels of circulating mannan-binding lectin (MBL) are associated with increased risk of infection. In this prospective study, we evaluated 100 patients who underwent ASCT regarding the effect of MBL on the incidence and severity of febrile episodes. Seventeen patients had MBL levels <500 ng/mL (11 received antibiotic prophylaxis and 6 did not). Although there was no statistical difference regarding the development of febrile episodes between patients with low and normal MBL, among 17 patients with low MBL levels, six out of eleven patients who received antibiotic prophylaxis developed a febrile episode compared with six out of six patients who did not receive antibiotic prophylaxis and developed a febrile episode...
August 14, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805774/-laparoscopic-assisted-harvesting-of-omental-flap-in-chest-wall-reconstruction-for-deep-sternal-wound-infection
#20
A A Pechetov, Yu S Esakov, M A Makov, D E Okonskaya, A V Basylyuk, T N Khlan
AIM: To present an experience of laparoscopic-assisted harvesting of omental flap in chest wall reconstruction for deep sternal wound infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: It was made a prospective analysis of 14 patients aged 39-85 years after laparoscopic-assisted harvesting of omental flap in chest wall reconstruction for the period December 2014 - November 2016. Men/women ratio was 10/4. All patients had deep sternal wound infection grade IV (Oakley-Wright classification)...
2017: Khirurgiia
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