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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913434/factors-influencing-child-protection-professionals-decision-making-and-multidisciplinary-collaboration-in-suspected-abusive-head-trauma-cases-a-qualitative-study
#1
Laura E Cowley, Sabine Maguire, Daniel M Farewell, Harriet D Quinn-Scoggins, Matthew O Flynn, Alison M Kemp
Clinicians face unique challenges when assessing suspected child abuse cases. The majority of the literature exploring diagnostic decision-making in this field is anecdotal or survey-based and there is a lack of studies exploring decision-making around suspected abusive head trauma (AHT). We aimed to determine factors influencing decision-making and multidisciplinary collaboration in suspected AHT cases, amongst 56 child protection professionals. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with clinicians (25), child protection social workers (10), legal practitioners (9, including 4 judges), police officers (8), and pathologists (4), purposively sampled across southwest United Kingdom...
June 15, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913302/weed-hygiene-practices-in-rural-industries-and-public-land-management-variable-knowledge-patchy-implementation-inconsistent-coordination
#2
Nicholas Gill, Sonia Graham, Rebecca Cross, Eli Taylor
Weed management science and practice largely focuses on eradicating, containing and reducing existing weed populations; the focus is on plants in situ. More recently, the redefinition of biosecurity to include weeds has seen greater attention paid to preventing the introduction of weeds to previously uninfested areas within countries. Thus weed hygiene has come to the fore, with a growing number of publications recommending a diverse range of practices to minimise the spread of weeds across farm, regional and state boundaries...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913283/tuning-functions-for-automatic-detection-of-brief-changes-of-facial-expression-in-the-human-brain
#3
Arnaud Leleu, Milena Dzhelyova, Bruno Rossion, Renaud Brochard, Karine Durand, Benoist Schaal, Jean-Yves Baudouin
Efficient decoding of even brief and slight intensity facial expression changes is important for social interactions. However, robust evidence for the human brain ability to automatically detect brief and subtle changes of facial expression remains limited. Here we built on a recently developed paradigm in human electrophysiology with full-blown expressions (Dzhelyova et al., 2017), to isolate and quantify a neural marker for the detection of brief and subtle changes of facial expression. Scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded from 18 participants during stimulation of a neutral face changing randomly in size at a rapid rate of 6 Hz...
June 16, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913118/gaining-support-for-child-and-family-policies-by-raising-awareness-of-the-link-between-physical-and-mental-health-and-the-impact-of-social-determinants-on-both
#4
Cheryl Geisthardt, Adam Kloha
Results of a pilot study examining young adults' beliefs about what factors contribute to physical and mental health are reported. Existing research and the results of the pilot study are used to argue for the need for improved education on the connection between physical and mental health, the impact of social determinants on physical and mental health, and the potential for social policies that better the lives of children and families to improve health outcomes. Benefits of and suggestions for increasing understanding of social determinants and social policies on physical and mental health are explored...
June 18, 2018: Social Work in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912935/egocentric-networks-and-physical-activity-outcomes-in-latinas
#5
Becky Marquez, Greg Norman, James Fowler, Kim Gans, Bess Marcus
OBJECTIVE: Despite data linking the social environment to physical inactivity in Latinas, research on social network predictors of physical activity (PA) is limited. This study examined social network predictors of PA change in Latinas. METHODS: Egocentric network data were collected from 102 adult Latinas (egos) participating in a randomized controlled PA intervention trial for underactive women. Moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was measured in minutes per week using the 7-Day PA Recall Interview and accelerometers at baseline and 12 months...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912870/differences-in-childhood-body-mass-index-between-lesbian-gay-and-bisexual-and-heterosexual-female-adolescents-a-follow-back-study
#6
Kate Keenan, Kristen Wroblewski, Phoenix A Matthews, Alison E Hipwell, Stephanie D Stepp
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether childhood body mass index (BMI), assessed in childhood, differs between lesbian/gay and bisexual (LGB) and heterosexual late adolescents, and whether childhood social stressors impact the association between sexual orientation and childhood BMI. METHODS: Participants included 2,070 late adolescents from the Pittsburgh Girls Study, of whom 233 (11.2%) identified as lesbian or bisexual and 1,837 (88.8%) as heterosexual at ages 17-20 years...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912818/sociodemographic-determinants-of-attrition-in-the-hiv-continuum-of-care-in-brazil-in-2016
#7
Ana Roberta Pati Pascom, Mariana Veloso Meireles, Adele Schwartz Benzaken
The aim of this study was to identify sociodemographic factors associated with attrition in the 3 steps of the HIV continuum of care related to the 90-90-90 targets - access to diagnosis, treatment initiation, and virologic suppression, in Brazilian adults (15 years or older), in 2016.Programmatic data were obtained from 2 information systems from the Brazilian Ministry of Health, which register all antiretroviral therapy (ART) dispensations and all CD4 and viral load counts (VL) performed within the country's public health system...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912659/adolescents-perspectives-on-everyday-life-with-obesity-a-qualitative-study
#8
Gudbjørg Øen, Bente Kvilhaugsvik, Kari Eldal, Anne-Grethe Halding
PURPOSE: This study aimed to gain an in-depth understanding of the perspectives and life experiences of adolescents living with obesity. METHODS: Five adolescents living with obesity were involved in repeated interviews, and qualitative content analysis was performed. RESULTS: Three themes emerged: obesity as a multi-faceted and difficult to solve condition; obesity as a shameful and vulnerable subject; and bullying and fragile social relationships...
December 2018: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911461/neighborhood-disorder-social-support-and-outcomes-among-violence-exposed-african-american-women
#9
Alison M Pickover, Jabeene Bhimji, Shufang Sun, Anna Evans, Lucy J Allbaugh, Sarah E Dunn, Nadine J Kaslow
Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women, particularly those living in poverty who have multiple marginalized identities, is a significant public health issue. IPV is associated with numerous mental health concerns including depression, hopelessness, and suicidal behavior. The present study examined the ecological determinants of these mental health outcomes in a high-risk sample of 67 low-income, African American women survivors of IPV. Based on an ecological framework that conceptualizes individuals as nested in multiple, interactive systems, we examined, longitudinally, the main and interactive effects of self-reported neighborhood disorder and social support from family members and friends on participants' mental health (i...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911460/personal-and-venue-characteristics-associated-with-the-practice-of-physical-and-sexual-aggression-in-brazilian-nightclubs
#10
Elizabeth C Fung, Mariana G R Santos, Zila M Sanchez, Pamela J Surkan
Violence among young adults is an increasing public health concern, especially in the context of nightlife, such as around nightclubs and bars. Nightlife is associated with alcohol, drugs, and increased violence, but little is known about personal and environmental factors related to physical aggression and sexual violence in nightclubs. This study aimed to determine personal and environmental risk factors for physical and sexual aggression in nightclubs in São Paulo, Brazil. Data were collected among nightclub patrons through use of a portal survey at the entrances and exits of 31 nightclubs...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911433/hunger-a-missed-opportunity-for-screening-in-the-pediatric-emergency-department
#11
Tamar Robinson, Leah Bryan, Veda Johnson, Terri McFadden, Sarah Lazarus, Harold K Simon
BACKGROUND: The American Academy of Pediatrics and pediatric community recognize the importance of addressing social determinants of health. There are limited data on the prevalence of food insecurity or literature establishing protocols assessing food insecurity in the emergency department (ED). METHODS: Two anonymous surveys were administered, one to families during their ED visit and another to ED staff to assess perceptions on the ED's role in providing social support...
June 1, 2018: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911419/sexual-disgust-trumps-pathogen-disgust-in-predicting-voter-behavior-during-the-2016-u-s-presidential-election
#12
Joseph Billingsley, Debra Lieberman, Joshua M Tybur
Why is disgust sensitivity associated with socially conservative political views? Is it because socially conservative ideologies mitigate the risks of infectious disease, whether by promoting out-group avoidance or by reinforcing norms that sustain antipathogenic practices? Or might it be because socially conservative ideologies promote moral standards that advance a long-term, as opposed to a short-term, sexual strategy? Recent attempts to test these two explanations have yielded differing results and conflicting interpretations...
April 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911349/tales-around-the-clock-poly-a-tails-in-circadian-gene-expression
#13
REVIEW
Rafailia A A Beta, Nikolaos A A Balatsos
Circadian rhythms are ubiquitous time-keeping processes in eukaryotes with a period of ~24 hr. Light is perhaps the main environmental cue (zeitgeber) that affects several aspects of physiology and behaviour, such as sleep/wake cycles, orientation of birds and bees, and leaf movements in plants. Temperature can serve as the main zeitgeber in the absence of light cycles, even though it does not lead to rhythmicity through the same mechanism as light. Additional cues include feeding patterns, humidity, and social rhythms...
June 17, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911301/the-effects-of-noncontingent-music-and-response-interruption-and-redirection-on-vocal-stereotypy
#14
Ashley R Gibbs, Christopher A Tullis, Raven Thomas, Brittany Elkins
Vocal stereotypy is a commonly occurring challenging behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that is frequently maintained by automatic reinforcement and often interferes with skill acquisition. Matched stimulation (MS), and response interruption and redirection (RIRD) are two interventions that have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing the occurrence of vocal stereotypy with participants with ASD. The current study sought to determine if the combination of MS (noncontingent music) and RIRD was more effective at reducing vocal stereotypy than RIRD alone and if the parents of children with ASD found the combination of MS and RIRD more socially valid than RIRD alone...
June 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911020/combining-transnational-and-intersectional-approaches-to-immigrants-social-protection-the-case-of-andean-families-access-to-health
#15
Jean-Michel Lafleur, Maria Vivas Romero
Immigrants and family members in the home and host societies experience inequalities in access to social protection. Focusing on healthcare, we demonstrate that immigrant families today respond to healthcare needs of family members here and there through four cross-border strategies. We show that immigrants select and articulate these different strategies to assemble transnational health care arrangements. Using an intersectional approach, we argue that heterogeneity markers such as gender, race, class, and levels of transnational engagement determine the choice between different types of arrangements...
2018: Comparative Migration Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910844/comparing-treatment-modalities-for-end-stage-renal-disease-a-meta-analysis
#16
Gilbert L Queeley, Ellen S Campbell
Background: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) imposes significant economic and social burdens on patients and healthcare systems. In the United States alone, more than 600,000 Americans have ESRD, with an estimated annual cost of treatment of more than $30 billion. Peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis are competing renal replacement therapies in ESRD; however, data comparing quality-of-life outcomes between these 2 modalities are limited. Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of peritoneal dialysis with the more common treatment modality of hemodialysis on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with ESRD in the general, physical, and psychological domains; and to determine whether the time of publication and the origin of each study influenced its findings regarding the effectiveness of the 2 modalities...
May 2018: American Health & Drug Benefits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910759/a-pilot-study-of-the-effects-of-mindfulness-based-cognitive-therapy-on-positive-affect-and-social-anxiety-symptoms
#17
Marlene V Strege, Deanna Swain, Lauren Bochicchio, Andrew Valdespino, John A Richey
Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is efficacious in reducing residual depressive symptoms and preventing future depressive episodes (Kuyken et al., 2016). One potential treatment effect of MBCT may be improvement of positive affect (PA), due to improved awareness of daily positive events (Geschwind et al., 2011). Considering social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by diminished PA (Brown et al., 1998; Kashdan, 2007), we sought to determine whether MBCT would reduce social anxiety symptoms, and whether this reduction would be associated with improvement of PA deficits...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910617/acetaminophen-antibiotics-ear-infection-breastfeeding-vitamin-d-drops-and-autism-an-epidemiological-study
#18
Seth Scott Bittker, Kathleen Roberta Bell
Background: While many studies have examined environmental risk factors for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), much of the research focus has been on prenatal or perinatal factors. Yet, the postnatal environment may affect the risk of ASD as well. Objective: To determine whether a set of five postnatal variables are associated with ASD. These variables are: acetaminophen exposure, antibiotic exposure, incidence of ear infection, decreased duration of breastfeeding, and decreased consumption of oral vitamin D drops...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910532/determining-preferences-for-ecosystem-benefits-in-great-lakes-areas-of-concern-from-photographs-posted-to-social-media
#19
Ted R Angradi, Jonathon J Launspach, Rick Debbout
Relative valuation of potentially affected ecosystem benefits can increase the legitimacy and social acceptance of ecosystem restoration projects. As an alternative or supplement to traditional methods of deriving beneficiary preference, we downloaded from social media and classified ≈21,000 photographs taken in two Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOC), the St. Louis River and the Milwaukee Estuary. Our motivating presumption was that the act of taking a photograph constitutes some measure of the photographer's individual preference for, or choice of, the depicted subject matter among myriad possible subject matter...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Great Lakes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910484/ice-road-vets-perspectives-on-the-role-of-veterinarians-in-northern-community-health
#20
Tessa Baker, Jennifer Flaig, Meryam Shillingford, Lana Swain, Marika Wagner
We reflect on our experiences providing veterinary services in 5 remote communities of the Sahtu Settlement Area in the Northwest Territories in February 2017. The evolving role of dogs and the social determinants of health that influence dog health in the communities are explored, including biology, physical environment, behavior, dog and human social factors, and access to veterinary care. The importance of continued exposure of veterinary professionals to different cultural perspectives in order to provide services that are culturally appropriate and effective is highlighted...
June 2018: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
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