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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458188/robust-is-not-necessarily-reliable-from-within-subjects-fmri-contrasts-to-between-subjects-comparisons
#1
Zachary P Infantolino, Katherine R Luking, Colin L Sauder, John J Curtin, Greg Hajcak
Advances in cognitive and affective neuroscience come largely from within-subjects comparisons, in which the functional significance of neural activity is determined by contrasting two or more experimental conditions. Clinical and social neuroscience studies have attempted to leverage between-subject variability in such condition differences to better understand psychopathology and other individual differences. Shifting from within-to between-subjects comparisons requires that measures have adequate internal consistency to function as individual difference variables...
February 16, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457923/flipping-social-determinants-on-its-head-medical-student-perspectives-on-the-flipped-classroom-and-simulated-patients-to-teach-social-determinants-of-health
#2
N Gostelow, J Barber, F Gishen, A Berlin
BACKGROUND: Inequalities in healthcare are increasing. Engaging medical students to tackle this urgent challenge alongside clinical sciences can be demanding. This study examines medical student perceptions of a flipped approach to health inequalities co-designed by faculty and sixth-year students. INNOVATION: A flipped learning session was piloted for year 4 medical students combining an online lesson followed by a tutorial with a simulated patient. METHODS: A mixed-methods approach collected questionnaire data using 4-point Likert scales and free text answers...
February 19, 2018: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457672/gambling-related-cognitive-distortions-predict-level-of-function-among-us-veterans-seeking-treatment-for-gambling-disorders
#3
Steven D Shirk, Megan M Kelly, Shane W Kraus, Marc N Potenza, Kendra Pugh, Christopher Waltrous, Edward Federman, Christopher Krebs, Charles E Drebing
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Gambling Disorder (GD) is characterized by recurrent gambling behavior that is associated with significant impairment and distress, high psychiatric comorbidities, and high functional disability. The military veteran population appears particularly susceptible to developing the disorder, but relatively little has been studied among this population. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the clinical psychopathologies and comorbidities of veterans seeking treatment for problem gambling and how problem gambling may impact functioning...
February 19, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457637/rhesus-macaque-personality-dominance-behavior-and-health
#4
Lauren M Robinson, Kristine Coleman, John P Capitanio, Daniel H Gottlieb, Ian G Handel, Mark J Adams, Matthew C Leach, Natalie K Waran, Alexander Weiss
Previous studies of nonhuman primates have found relationships between health and individual differences in personality, behavior, and social status. However, despite knowing these factors are intercorrelated, many studies focus only on a single measure, for example, rank. Consequently, it is difficult to determine the degree to which these individual differences are independently associated with health. The present study sought to untangle the associations between health and these individual differences in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)...
February 19, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457477/enabling-choice-recovery-and-participation-evidence-based-early-intervention-support-for-psychosocial-disability-in-the-national-disability-insurance-scheme
#5
Laura Hayes, Lisa Brophy, Carol Harvey, Juan Jose Tellez, Helen Herrman, Eoin Killackey
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify the most effective interventions for early intervention in psychosocial disability in the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) through an evidence review. METHODS: A series of rapid reviews were undertaken to establish possible interventions for psychosocial disability, to develop our understanding of early intervention criteria for the NDIS and to determine which interventions would meet these criteria. RESULTS: Three interventions (social skills training, supported employment and supported housing) have a strong evidence base for effectiveness in early intervention in people with psychosocial disability, with the potential for adoption by the NDIS...
February 1, 2018: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456823/health-hazards-related-to-soba-sewage-treatment-plant-sudan
#6
Rasha Osman Abdelwahab Abdelmoneim, Ranien Mohamed El Mortada Mahi Eldin Mahdi, Rawia Moawia Elamin Elahmer, Rogaya Adel Derar Elansary, Safaa Elsafi Widaa Mohamed, Said Hashim Ahmed Abdelgader, Sakina Salah Abbasher Ahmed, Sally Mohamed Alfatih Abdalrhman
The aim of this study was to determine the health hazards acquired by the residents nearby Soba sewage treatment plant. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Soba locality, Khartoum, Sudan. An interviewer-administrated questionnaire was assigned to 462 residents of the area living in four geographically distributed squares around the sewage plant. The data was analyzed in SPSS; Cronbach's alpha reliability scale of measurement was used to check the internal validity of six variables related to the quality of life...
December 31, 2017: Journal of Public Health in Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456378/utilization-and-impact-of-electronic-and-print-media-on-the-patients-health-status-physicians-perspectives
#7
Sadia Shakeel, Shagufta Nesar, Najia Rahim, Wajiha Iffat, Hafiza Fouzia Ahmed, Mehwish Rizvi, Shazia Jamshed
Aims: Despite an increased popularity of print and electronic media applications, there is a paucity of data reflecting doctors' opinions regarding efficient utilization of these resources for the betterment of public health. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the perception of physicians toward the effect of electronic and print media on the health status of patients. Setting and Design: The current research is a cross-sectional study conducted from January 2015 to July 2015...
October 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456343/factors-influencing-institutional-based-pediatric-rehabilitation-services-among-caregivers-of-children-with-developmental-delay-in-southwestern-rajasthan
#8
Kriti Mishra, V Siddharth
Context: A limited number of caregivers of children with developmental delay access rehabilitation facilities in India. The study explored utilization of rehabilitation services at a tertiary care setup in southwestern Rajasthan and various factors influencing it. Aims: The aim of this study is to explore rehabilitation service utilization among children with developmental delay at a tertiary care setup and to ascertain factors that influence this pattern. Settings: This study was conducted at the department of physical medicine and rehabilitation at tertiary care setup...
January 2018: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455900/heart-rate-variability-is-associated-with-psychosocial-stress-in-distinct-social-domains
#9
Alexander Lischke, Robert Jacksteit, Anett Mau-Moeller, Rike Pahnke, Alfons O Hamm, Matthias Weippert
OBJECTIVE: Psychosocial stress is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Accordingly, there is a growing interest in biomarkers that indicate whether individuals show adaptive (i.e., stress-buffering and health-promoting) or maladaptive (i.e., stress-escalating and health-impairing) stress reactions in social contexts. As heart rate variability (HRV) has been suggested to be a biomarker of adaptive behavior during social encounters, it may be possible that inter-individual differences in HRV are associated with inter-individual differences regarding stress in distinct social domains...
March 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455724/adolescent-and-young-adult-male-mental-health-transforming-system-failures-into-proactive-models-of-engagement
#10
REVIEW
Simon M Rice, Rosemary Purcell, Patrick D McGorry
Adolescent and young adult men do poorly on indicators of mental health evidenced by elevated rates of suicide, conduct disorder, substance use, and interpersonal violence relative to their female peers. Data on global health burden clearly demonstrate that young men have a markedly distinct health risk profile from young women, underscoring different prevention and intervention needs. Evidence indicates that boys disconnect from health-care services during adolescence, marking the beginning of a progression of health-care disengagement and associated barriers to care, including presenting to services differently, experiencing an inadequate or poorly attuned clinical response, and needing to overcome pervasive societal attitudes and self-stigma to access available services...
March 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455566/-he-supported-me-100-mexican-immigrant-fathers-daughters-and-adolescent-sexual-health
#11
Kate Coleman-Minahan, Goleen Samari
OBJECTIVE: First and second generation Mexican-origin adolescents in the U.S. face social and economic disadvantage and sexual health disparities. Although fathers can support child and adolescent development, the literature has portrayed Mexican-origin immigrant fathers as emotionally distant and sexist. This study aims to treat migration as a social determinant of health to examine father-daughter relationships and adolescent sexual health in Mexican-origin immigrant families. METHODS: Integrating qualitative data from life history interviews with 21 Mexican-origin young women in immigrant families with quantitative data on first and second generation Mexican-origin young women in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, this study describes father-daughter relationships, examines the association between father-daughter relationships and daughters' early sexual initiation, and considers the impact of migration on the father-daughter relationship and sexual health among Mexican-origin young women...
February 19, 2018: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455323/financial-preparation-for-retirement-in-brazil-a-cross-cultural-test-of-the-interdisciplinary-financial-planning-model
#12
Lucia H F França, Douglas A Hershey
In this investigation, we attempt to replicate the Interdisciplinary Financial Planning Model advanced by Hershey et al. (International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 70, 1-38, 2010) using a sample of Brazilian adults. This model, which was originally tested on individuals from The Netherlands and the United States, posits that psychological, social, and economic forces are key determinants of retirement planning practices and perceptions of saving adequacy. Taken together, fifteen hypotheses were subject to evaluation...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Cross-cultural Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455081/quality-of-life-and-level-of-burden-in-primary-caregivers-of-patients-with-epilepsy-effect-of-neuropsychiatric-comorbidity
#13
Ana Maria Gutierrez-Angel, Iris Enriqueta Martinez-Juarez, Laura Elena Hernandez-Vanegas, Daniel Crail-Melendez
BACKGROUND: Few studies are focused on the quality of life (QOL) of primary caregivers and the effects of the clinical variables of epilepsy and patient psychiatric comorbidity on primary caregivers. PURPOSE: Our main objective was to describe QOL and level of burden (LB) in caregivers of people with epilepsy (PWE) at a tertiary-care hospital in Mexico City. A secondary purpose was to determine if LB and QOL were different between caregivers of patients with neuropsychiatric comorbidity and caregivers of patients without neuropsychiatric comorbidity...
February 15, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454383/multidimensional-needs-of-patients-living-and-dying-with-heart-failure-in-kenya-a-serial-interview-study
#14
Kellen N Kimani, Scott A Murray, Liz Grant
BACKGROUND: Heart failure is an emerging challenge for Sub Saharan Africa. However, research on patients' needs and experiences of care is scarce with little evidence available to support and develop services. We aimed to explore the experiences of patients living and dying with heart failure in Kenya. METHODS: We purposively recruited 18 patients admitted with advanced heart failure at a rural district hospital in Kenya. We conducted serial in depth interviews with patients at 0, 3 and 6 months after recruitment, and conducted bereavement interviews with carers...
February 17, 2018: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454316/the-theoretical-and-empirical-basis-of-a-biopsychosocial-bps-risk-screener-for-detection-of-older-people-s-health-related-needs-planning-of-community-programs-and-targeted-care-interventions
#15
Zoe J-L Hildon, Chuen Seng Tan, Farah Shiraz, Wai Chong Ng, Xiaodong Deng, Gerald Choon Huat Koh, Kelvin Bryan Tan, Ian Philp, Dick Wiggins, Su Aw, Treena Wu, Hubertus J M Vrijhoef
BACKGROUND: This study introduces the conceptual basis and operational measure, of BioPyschoSocial (BPS) health and related risk to better understand how well older people are managing and to screen for risk status. The BPS Risk Screener is constructed to detect vulnerability at older ages, and seeks to measure dynamic processes that place equal emphasis on Psycho-emotional and Socio-interpersonal risks, as Bio-functional ones. We validate the proposed measure and describe its application to programming...
February 17, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454315/prevalence-and-correlates-of-positive-mental-health-in-chinese-adolescents
#16
Cheng Guo, Göran Tomson, Christina Keller, Fredrik Söderqvist
BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the prevalence of positive mental health and its correlates are still scarce compared to the studies on mental disorders, although there is growing interest of assessing positive mental health in adolescents. So far, no other study examining the prevalence and determinants of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents has been found. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents...
February 17, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454178/caffeine-use-disorder-an-item-response-theory-analysis-of-proposed-dsm-5-criteria
#17
Csilla Ágoston, Róbert Urbán, Mara J Richman, Zsolt Demetrovics
INTRODUCTION: Caffeine is a common psychoactive substance with a documented addictive potential. Caffeine withdrawal has been included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), but caffeine use disorder (CUD) is considered to be a condition for further study. The aim of the current study is (1) to test the psychometric properties of the Caffeine Use Disorder Questionnaire (CUDQ) by using a confirmatory factor analysis and an item response theory (IRT) approach, (2) to compare IRT models with varying numbers of parameters and models with or without caffeine consumption criteria, and (3) to examine if the total daily caffeine consumption and the use of different caffeinated products can predict the magnitude of CUD symptomatology...
February 9, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453797/quality-of-partner-support-moderates-positive-affect-in-cancer-patients
#18
Apostolos Kaliampos, Pagona Roussis
OBJECTIVE: In the present study we examined whether four support quality-related characteristics moderate the impact of received partner support on cancer patients' positive affect. The support quality-related characteristics were: patients' perception regarding the willingness of their partners to offer support, patients' perception that partner support is certain, patients' satisfaction with partner relationship and overall patients' satisfaction with partner support. METHOD: Seventy seven recently diagnosed cancer patients were assessed at two time points, during chemotherapy treatment (baseline) and seven months later (follow-up)...
February 17, 2018: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453557/a-framework-for-regional-primary-health-care-to-organise-actions-to-address-health-inequities
#19
Toby Freeman, Sara Javanparast, Fran Baum, Anna Ziersch, Tamara Mackean
OBJECTIVES: Regional primary health-care organisations plan, co-ordinate, and fund some primary health-care services in a designated region. This article presents a framework for examining the equity performance of regional primary health-care organisations, and applies it to Australian Medicare Locals (funded from 2011 to 2015). METHODS: The framework was developed based on theory, literature, and researcher deliberation. Data were drawn from Medicare Local documents, an online survey of 210 senior Medicare Local staff, and interviews with 50 survey respondents...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453189/evaluating-the-care4carer-blended-care-intervention-for-partners-of-patients-with-acquired-brain-injury-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Vincent Cm Cox, Vera Pm Schepers, Marjolijn Ketelaar, Caroline M van Heugten, Johanna Ma Visser-Meily
BACKGROUND: Support programs for partners of patients with acquired brain injury are necessary since these partners experience several unfavorable consequences of caregiving, such as a high burden, emotional distress, and poor quality of life. Evidence-based support strategies that can be included in these support programs are psychoeducation, skill building, problem solving, and improving feelings of mastery. A promising approach would seem to be to combine web-based support with face-to-face consultations, creating a blended care intervention...
February 16, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
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