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Sarcopenia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079633/criterion-referenced-values-of-grip-strength-and-usual-gait-speed-using-instrumental-activities-of-daily-living-disability-as-the-criterion
#1
Meng-Chih Lee, Chih-Cheng Hsu, Yi-Fen Tsai, Ching-Yu Chen, Cheng-Chieh Lin, Ching-Yi Wang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Current evidence suggests that grip strength and usual gait speed (UGS) are important predictors of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) disability. Knowing the optimum cut points of these tests for discriminating people with and without IADL disability could help clinicians or researchers to better interpret the test results and make medical decisions. The purpose of this study was to determine the cutoff values of grip strength and UGS for best discriminating community-dwelling older adults with and without IADL disability, separately for men and women, and to investigate their association with IADL disability...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076611/sarcopenia-and-chemotherapy-mediated-toxicity
#2
Maria Cecília Monteiro Dela Vega, Alessandro Laviano, Gustavo Duarte Pimentel
This narrative review focuses on the role of sarcopenia and chemotherapy-induced toxicity in cancer patients. Consistent evidence shows that sarcopenia in cancer patients leads to decreased overall survival by influencing treatment discontinuation and dose reduction. Therefore, sarcopenia should be considered a robust prognostic factor of negative outcome as well as a determinant of increased healthcare costs. RESUMO Esta revisão narrativa descreve o papel da sarcopenia e a toxicidade mediada pela quimioterapia em pacientes com câncer...
October 2016: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074267/reduced-serum-myostatin-concentrations-associated-with-genetic-muscle-disease-progression
#3
Peter M Burch, Oksana Pogoryelova, Joe Palandra, Richard Goldstein, Donald Bennett, Lori Fitz, Michela Guglieri, Chiara Marini Bettolo, Volker Straub, Teresinha Evangelista, Hendrik Neubert, Hanns Lochmüller, Carl Morris
Myostatin is a highly conserved protein secreted primarily from skeletal muscle that can potently suppress muscle growth. This ability to regulate skeletal muscle mass has sparked intense interest in the development of anti-myostatin therapies for a wide array of muscle disorders including sarcopenia, cachexia and genetic neuromuscular diseases. While a number of studies have examined the circulating myostatin concentrations in healthy and sarcopenic populations, very little data are available from inherited muscle disease patients...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072766/the-impact-of-body-composition-parameters-on-ipilimumab-toxicity-and-survival-in-patients-with-metastatic-melanoma
#4
Louise E Daly, Derek G Power, Áine O'Reilly, Paul Donnellan, Samantha J Cushen, Kathleen O'Sullivan, Maria Twomey, David P Woodlock, Henry P Redmond, Aoife M Ryan
BACKGROUND: Body composition is an important predictor of drug toxicity and outcome. Ipilimumab (Ipi), a monoclonal antibody used to treat metastatic melanoma, has specific toxicities. No validated biomarkers that predict Ipi toxicity and efficacy exist. Also, the impact of Ipi on body composition has not been established. METHODS: Patients with metastatic melanoma treated with Ipi between 2009 and 2015 were included. Body composition was assessed by computed tomography at baseline and after four cycles of Ipi...
January 10, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072591/osteoporosis-fracture-epidemiology-update-2016
#5
Jane A Cauley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on osteoporosis epidemiology. The focus is on fractures because fractures are the most important clinical consequence of osteoporosis. Studies published over the past 18 months are identified and reviewed. Finally, the clinical impact of these new findings is discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Important research in 2015-2016 include analyses of screening and rescreening in younger women and older men, risk factors for hip fractures in older men, obesity and weight loss/gain, and risk of fracture...
January 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061014/a-new-definition-of-sarcopenia-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-undergoing-liver-transplantation
#6
Nicolas Golse, Petru Octav Bucur, Oriana Ciacio, Gabriella Pittau, Antonio Sa Cunha, René Adam, Denis Castaing, Teresa Antonini, Audrey Coilly, Didier Samuel, Daniel Cherqui, Eric Vibert
Although sarcopenia is a common complication of cirrhosis, its diagnosis remains nonconsensual: computed tomography (CT) scan determinations vary and no cutoff values have been established in cirrhotic populations undergoing liver transplantation (LT). Our aim was to compare the accuracy of the most widely used measurement techniques and to establish useful cutoffs in the setting of LT. From the 440 patients transplanted between January 2008 and May 2011 in our tertiary center, we selected 256 patients with cirrhosis for whom a recent CT scan was available during the 4 months prior to LT...
November 7, 2016: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051799/%C3%A2-sarcopenia-predicts-reduced-survival-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-at-first-diagnosis
#7
Paola Begini, Elia Gigante, Giulio Antonelli, Francesco Carbonetti, Elsa Iannicelli, Giulia Anania, Barbara Imperatrice, Adriano Maria Pellicelli, Gianfranco Delle Fave, Massimo Marignani
:  Background. Sarcopenia is a complication and independent risk factor for mortality in patients with liver cirrhosis. AIM: To assess the prevalence and influence of sarcopenia on overall survival in a cohort of cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma managed in a tertiary center. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Abdominal computed tomography of 92 consecutive hepatocellular carcinoma cirrhotic patients, enrolled and followed from 2004 to 2014, were retrospectively studied with a software analyzing the cross-sectional areas of muscles at third lumbar vertebra level...
January 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050694/survival-prediction-using-temporal-muscle-thickness-measurements-on-cranial-magnetic-resonance-images-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-brain-metastases
#8
Julia Furtner, Anna S Berghoff, Omar M Albtoush, Ramona Woitek, Ulrika Asenbaum, Daniela Prayer, Georg Widhalm, Brigitte Gatterbauer, Karin Dieckmann, Peter Birner, Bernadette Aretin, Rupert Bartsch, Christoph C Zielinski, Veronika Schöpf, Matthias Preusser
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prognostic relevance of temporal muscle thickness (TMT) in brain metastasis patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed TMT on magnetic resonance (MR) images at diagnosis of brain metastasis in two independent cohorts of 188 breast cancer (BC) and 247 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients (overall: 435 patients). RESULTS: Survival analysis using a Cox regression model showed a reduced risk of death by 19% with every additional millimetre of baseline TMT in the BC cohort and by 24% in the NSCLC cohort...
January 3, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049446/a-cross-sectional-study-of-the-association-between-dynapenia-and-higher-level-functional-capacity-in-daily-living-in-community-dwelling-older-adults-in-japan
#9
Masaki Iwamura, Masao Kanauchi
BACKGROUND: There are many reports that dynapenia, sarcopenia and frailty each have associations with bodily function or with Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL). However, studies that compare all three conditions and their effects on IADL are lacking. The purpose of this study is to examine associations of sarcopenia, frailty, and dynapenia with IADL. METHODS: Participants included 123 community-dwelling older adults (31 men, 92 women,) aged 65 years or older (75...
January 3, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049443/performance-of-edmonton-frail-scale-on-frailty-assessment-its-association-with-multi-dimensional-geriatric-conditions-assessed-with-specific-screening-tools
#10
Simone Perna, Matthew D'Arcy Francis, Chiara Bologna, Francesca Moncaglieri, Antonella Riva, Paolo Morazzoni, Pietro Allegrini, Antonio Isu, Beatrice Vigo, Fabio Guerriero, Mariangela Rondanelli
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Edmonton Frail Scale (EFS) on frailty assessment in association with multi-dimensional conditions assessed with specific screening tools and to explore the prevalence of frailty by gender. METHODS: We enrolled 366 hospitalised patients (women\men: 251\115), mean age 81.5 years. The EFS was given to the patients to evaluate their frailty. Then we collected data concerning cognitive status through Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), health status (evaluated with the number of diseases), functional independence (Barthel Index and Activities Daily Living; BI, ADL, IADL), use of drugs (counting of drugs taken every day), Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Skeletal Muscle Index of sarcopenia (SMI), osteoporosis and functionality (Handgrip strength)...
January 4, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043805/utility-of-sarc-f-for-assessing-physical-function-in-elderly-patients-with-cardiovascular-disease
#11
Shinya Tanaka, Kentaro Kamiya, Nobuaki Hamazaki, Ryota Matsuzawa, Kohei Nozaki, Emi Maekawa, Chiharu Noda, Minako Yamaoka-Tojo, Atsuhiko Matsunaga, Takashi Masuda, Junya Ako
OBJECTIVES: A simple and inexpensive tool for screening of sarcopenia would be helpful for clinicians. The present study was performed to determine whether the SARC-F questionnaire is useful in screening of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) for impaired physical function. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Single university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 235 Japanese patients ≥65 years old admitted to our hospital for CVD...
December 31, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041587/inflammation-and-sarcopenia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Giulia Bano, Caterina Trevisan, Sara Carraro, Marco Solmi, Claudio Luchini, Brendon Stubbs, Enzo Manzato, Giuseppe Sergi, Nicola Veronese
Inflammatory cytokines have been shown to prompt muscle wasting, ultimately stimulating protein catabolism and suppressing muscle synthesis. However, the possible association between inflammatory parameters and sarcopenia is poorly understood. We therefore aimed to summarize the current evidence about this topic with a meta-analysis of studies reporting serum inflammatory parameters in patients with sarcopenia vs. people without sarcopenia (controls). An electronic PubMed and Scopus search through to 09/01/2016 and meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies comparing serum levels of inflammatory cytokines between patients with sarcopenia and controls was made, calculating random-effects standardized mean differences (SMDs) ±95% confidence intervals (CIs) as the effect size...
February 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039397/physical-exercise-in-aging-human-skeletal-muscle-increases-mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter-expression-levels-and-affects-mitochondria-dynamics
#13
Sandra Zampieri, Cristina Mammucari, Vanina Romanello, Laura Barberi, Laura Pietrangelo, Aurora Fusella, Simone Mosole, Gaia Gherardi, Christian Höfer, Stefan Löfler, Nejc Sarabon, Jan Cvecka, Matthias Krenn, Ugo Carraro, Helmut Kern, Feliciano Protasi, Antonio Musarò, Marco Sandri, Rosario Rizzuto
Age-related sarcopenia is characterized by a progressive loss of muscle mass with decline in specific force, having dramatic consequences on mobility and quality of life in seniors. The etiology of sarcopenia is multifactorial and underlying mechanisms are currently not fully elucidated. Physical exercise is known to have beneficial effects on muscle trophism and force production. Alterations of mitochondrial Ca(2+) homeostasis regulated by mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) have been recently shown to affect muscle trophism in vivo in mice...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035339/emerging-roles-for-histone-deacetylases-in-age-related-muscle-atrophy
#14
REVIEW
Michael E Walsh, Holly Van Remmen
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle atrophy during aging, a process known as sarcopenia, is associated with muscle weakness, frailty, and the loss of independence in older adults. The mechanisms contributing to sarcopenia are not totally understood, but muscle fiber loss due to apoptosis, reduced stimulation of anabolic pathways, activation of catabolic pathways, denervation, and altered metabolism have been observed in muscle from old rodents and humans. OBJECTIVE: Recently, histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been implicated in muscle atrophy and dysfunction due to denervation, muscular dystrophy, and disuse, and HDACs play key roles in regulating metabolism in skeletal muscle...
October 27, 2016: Nutr Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034565/to-create-a-consensus-on-malnutrition-diagnostic-criteria-a-report-from-the-global-leadership-initiative-on-malnutrition-glim-meeting-at-the-espen-congress-2016
#15
EDITORIAL
Tommy Cederholm, Gordon L Jensen
During the ESPEN Congress in Copenhagen, Denmark (September 2016) representatives of the 4 largest global PEN-societies from Europe (ESPEN), USA (ASPEN), Asia (PENSA) and Latin America (FELANPE), and from national PEN-societies around the world met to continue the conversation on how to diagnose malnutrition that started during the Clinical Nutrition Week, Austin, USA (February 2016). Current thinking on diagnostic approaches was shared; ESPEN suggested a grading approach that could encompass various types of signs, symptoms and etiologies to support diagnosis...
December 16, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033185/use-of-the-body-composition-monitor-for-fluid-status-measurements-in-elderly-malnourished-subjects
#16
David F Keane, Kim Bowra, Kathryn Kearney, Elizabeth Lindley
Most haemodialysis (HD) patients are able to finish dialysis at or below the normally hydrated weight determined using the body composition monitor (BCM). However, a minority become symptomatic when they are still fluid overloaded based on BCM-measured overhydration (OH). Malnourished patients frequently fall into this group, suggesting that they may have OH that is inaccessible to ultrafiltration. To isolate any effect of malnutrition on BCM-measured OH from those relating to renal failure, OH measurements for twenty elderly subjects with normal renal function who were classified as malnourished were compared with an age-matched cohort with no known nutritional issues...
December 26, 2016: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032296/vitamin-d-musculoskeletal-health
#17
REVIEW
Harjit Pal Bhattoa, Jerzy Konstantynowicz, Natalia Laszcz, Marek Wojcik, Pawel Pludowski
Perhaps the role of Vitamin D supplementation has been most exhaustively studied in calcium absorption, skeletal wellbeing, muscular potency, balance and risk of falling. Nonetheless, new data has emerged and the recent research on sarcopenia makes the topic increasingly interesting. Given the socioeconomic burden of the musculoskeletal consequences of hypovitaminosis D it is vital to keep abreast with the latest literature in the field. The recommended Vitamin D supplementation dose should suffice to increase the serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D level to 30 ng/mL (75 nmol/L) and this level should be optimally maintained with a maintenance dose, particularly for those diagnosed with osteoporosis...
December 29, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032232/effectiveness-of-a-preoperative-exercise-and-nutritional-support-program-for-elderly-sarcopenic-patients-with-gastric-cancer
#18
Kazuyoshi Yamamoto, Yukiko Nagatsuma, Yasunari Fukuda, Motohiro Hirao, Kazuhiro Nishikawa, Atsushi Miyamoto, Masataka Ikeda, Shoji Nakamori, Mitsugu Sekimoto, Kazumasa Fujitani, Toshimasa Tsujinaka
We established a preoperative exercise and nutritional support program for elderly sarcopenic patients with gastric cancer. Twenty-two gastric cancer patients aged 65 years or older with a diagnosis of sarcopenia according to the algorithm proposed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People received our preoperative program. The median duration of the program participation was 16 days. Total calorie and protein intakes were significantly higher after the program than before [29.4 ± 6.9 kcal/kg ideal body weight (IBW) vs 27...
December 28, 2016: Gastric Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031974/physical-activity-and-sarcopenic-obesity-definition-assessment-prevalence-and-mechanism
#19
REVIEW
Duck-Chul Lee, Robin P Shook, Clemens Drenowatz, Steven N Blair
Sarcopenic obesity is the coexistance of sarcopenia and obesity. Modern sarcopenia definition includes low muscle mass, weak muscle strength (handgrip strength) and poor physical function (slow walking), although the clinical definition of each varies worldwide. The cut-points for low muscle mass for men and women using appendicular lean mass divided by height (kg/m(2)) are ≤7.0 and ≤5.4 in Asians, and ≤7.23 and ≤5.67 in Caucasians, respectively. The cut-points for weak handgrip strength (kg) for men and women are <26 and <18 in Asians, and <30 and <20 in Caucasians, respectively...
September 2016: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031025/estimation-of-prevalence-of-sarcopenia-by-using-a-new-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-in-chinese-community-dwelling-elderly-people
#20
Hui Wang, Shan Hai, Li Cao, Jianghua Zhou, Ping Liu, Bi-Rong Dong
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to validate the usefulness of the new octapolar multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for assessment of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) by comparing it with that of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia in Chinese community-dwelling elderly according to Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) definition. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in communities of Chengdu, China...
December 28, 2016: BMC Geriatrics
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