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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926603/scavenging-of-reactive-oxygen-species-by-astaxanthin-inhibits-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-high-glucose-stimulated-mesothelial-cells
#1
Kazuaki Hara, Chieko Hamada, Keiichi Wakabayashi, Reo Kanda, Kayo Kaneko, Satoshi Horikoshi, Yasuhiko Tomino, Yusuke Suzuki
BACKGROUND: High glucose concentrations influence the functional and structural development of the peritoneal membrane. We previously reported that the oral administration of astaxanthin (AST) suppressed peritoneal fibrosis (PF) as well as inhibited oxidative stress, inflammation, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMCs) in a chlorhexidine-induced PF rat model. This suggests that oxidative stress induction of EMT is a key event during peritoneal damage...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919738/surface-modification-of-endovascular-stents-with-rosuvastatin-and-heparin-loaded-biodegradable-nanofibers-by-electrospinning
#2
Milka Janjic, Foteini Pappa, Varvara Karagkiozaki, Christakis Gitas, Kiriakos Ktenidis, Stergios Logothetidis
This study describes the development of drug-loaded nanofibrous scaffolds as a nanocoating for endovascular stents for the local and sustained delivery of rosuvastatin (Ros) and heparin (Hep) to injured artery walls after endovascular procedures via the electrospinning process. PURPOSE: The proposed hybrid covered stents can promote re-endothelialization; improve endothelial function; reduce inflammatory reaction; inhibit neointimal hyperplasia of the injured artery wall, due to well-known pleiotropic actions of Ros; and prevent adverse events such as in-stent restenosis (ISR) and stent thrombosis (ST), through the antithrombotic action of Hep...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917987/development-and-characterisation-of-electrospun-timolol-maleate-loaded-polymeric-contact-lens-coatings-containing-various-permeation-enhancers
#3
Prina Mehta, Ali Al-Kinani, Muhammad Sohail Arshad, Ming-Wei Chang, Raid G Alany, Zeeshan Ahmad
Despite exponential growth in research relating to sustained and controlled ocular drug delivery; anatomical and chemical barriers of the eye still pose formulation challenges. Nanotechnology integration into the pharmaceutical industry has aided efforts in potential ocular drug device development. Here, the integration and in vitro effect of four different permeation enhancers (PEs) on the release of anti-glaucoma drug timolol maleate (TM) from polymeric nanofiber formulations is explored. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) engineering, more specifically electrospinning, was used to engineer nanofibers (NFs) which coated the exterior of contact lenses...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910587/trichosanthin-attenuates-vascular-injury-induced-neointimal-hyperplasia-following-balloon-catheter-injury-in-rats
#4
Min Qiu, Zheng Yang, Xiao-Hua Guo, Yu-Ting Song, Ming An, Guo-Jun Zhao, Miao Song, Xiao-Min Zhao, Yun-Shan Zhao, Quan-Li Liu
Trichosanthin (TCS), isolated from the root tuber of Trichosantheskirilowii, a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal plant, belonging to the Cucurbitaceae family, was found to exhibit numerous biological and pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory. However, the effects of TCS on arterial injury induced neointimal hyperplasia and inflammatory cell infiltration remains poorly understood. The aim of study was to examine the effectiveness of TCS on arterial injury-mediated inflammatory processes and underlying mechanisms...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905300/p2x7r-antagonism-after-subfailure-overstretch-injury-of-blood-vessels-reverses-vasomotor-dysfunction-and-prevents-apoptosis
#5
Weifeng Luo, Daniel Feldman, Reid McCallister, Colleen Brophy, Joyce Cheung-Flynn
Human saphenous vein (HSV) is harvested and prepared prior to implantation as an arterial bypass graft. Injury and the response to injury from surgical harvest and preparation trigger cascades of molecular events and contribute to graft remodeling and intimal hyperplasia. Apoptosis is an early response after implantation that contributes the development of neointimal lesions. Here, we showed that surgical harvest and preparation of HSV leads to vasomotor dysfunction, increased apoptosis and downregulation of the phosphorylation of the anti-apoptotic protein, Niban...
September 13, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904861/a-modified-graft-versus-host-induced-model-for-systemic-sclerosis-with-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-rag2-deficient-mice
#6
Xue Yang, Chi Liu, Masayuki Fujino, Ji Yang, Xiao-Kang Li, Hejian Zou
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disease that results in fibrosis in multiple organs. Various animal models for this disease have been developed, both genetic and induced. One of the induced models, sclerodermatous graft-versus-host disease (scl-GvHD), exhibits the main characteristics of SSc, but involves lethal γ-irradiation of recipients. We sought to develop a modified scl-GvHD model. Spleen cells from B10.D2 donor mice were transplanted into immunodeficient Rag-2 recipients on the BALB/c genetic background...
September 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903937/ectopic-fatty-acid-binding-protein-4-expression-in-the-vascular-endothelium-is-involved-in-neointima-formation-after-vascular-injury
#7
Takahiro Fuseya, Masato Furuhashi, Megumi Matsumoto, Yuki Watanabe, Kyoko Hoshina, Tomohiro Mita, Shutaro Ishimura, Marenao Tanaka, Tetsuji Miura
BACKGROUND: Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) is expressed in adipocytes, macrophages, and endothelial cells of capillaries but not arteries. FABP4 is secreted from adipocytes in association with lipolysis, and an elevated circulating FABP4 level is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the link between FABP4 and endovascular injury. We investigated the involvement of ectopic FABP4 expression in endothelial cells in neointima hyperplasia after vascular injury...
September 13, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899582/fgf2-mediated-attenuation-of-myofibroblast-activation-is-modulated-by-distinct-mapk-signaling-pathways-in-human-dermal-fibroblasts
#8
David M Dolivo, Sara A Larson, Tanja Dominko
BACKGROUND: Previous human and animal studies have demonstrated the ability of exogenously administered basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) to act as an antifibrotic agent in the skin. Though the activity of FGF2 as an anti-scarring agent is well-established for fibrotic skin wounds, the mechanisms by which FGF2 exerts these actions are not entirely understood. Canonical FGF2 signaling proceeds in part via FGFR/MAPK pathways in human dermal fibroblasts, and FGF2 has been described to prevent or reverse the fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition, which is driven by TGFβ signaling and understood to be an important step in the formation of a fibrotic scar in vivo...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898998/sirtuin-1-steers-anti-inflammatory-effects-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-protection-without-burden
#9
Véronique Regnault, Patrick Lacolley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898507/growth-differentiation-factor-15-predicts-advanced-fibrosis-in-biopsy-proven-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#10
Bo Kyung Koo, Sung Hee Um, Dong Soo Seo, Sae Kyung Joo, Jeong Mo Bae, Jeong Hwan Park, Mee Soo Chang, Jung Ho Kim, Jieun Lee, Won-Il Jeong, Won Kim
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We explored whether growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) affects the histological severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) independent of insulin resistance. METHODS: In a biopsy-proven NAFLD cohort, we measured serum GDF15 levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: Among 190 subjects (mean age, 53±14 years; men, 52.1%), 72 (men, 65.3%) and 78 (men, 44.9%) were diagnosed with biopsy-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), respectively...
September 12, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894082/chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyneuropathy-cidp-an-uncommon-manifestation-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-sle
#11
Hrudya Abraham, Jose Kuzhively, Syed W Rizvi
BACKGROUND Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an uncommon manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We report a case of SLE presenting as CIDP and discuss the diagnosis, management, and prognosis of CIDP. CASE REPORT A 40-year-old woman with a past medical history of SLE treated with hydroxychloroquine presented with bilateral, progressive, ascending, sensory and motor neuropathy. Physical examination showed weakness and reduced temperature of all extremities, reduced pinprick and vibration sense of the distal extremities, loss of reflexes, and walking with a wide-based unsteady gait...
September 12, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891709/-carvedilol-in-the-everyday-interventional-cardiology-practice
#12
Attila Kónyi
The treatment of severe coronary stenoses with stent implantation is very effective nevertheless, the underlying problem of atherosclerosis remains unsolved with the implantation of a stent. Therefore, besides lifestyle changes, the adequate medication therapy is of pivotal importance. In the majority of patients scheduled for or acutely undergoing catheterisation, beta-blockers form the basis of medication therapy. Members of the group, however, show significant differences in terms of pharmacodynamics. The third-generation beta-blocker and vasodilator carvedilol possesses complex adrenerg-blocking and Ca-channel blocking effects as well...
September 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889208/detection-of-human-antibodies-binding-with-smooth-and-rough-lpss-from-proteus-mirabilis-o3-strains-s1959-r110-r45
#13
J Gleńska-Olender, K Durlik, I Konieczna, P Kowalska, J Gawęda, W Kaca
Bacteria of the genus Proteus of the family Enterobacteriaceae are facultative human pathogens responsible mainly for urinary tract and wound infections, bacteremia and the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We have analyzed and compared by ELISA the titer of antibodies in plasmas of healthy individuals and in sera of rheumatoid arthritis patients recognizing a potential host cross-reactive epitope (lysine-galacturonic acid epitopes) present in Proteus lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In our experiments LPSs isolated from two mutants of smooth Proteus mirabilis 1959 (O3), i...
September 9, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888052/mir-21-mediated-suppression-of-smad7-induces-tgf%C3%AE-1-and-can-be-inhibited-by-activation-of-nrf2-in-alcohol-treated-lung-fibroblasts
#14
Lucian T Marts, David E Green, Stephen T Mills, Tamara Murphy, Viranuj Sueblinvong
BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated that chronic alcohol ingestion augments TGFβ1 expression in the lung fibroblast and increases the risk of fibroproliferative disrepair in a mouse model of acute lung injury. The effect of alcohol on TGFβ1 is mitigated by treatment with sulforaphane, which can activate nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). However, the mechanisms by which alcohol amplifies, or SFP attenuates, TGFβ1 expression in the fibroblast are not known. MicroRNA (miR)-21 has been shown to inhibit Smad7, a TGFβ1 signaling inhibitor...
September 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884083/hydro-alcoholic-extract-of-matricaria-recutita-exhibited-dual-anti-spasmodic-effect-via-modulation-of-ca-2-channels-no-and-pka2-kinase-pathway-in-rabbit-jejunum
#15
Hamidreza Yazdi, Akhtar Seifi, Shima Changizi, Vahid Khori, Fatemeh Hossini, Ali Davarian, Yahya Jand, Ayesheh Enayati, Masumeh Mazandarani, Fateme Nanvabashi
OBJECTIVE: Several studies have shown the antispasmodic activity of Matricariarecutita without detailing the underlying mechanism(s). The present study was designed to determine whether the antispasmodic mechanisms of M. recutita extract mediated via histaminergic/cholinergic receptors, Ca(2+)channels, activation of PKA2 and NO release in isolated rabbit jejunum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The concentration- dependent (3 × 10(-3)-1.3 × 10(-2) mg/ml) antispasmodic effect of the hydro-alcoholic extract of M...
July 2017: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882868/genetic-ablation-of-microrna-33-attenuates-inflammation-and-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-formation-via-several-anti-inflammatory-pathways
#16
Tetsushi Nakao, Takahiro Horie, Osamu Baba, Masataka Nishiga, Tomohiro Nishino, Masayasu Izuhara, Yasuhide Kuwabara, Hitoo Nishi, Shunsuke Usami, Fumiko Nakazeki, Yuya Ide, Satoshi Koyama, Masahiro Kimura, Naoya Sowa, Satoko Ohno, Hiroki Aoki, Koji Hasagawa, Kazuhisa Sakamoto, Kenji Minatoya, Takeshi Kimura, Koh Ono
OBJECTIVE: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an increasingly prevalent and ultimately fatal disease with no effective pharmacological treatment. Because matrix degradation induced by vascular inflammation is the major pathophysiology of AAA, attenuation of this inflammation may improve its outcome. Previous studies suggested that microRNA-33 inhibition and genetic ablation of microRNA-33 increased serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and attenuated atherosclerosis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: MicroRNA-33a-5p expression in central zone of human AAA was higher than marginal zone...
September 7, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881297/in-vitro-evaluation-of-sunitinib-loaded-bioresorbable-microspheres-for-potential-application-in-arterial-chemoembolization
#17
Lihui Weng, Srilalitha Akurati, Randy B Donelson, Parinaz Rostamzadeh, Jafar Golzarian
Drug-loadable bioresorbable microspheres (BRMS) are designed for treating hypervascular tumors through chemoembolization, thereby reducing systemic side effects via controllable local delivery. The present study investigated the degradation and loading capability of bioresorbable microspheres with an anti-angiogenic agent, sunitinib, and then evaluated the release profiles in different media (PBS, 10μg/mL and 4mg/mL lysozyme solutions), and tested catheter deliverability as well as potential antiangiogenic effects of the loaded microspheres...
August 26, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878769/protective-role-of-mast-cells-in-primary-systemic-vasculitis-a-perspective
#18
Jason M Springer, Vineesh V Raveendran, Selina A Gierer, Mehrdad Maz, Kottarappat N Dileepan
Mast cells are important cells of the immune system. Although traditionally considered as key players in allergic and hypersensitivity reactions, emerging evidence suggests that mast cells have many complex roles in vascular disease. These include regulation of vasodilation, angiogenesis, activation of matrix metalloproteinases, apoptosis of smooth muscle cells, and activation of the renin angiotensin system. Mast cells are also known to play an immunomodulatory role via modulation of regulatory T-cell (Treg), macrophage and endothelial cell functions...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875468/multifunctional-jnk-inhibiting-nanotherapeutics-for-augmented-elastic-matrix-regenerative-repair-in-aortic-aneurysms
#19
Andrew Camardo, Dhruv Seshadri, Tom Broekelmann, Robert Mecham, Anand Ramamurthi
Growth of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), localized aortal wall expansions, is driven by the disruption and subsequent loss of aortal wall elastic fibers by matrix metalloproteases (MMPs). Since elastic fibers do not naturally regenerate or repair, arresting/reversing AAA growth has not been possible. Previously, we showed utility of doxycycline (DOX), an MMP inhibitor drug, to stimulate elastic matrix neoassembly and crosslinking at low microgram per milliliter doses in addition to inhibiting MMPs. We currently show in aneurysmal smooth muscle cell (SMC) cultures that effects of exogenous DOX in this dose range are linked to its upregulation of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1) via its inhibition of the regulatory protein c-Jun-N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK 2)...
September 5, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875455/albumin-conjugated-lipid-based-multilayered-nanoemulsion-improves-drug-specificity-and-anti-inflammatory-potential-at-the-spinal-cord-injury-gsite-after-intravenous-administration
#20
Xiao-Gang Chen, Fu Hua, Shou-Guo Wang, Hong-Hui Tang
Albumin-conjugated multilayered nanoemulsion (albumin-MNE) of methyl prednisolone (MP) was developed to ensure the specificity of the drug at the spinal cord injury (SCI) site. MNE was prepared by emulsification followed by ionic deposition of oppositely charged polymer followed by albumin conjugation using N-hydroxysuccinimide. Prepared nanoemulsion was characterized for particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential (Zp), pH, viscosity, and entrapment efficiency. It was further evaluated for shape and morphological analysis, in vitro release, cell viability, and in vivo efficacy against post SCI-like conditions in terms of behavioral assessment, histopathological evaluation, and immunoflorescence assay of the histological sections showing Bax-driven apoptosis...
September 5, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
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