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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815257/sirt3-blocks-myofibroblast-differentiation-and-pulmonary-fibrosis-by-preventing-mitochondrial-dna-damage
#1
Samik Bindu, Vinodkumar B Pillai, Abhinav Kanwal, Sadhana Samant, Gokhan Mutlu, Eric Verdin, Nickolai O Dulin, Mahesh P Gupta
Myofibroblast differentiation is a key process in the pathogenesis of fibrotic diseases. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1) is a powerful inducer of myofibroblast differentiation and is implicated in pathogenensis of tissue fibrosis. This study was undertaken to determine the role of mitochondrial deacetylase, SIRT3 in TGF-β1-induced myofibroblast differentiqtion in vitro and lung fibrosis in vivo. Treatment of human lung fibroblasts with TGFβ1 resulted in increased expression of fibrosis markers, smooth muscle alpha-actin (α-SMA), collagen-1 and fibronectin...
November 4, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766053/new-horizon-in-platelet-function-with-special-reference-to-a-recently-found-molecule-clec-2
#2
Yukio Ozaki, Shogo Tamura, Katsue Suzuki-Inoue
Platelets play a key role in the pathophysiological processes of hemostasis and thrombus formation. However, platelet functions beyond thrombosis and hemostasis have been increasingly identified in recent years. A large body of evidence now exists which suggests that platelets also play a key role in inflammation, immunity, malignancy, and furthermore in organ development and regeneration, such as the liver. We have recently identified CLEC-2 on the platelet membrane, which induces intracellular activation signals upon interaction of a snake venom, rhodocytin...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699693/elemental-and-immunohistochemical-analysis-of-the-lungs-and-hilar-lymph-node-in-a-patient-with-asbestos-exposure-a-pilot-study
#3
Yasuhiko Koga, Takahiro Satoh, Kyoichi Kaira, Masashi Koka, Takeshi Hisada, Junko Hirato, Bolag Altan, Masakiyo Yatomi, Akihiro Ono, Yosuke Kamide, Yasuo Shimizu, Haruka Aoki-Saito, Hiroaki Tsurumaki, Kimihiro Shimizu, Akira Mogi, Tamotsu Ishizuka, Masanobu Yamada, Kunio Dobashi
OBJECTIVES: Studies have shown that inhaled mine dust, such as asbestos, can be translocated to various organs including the lymph nodes. Recently, we have established a protocol that enables us to identify inhaled elements using paraffin embedded lung specimens by in-air microparticle-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE). However, little research has examined the concentration of these inhaled fibers in various organs or the mechanisms of their translocation. In this study, we compared the concentration of inhaled fibers in the lung parenchyma to the concentration in the hilar lymph node as well as to determine the elemental spatial distribution of the inhaled fibers in a patient with occupational asbestos exposure...
November 2016: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698175/canine-mammary-minute-oncocytomas-with-neuroendocrine-differentiation-associated-with-multifocal-acinar-cell-oncocytic-metaplasia
#4
Rei Nagahara, Masayuki Kimura, Megu Itahashi, Go Sugahara, Masashi Kawashima, Hirotada Murayama, Toshinori Yoshida, Makoto Shibutani
Two solitary and minute tumors of 1 and 1.5 mm diameter were identified by microscopy in the left fourth mammary gland of a 13-year-old female Labrador Retriever dog, in addition to multiple mammary gland tumors. The former tumors were well circumscribed and were composed of small-to-large polyhedral neoplastic oncocytes with finely granular eosinophilic cytoplasm, and were arranged in solid nests separated by fine fibrovascular septa. Scattered lumina of variable sizes containing eosinophilic secretory material were evident...
November 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476938/protective-effect-of-ginsenoside-rg1-on-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-rats-involvement-of-caveolin-1-and-tgf-%C3%AE-1-signal-pathway
#5
Heqin Zhan, Feng Huang, Wenzhuo Ma, Zhenghang Zhao, Haifang Zhang, Chong Zhang
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease with poor prognosis and high mortality rate. Panax Notoginseng Saponins (PNS), extracted from Panax Notoginseng as a traditional Asian medicine, displayed a significant anti-fibrosis effect in liver and lung. However, whether Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), an important and active ingredient of PNS, exerts anti-fibrotic activity on IPF still remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of Rg1 on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Bleomycin (5 mg/kg body weight) was intratracheally administrated to male rats...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465365/herbal-composition-of-cinnamomum-cassia-pinus-densiflora-curcuma-longa-and-glycyrrhiza-glabra-prevents-atherosclerosis-by-upregulating-p27-kip1-expression
#6
Jung-Jin Lee, Ji-Hye Lee, Won-Kyung Cho, Joo-Hui Han, Jin Yeul Ma
BACKGROUND: Kiom-18 is a novel composition of Cinnamomum cassia, Pinus densiflora, Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra. Curcuma longa and Glycyrrhiza glabra, which are traditional medicines in Asia, have been reported to demonstrate preventive effects against atherosclerosis; however, they have not yet been developed into functional atherosclerosis treatments. We therefore studied the anti-atherosclerotic effects and possible molecular mechanisms of Kiom-18 using vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs)...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455221/qingxuan-jiangya-decoction-reverses-vascular-remodeling-by-inducing-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-apoptosis-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#7
Fei Xiao, Fei He, Hongwei Chen, Shan Lin, Aling Shen, Youqin Chen, Jianfeng Chu, Jun Peng
Qingxuan Jiangya Decoction (QXJYD), a traditional Chinese medicine formula prescribed by academician Ke-ji Chen, has been used in China to clinically treat hypertension for decades of years. However, the molecular mechanisms of its action remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined the therapeutic efficacy of QXJYD against elevated systolic blood pressure in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model, and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that oral administration of QXJYD significantly reduced the elevation of systolic blood pressure in SHR but had no effect on body weight change...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27334733/bronchodilator-and-anti-inflammatory-action-of-theophylline-in-a-model-of-ovalbumin-induced-allergic-inflammation
#8
A Urbanova, M Kertys, M Simekova, P Mikolka, P Kosutova, D Mokra, J Mokry
Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) represent a super-family of 11 enzymes hydrolyzing cyclic nucleotides into inactive 5' monophosphates. Inhibition of PDEs leads to a variety of cellular effects, including airway smooth muscle relaxation, inhibition of cellular inflammation, and immune responses. In this study we focused on theophylline, a known non-selective inhibitor of PDEs. Theophylline has been used for decades in the treatment of chronic inflammatory airway diseases. It has a narrow therapeutic window and belongs to the drugs whose plasma concentration should be monitored...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27275589/the-influence-of-nicotine-in-healing-of-small-bowel-anastomoses-in-rats-angiogenesis-and-miofibroblasts
#9
James Skinovsky, Osvaldo Malafaia, Mauricio Chibata, Fernanda Tsumanuma, Flávio Panegalli, Marcus Vinícius Dantas de Campos Martins
OBJECTIVE: to know the effect of nicotine on angiogenesis and myofibroblast formation in anastomoses of the small bowel of rats. METHODS: we randomly divided 60 Wistar rats into the groups Nicotine (N) and control (C), according to the proposed treatment. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups according to the time interval used for the evaluation (7, 14 or 28 days). The N group with 30 animals received nicotine subcutaneously at a dose of 2mg/kg body weight, diluted in 0...
March 2016: Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27271612/preventive-effects-of-rhodiola-rosea-l-on-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-rats
#10
Ke Zhang, Xiao-Ping Si, Jian Huang, Jian Han, Xu Liang, Xiao-Bo Xu, Yi-Ting Wang, Guo-Yu Li, Hang-Yu Wang, Jin-Hui Wang
Rhodiola rosea L. (RRL) possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties, including lung-protective activity, and has been utilized in folk medicine for several 100 years. However, the lung-protective mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the possible lung-protective activity mechanism of RRL in a pulmonary fibrosis (PF) rat model. Lung fibrotic injury was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by single intratracheal instillation of saline containing bleomycin (BLM; 5 mg/kg). The rats were administered 125, 250, or 500 mg/kg of a 95% ethanol extract of RRL for 28 days...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27216772/chronic-intermittent-hypobaric-hypoxia-antagonizes-renal-vascular-hypertension-by-enhancement-of-vasorelaxation-via-activating-bkca
#11
REVIEW
Yue Guan, Na Li, Yan-Ming Tian, Li Zhang, Hui-Jie Ma, Leonid N Maslov, Sheng Wang, Yi Zhang
AIM: The purpose of the present study was to explore anti-hypertensive effect of chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH) in renovascular hypertension (RVH) rats, as well as the role of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (BKCa) in anti-hypertensive effect of CIHH. MAIN METHODS: Male adult age- and body weight-matched Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into SHAM, CIHH, RVH and RVH+CIHH groups. Hypertension was induced by two-kidney-1-clip method (2K1C) in RVH rats...
July 15, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27173468/anagliptin-a-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitor-decreases-macrophage-infiltration-and-suppresses-atherosclerosis-in-aortic-and-coronary-arteries-in-cholesterol-fed-rabbits
#12
Tsutomu Hirano, Satoko Yamashita, Masaki Takahashi, Hiroyuki Hashimoto, Yusaku Mori, Moritaka Goto
INTRODUCTION: Several studies have demonstrated suppression of aortic atherosclerosis by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors in hypercholesterolemic mice. However, it remains unknown whether DPP-4 inhibitors also exert anti-atherogenic effects in coronary arteries. We examined the effect of anagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, on atherosclerosis development in the aorta and coronary arteries in a high-cholesterol diet-fed rabbits. METHODS: Japanese white rabbits were fed either normal chow (n=8) or a diet containing 0...
June 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27019387/florid-intussusceptive-like-microvascular-dysangiogenesis-in-a-preterm-lung
#13
Monique E De Paepe, Merline Kocheekkaran V Benny, Lauren Priolo, Francois I Luks, Svetlana Shapiro
The cellular mechanisms underlying the microvascular dysangiogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD, chronic lung disease of the newborn) remain largely undetermined. We report unusual pulmonary vascular findings in a 27-week-gestation male newborn who died on the second day of life from intractable respiratory failure, following a pregnancy complicated by prolonged membrane rupture and persistent severe oligohydramnios. As expected, postmortem examination revealed pulmonary hypoplasia (lung/body weight ratio: 2...
March 28, 2016: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26905192/the-role-of-curcumin-in-streptozotocin-induced-hepatic-damage-and-the-trans-differentiation-of-hepatic-stellate-cells
#14
Hesham N Mustafa
Diabetic patients frequently suffer from non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. The current study aimed to investigate the role of curcumin and the response of hepatic stellate cells in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hepatic damage. Sixty male rats were divided into three groups. The normal control injected with a citrate buffer vehicle and the diabetic control group which was injected intraperitoneally (IP) with a single-dose of streptozotocin (50mg/kg body weight) and a diabetic group was treated with an oral dose of curcumin at 80 mg/kg body weight daily for 60 days...
April 2016: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26746846/immunohistochemical-localization-of-renin-containing-cells-in-two-elasmobranch-species
#15
E R Lacy, E Reale, L Luciano
Renin immunoreactivity was localized at the light and electron microscopic level in two elasmobranch fish species, the Atlantic stingray, Dasyatis sabina, and river ray, Potamotrygon humerosa. At the light microscopic level, the peroxidase-anti-peroxidase method showed a positive immunoreactivity in modified smooth muscle cells in kidney afferent arterioles as well as in arterioles of several organs: rectal gland, inter-renal gland, conus arteriosus, and gill. Electron microscopic renin-positive immunogold localization was confined to the contents of membrane bound granules in the modified smooth muscle cells of these arterioles...
June 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26739410/administration-of-pigment-epithelium-derived-factor-inhibits-airway-inflammation-and-remodeling-in-chronic-ova-induced-mice-via-vegf-suppression
#16
Wangjian Zha, Mei Su, Mao Huang, Jiankang Cai, Qiang Du
PURPOSE: Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a recently discovered antiangiogenesis protein. PEDF possesses powerful anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiangiogenic, and antifibrosis properties. It has been reported that PEDF can regulate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. This study aimed to evaluate whether recombinant PEDF protein could attenuate allergic airway inflammation and airway remodeling via the negative regulation of VEGF using a murine model of chronic ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma and BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells...
March 2016: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26520899/berberine-a-plant-alkaloid-with-lipid-and-glucose-lowering-properties-from-in%C3%A2-vitro-evidence-to-clinical-studies
#17
REVIEW
Angela Pirillo, Alberico Luigi Catapano
Berberine (BBR) is an isoquinoline plant alkaloid endowed with several pharmacological activities, including anti-microbial, glucose- and cholesterol-lowering, anti-tumoral and immunomodulatory properties. The main mechanism by which BBR exerts a protective role in atherosclerosis relates to its cholesterol-lowering activity. BBR significantly increases hepatic low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) expression and reduces the expression and secretion of the LDLR modulator proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9)...
December 2015: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26310139/soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-inhibitor-1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl-urea-attenuates-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-mice
#18
Yong Zhou, Guo-Ying Sun, Tian Liu, Jia-Xi Duan, Hui-Fang Zhou, Kin Sing Lee, Bruce D Hammock, Xiang Fang, Jian-Xin Jiang, Cha-Xiang Guan
Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), the metabolites of arachidonic acid derived from the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) epoxygenases, are mainly metabolized by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to their corresponding diols. EETs but not their diols, have anti-inflammatory properties and inhibition of sEH might provide protective effects against inflammatory fibrosis. We test the effects of a selected sEH inhibitor, 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea (TPPU), on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis (PF) in mice...
February 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26142957/inhibitory-effects-of-ppar%C3%AE-ligands-on-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-ctgf-expression-in-cat-corneal-fibroblasts
#19
Kye-Im Jeon, Richard P Phipps, Patricia J Sime, Krystel R Huxlin
Ligands of Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor gamma (PPARγ) possess strong anti-fibrotic properties in the cornea and several other body tissues. In the cornea, we recently showed this class of molecules to prevent stromal myofibroblast differentiation partially by blocking the actions of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). However, given the important role assigned to connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in mediating corneal fibrosis, here we asked whether PPARγ ligands also act by affecting transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) 1-induced expression of CTGF in cultured corneal fibroblasts...
September 2015: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26079480/the-anti-atherosclerotic-dipeptide-trp-his-reduces-intestinal-inflammation-through-the-blockade-of-l-type-ca2-channels
#20
Yutaro Kobayashi, Jennifer Kovacs-Nolan, Toshiro Matsui, Yoshinori Mine
Trp-His, the anti-atherosclerotic dipeptide, exerted an antiproliferative effect on vascular smooth muscle cells by L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker-like effect. The beneficial potential by the blockade of Ca(2+) channels on chronic intestinal inflammation, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), is unclear. Trp-His (100 or 250 mg/kg body weight/day) was administered for 14 days to BALB/c mice, and 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) was administered to induce colitis in the last 7 days. Trp-His reduced DSS-induced typical colitis symptoms and cytokine expression in the colon...
July 8, 2015: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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