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transthoracic ultrasound

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911009/echocardiographic-predictors-of-outcome-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#1
Ivan Stankovic, Robert Marcun, Aleksandra Janicijevic, Jerneja Farkas, Sasa Kadivec, Ivan Ilic, Aleksandar N Neskovic, Mitja Lainscak
BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the relationship between echocardiographic characteristics and mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: We prospectively studied 154 patients (mean age 71 ± 10 years, 71% male) with COPD. All patients underwent transthoracic Doppler echocardiography within 48 hours of hospital admission. Primary endpoint was all-cause mortality during a median period of 22 months. RESULTS: Mildly elevated tricuspid regurgitation pressure and mitral E/e' ratio were the most commonly encountered echocardiographic abnormalities, observed in 60% and 56% of patients, respectively...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907878/ultrasound-in-cardiac-trauma
#2
Theodosios Saranteas, Andreas F Mavrogenis, Christina Mandila, John Poularas, Fotios Panou
In the perioperative period, the emergency department or the intensive care unit accurate assessment of variable chest pain requires meticulous knowledge, diagnostic skills, and suitable usage of various diagnostic modalities. In addition, in polytrauma patients, cardiac injury including aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism, acute myocardial infarction, and pericardial effusion should be immediately revealed and treated. In these patients, arrhythmias, mainly tachycardia, cardiac murmurs, or hypotension must alert physicians to suspect cardiovascular trauma, which would potentially be life threatening...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906709/looking-closer-at-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-the-role-of-advanced-imaging-techniques
#3
Giacomo Bellani, Jean-Jaques Rouby, Jean-Michel Constantin, Antonio Pesenti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advanced imaging techniques have provided invaluable insights in understanding of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and the effect of therapeutic strategies, thanks to the possibility of gaining regional information and moving from simple 'anatomical' information to in-vivo functional imaging. RECENT FINDINGS: Computed tomography (CT) led to the understanding of several ARDS mechanisms and interaction with mechanical ventilation. It is nowadays frequently part of routine diagnostic workup, often leading to treatment changes...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870682/advances-in-interventional-oncology-lung-cancer
#4
Philip J Dempsey, Carole A Ridge, Stephen B Solomon
Image-guided lung intervention in the oncologic patient includes transthoracic needle biopsy, thermal ablation, fiducial placement, and tunneled pleural catheter placement and is made possible by technical advancements in computed tomography, fluoroscopy, and ultrasound technology, as well as the proliferation of available thermal ablation modalities such as radiofrequency, microwave, and cryoablation. With increasingly earlier cancer diagnoses being made and a greater patient demand for minimally invasive therapies, interventional oncology has many options to offer the patient with thoracic malignancies...
November 2016: Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832894/endobronchial-ultrasound-a-new-technique-of-pericardiocentesis-in-posterior-loculated-pericardial-effusion
#5
Rahul K Sharma, Arjun Khanna, Deepak Talwar
Diagnostic and therapeutic pericardiocentesis is traditionally carried out via the transthoracic route under ultrasound or echocardiographic guidance. Posteriorly located loculated pericardial effusion cannot be safely drained using the standard subxiphoid or apical, intercostal approach. In the presence of clinically significant loculated effusion or effusion requiring diagnostic pericardiocentesis where an echocardiographic approach is not feasible, patients are usually referred for surgery. We here present a novel minimally invasive endobronchial ultrasound-guided approach for the aspiration of posteriorly loculated pericardial effusion that may obviate the need for surgery and its related complications...
November 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810098/usefulness-of-hand-held-ultrasonography-as-a-gatekeeper-to-standard-echocardiography-for-rarely-appropriate-echocardiography-requests
#6
Faraz Pathan, Ricardo Fonseca, Thomas H Marwick
Adoption of appropriate use criteria has not had a major impact on the frequency of "rarely appropriate" tests, with the rarely appropriate tests rate remaining at ∼20% in most institutions. We sought whether access to hand-held ultrasound (HHU) could be an alternative means of reducing rarely appropriate requests. We compared 2 approaches to rarely appropriate requests; "standard transthoracic echocardiography" (SE) as requested (control) and HHU as a gatekeeper (HHU). Patients were followed up for 6 months and assessed for end points including time until scan, repeat echocardiography/cost of either strategy, new major pathology, and change in management...
November 15, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806099/plaque-vulnerability-as-assessed-by-radiofrequency-intravascular-ultrasound-in-patients-with-valvular-calcification
#7
Nagendra Boopathy Senguttuvan, Sharath Kumar, Wang-Soo Lee, Sundeep Mishra, Jun Hwan Cho, Jee Eun Kwon, Seong Hyeop Hyeon, Yun Sang Jeong, Hoyoun Won, Seung Yong Shin, Kwang Je Lee, Tae Ho Kim, Chee Jeong Kim, Sang-Wook Kim
BACKGROUND: Cardiac valvular calcification is associated with the overall coronary plaque burden and considered an independent cardiovascular risk and prognostic factor. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the presence of valvular calcification and plaque morphology and/or vulnerability. METHODS: Transthoracic echocardiography was used to assess valvular calcification in 280 patients with coronary artery disease who underwent radiofrequency intravascular ultrasound (Virtual Histology IVUS, VH-IVUS)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768664/bridging-the-gap-hybrid-cardiac-echo-in-the-critically-ill
#8
Jacob J Glaser, Cassandra Cardarelli, Samuel Galvagno, Thomas M Scalea, Sarah B Murthi
BACKGROUND: Point-of-care ultrasound often includes cardiac ultrasound. It is commonly used to evaluate cardiac function in critically ill patients but lacks the specific quantitative anatomic assessment afforded by standard transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). We developed the Focused Rapid Echocardiographic Examination (FREE), a hybrid between a cardiac ultrasound and TTE that places an emphasis on cardiac function rather than anatomy. We hypothesized that data obtained from FREE correlate well with TTE while providing actionable information for clinical decision making...
November 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766022/flooded-lung-generates-a-suitable-acoustic-pathway-for-transthoracic-application-of-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-in-liver
#9
Thomas Günther Lesser, Carsten Boltze, Harald Schubert, Frank Wolfram
Background: In recent years, high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has gained increasing clinical interest as a non-invasive method for local therapy of liver malignancies. HIFU treatment of tumours and metastases in the liver dome is limited due to the adjacent ultrasound blocking lung. One-lung flooding (OLF) enables complete sonography of lung and adjoining organs including liver. HIFU liver ablation passing through the flooded lung could enable a direct intercostal beam path and thus improve dose deposition in liver...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753105/dilemma-in-clinical-diagnosis-of-right-ventricular-masses
#10
Livija Sušić, Vedrana Baraban, Josip Vincelj, Lana Maričić, Jasmina Ćatić, Robert Blažeković, Spomenka Manojlović
Detection of an intracardiac mass always represents a clinical challenge. We present a 61-year-old female patient with symptoms of New York Heart Association class III. Two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography revealed a hypoechogenic mass in the cavity of the dilated right ventricle (RV). Cardiac MRI described a pathologic structure of the RV free wall with pedunculated tumor in its cavity. Three months later, on a repeated echocardiography, there were three individual masses. The patient underwent surgery and the pathohistologic report demonstrated thrombotic masses...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743728/transthoracic-ultrasound-elastography-in-pulmonary-lesions-and-diseases
#11
Chor-Kuan Lim, Che-Liang Chung, Yen-Ting Lin, Chia-Hao Chang, Yi-Chun Lai, Hao-Chien Wang, Chong-Jen Yu
Ultrasound elastography has shown promising result in the diagnosis of various diseases; however, its application for pulmonary diseases has yet to be clarified. This study aimed to assess the application and feasibility of ultrasound elastography in various pulmonary lesions and diseases. We enrolled 45 patients with radiographic evidence of pneumonia, tumors or obstructive pneumonitis, and 70 ultrasonic lesions were identified (eight necrosis, 17 atelectasis, seven consolidation and 38 tumors). Ultrasound elastography was performed and the strain ratio, which is the ratio of strain of the reference tissue to an equally measuring region of interest of a lesion, was measured...
October 12, 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714584/contemporary-management-of-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#12
Ajay Yadlapati, Mark Gajjar, Daniel R Schimmel, Mark J Ricciardi, James D Flaherty
ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), which constitutes nearly 25-40 % of current acute myocardial infarction (AMI) cases, is a medical emergency that requires prompt recognition and treatment. Since the 2013 STEMI practice guidelines, a wealth of additional data that may further advance optimal STEMI practices has emerged. These data highlight the importance of improving patient treatment and transport algorithms for STEMI from non-primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) centers. In addition, a focus on the reduction of total pain-to-balloon (P2B) times rather than simply door-to-balloon (D2B) times may further improve outcomes after primary PCI for STEMI...
October 6, 2016: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689155/point-of-care-clinical-ultrasound-for-medical-students
#13
J Heiberg, L S Hansen, K Wemmelund, A H Sørensen, C Ilkjaer, E Cloete, D Nolte, F Roodt, R Dyer, J Swanevelder, E Sloth
PURPOSE: Our institution has recently implemented a point-of-care (POC) ultrasound training program, consisting of an e-learning course and systematic practical hands-on training. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the learning outcome of this curriculum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 16 medical students with no previous ultrasound experience comprised the study group. The program covered a combination of 4 well-described point-of-care (POC) ultrasound protocols (focus assessed transthoracic echocardiography, focused assessment with sonography in trauma, lung ultrasound, and dynamic needle tip positioning for ultrasound-guided vascular access) and it consisted of an e-learning course followed by 4 h of practical hands-on training...
November 2015: Ultrasound International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681654/dynamic-left-ventricular-changes-in-patients-with-gestational-diabetes-a-speckle-tracking-echocardiography-study
#14
Srinidhi J Meera, Tomo Ando, Daniel Pu, Shivaprasad Manjappa, Cynthia C Taub
PURPOSE: The left ventricle (LV) undergoes physiologic remodeling in adaptation to the hemodynamic changes that occur in pregnancy. Speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is a novel and reliable tool to evaluate subtle myocardial alterations that have been utilized to assess myocardial changes in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) but not in patients with gestational DM (GDM). We seek to evaluate changes in LV function using STE in patients with GDM compared with women with normal pregnancy...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680806/e5-lung-ultrasound-and-echocardiography-for-peripartum-haemodynamic-monitoring-of-patients-with-severe-preeclampsia
#15
J Ambrozic, K Prokselj, M Lucovnik
INTRODUCTION: The ability to judge intravascular volume is fundamental in the management of patients with severe preeclampsia. Insufficient intravascular volume can result in decreased oxygen delivery to tissues and exacerbates organ dysfunction. On the other hand, fluid excesses can lead to fluid extravasation and pulmonary edema. Outside of pregnancy, transthoracic echocardiography and lung ultrasonography have become important diagnostic and monitoring tools in critically ill patients...
August 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651893/high-altitude-related-hypertensive-crisis-and-acute-kidney-injury-in-an-asymptomatic-healthy-individual
#16
Edward Gilbert-Kawai, Daniel Martin, Michael Grocott, Denny Levett
BACKGROUND: High-altitude exposure causes a mild to moderate rise in systolic and diastolic blood pressure. This case report describes the first documented case of a hypertensive crisis at altitude, as well as the first report of the occurrence of acute kidney injury in the context of altitude-related hypertension. CASE PRESENTATION: A healthy, previously normotensive 30-year old, embarked on a trek to Everest Base Camp (5300 m). During his 11-day ascent the subject developed increasingly worsening hypertension...
2016: Extreme Physiology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628295/current-clinical-applications-of-three-dimensional-echocardiography-when-the-technique-makes-the-difference
#17
REVIEW
Elena Surkova, Denisa Muraru, Patrizia Aruta, Gabriella Romeo, Jurate Bidviene, Diana Cherata, Luigi P Badano
Advances in ultrasound, computer, and electronics technology have permitted three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) to become a clinically viable imaging modality, with significant impact on patient diagnosis, management, and outcome. Thanks to the inception of a fully sampled matrix transducer for transthoracic and transesophageal probes, 3DE now offers much faster and easier data acquisition, immediate display of anatomy, and the possibility of online quantitative analysis of cardiac chambers and heart valves...
November 2016: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614691/a-potential-concomitance-of-papillary-fibroelastoma-in-the-case-with-cardiac-myxoma
#18
Tomohiro Takano, Takashi Kakuta, Shoichi Takahashi
An 84-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with a suspected cardiac tumor detected by transthoracic echocardiography performed as a preoperative examination of gastric cancer. In addition to a tumor in the left atrium, we found on cardiac ultrasound a 15-mm mobile tumor that adhered to the aortic valve. Gross findings and histological examination confirmed that the tumor in the left atrium was a cardiac myxoma, and that the tumor adhered to the aortic valve was a papillary fibroelastoma. We experienced a rare case where preoperative examination before gastrectomy accidentally revealed concomitant cardiac tumors...
September 10, 2016: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613385/assessment-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue-and-carotid-femoral-intima-media-thickness-in-insulin-resistance
#19
Cihan Altin, Leyla Elif Sade, Esin Gezmis, Mustafa Yilmaz, Necmi Ozen, Haldun Muderrisoglu
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is a combination of multiple cardiovascular (CV) risk factors including insulin resistance (IR). Carotid, femoral intima media thickness (IMT), and epicardial fat thickness (EFT) are considered as novel cardiometabolic risk factors. We aimed to test the hypothesis that carotid, femoral IMT, and EFT are increased in patients with IR. METHODS: We enrolled consecutively and prospectively 113 patients with IR. Then we collected data from an age- and sex-matched control group of 112 individuals without IR...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608416/acute-pulmonary-thromboembolism-in-emergency-room-gray-scale-versus-color-doppler-ultrasound-evaluation
#20
Maha Kamel Ghanem, Hoda Ahmed Makhlouf, Ali Abdel-Azeem Hasan, Ahmed Atef Alkarn
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) remains under-diagnosed fatal disease at emergency units suggesting the need for alternative, easy, and noninvasive bedside diagnostic approaches. OBJECTIVES: To determine the diagnostic role of gray-scale and color Doppler transthoracic ultasonography (TUS) in patients with PTE. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Blinded to 64 multi-detectors CT pulmonary angiography (MDCTPA) examination as a gold standard, 60 patients with clinically suspected PTE underwent gray-scale and then color Doppler TUS examination...
September 8, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
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