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Sarcopenia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932364/mortality-in-the-hertfordshire-ageing-study-association-with-level-and-loss-of-hand-grip-strength-in-later-life
#1
Holly Emma Syddall, Leo David Westbury, Richard Dodds, Elaine Dennison, Cyrus Cooper, Avan Aihie Sayer
BACKGROUND: weak hand grip strength in later life is a risk factor for disability, morbidity and mortality and is central to definitions of sarcopenia and frailty. It is unclear whether rate of change in grip strength adds to level of grip strength as a risk factor for poor ageing outcomes. METHODS: study participants were 292 community-dwelling men and women whose grip strength was measured during the 1994/5 (average age 67) and 2003/5 (average age 76) phases of the Hertfordshire Ageing Study, UK...
December 7, 2016: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931723/psoas-muscle-area-as-a-predictor-of-outcomes-in-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation
#2
Lohit Garg, Sahil Agrawal, Timothy Pew, George S Hanzel, Amr E Abbas, Michael J Gallagher, Francis L Shannon, Ivan D Hanson
Frailty is a powerful predictor of outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Sarcopenia as assessed by psoas muscle area (PMA) is a validated tool to assess frailty before surgical procedures. We evaluated PMA as a predictor of outcomes after TAVI in 152 consecutive patients who underwent this procedure at our institution from 2011 to 2014. Preoperative computed tomography scans were used to measure PMA, which then was indexed to body surface area. Outcomes evaluated included (1) early poor outcome (30 days mortality, stroke, dialysis, and prolonged ventilation), (2) 1-year mortality, and (3) high-resource utilization (length of stay >7 days, discharge to rehabilitation, or readmission within 30 days)...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931104/malnutrition-risk-questionnaire-combined-with-body-composition-measurement-in-malnutrition-screening-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#3
Ágnes Anna Csontos, Andrea Molnár, Zsolt Piri, Erzsébet Pálfi, Pál Miheller
The purpose of malnutrition screening is to predict the probability of a worse outcome due to nutritional factors. The Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) can be used for screening in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, it does not provide details about body composition. Our aim was to assess the body composition and combine this with the MUST method to screen risk of malnutrition and sarcopenia. A total of 173 IBD outpatients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The MUST scale indicated 21...
December 9, 2016: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925341/skeletal-muscle-atrophy-is-induced-by-fbxw7%C3%AE-via-atrogene-upregulation
#4
Kyungshin Shin, Young-Gyu Ko, Jaemin Jeong, Heechung Kwon
Muscle atrophy decreases skeletal muscle mass and is induced by inherited cachectic symptoms, genetic disorders, and sarcopenia. However, the molecular pathways associated with the onset of muscle atrophy are still unclear. In this study, we evaluated Fbxw7β, a gene associated with the development of muscle atrophy in vitro and in vivo. Among the three Fbxw7 isoforms, ectopically overexpressed Fbxw7β induced the expression of myogenin and major atrogene markers (atrogin-1 and MuRF-1) and reduced myoblast differentiation...
December 7, 2016: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925147/incidence-risk-factors-and-the-protective-effect-of-high-body-mass-index-against-sarcopenia-in-suburb-dwelling-elderly-chinese-populations
#5
P Han, J Zhao, Q Guo, J Wang, W Zhang, S Shen, X Wang, R Dong, Y Ma, L Kang, L Fu, L Jia, X Han, Z He, Y Bao, L Wang, K Niu
BACKGROUND: Few studies have explored the risk factors of sarcopenia in certain cohorts. The objective of this study was to examine the incidence of sarcopenia and associated factors over a 1-year period in an elderly Chinese suburban population. METHODS: This study was conducted on 356 Chinese suburb-dwelling participants aged ≥60 years, for whom detailed information regarding sociodemographics, behavioral characteristics, and medical conditions had been documented...
2016: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925146/assessment-of-diagnostics-tools-for-sarcopenia-severity-using-the-item-response-theory-irt
#6
M Steffl, M Musalek, V Kramperova, M Petr, E Kohlikova, I Holmerova, L Volicer
OBJECTIVE: To use the item response theory (IRT) methods to examine the degree to which the four selected tools reflect sarcopenia and to arrange them according to their ability to estimate sarcopenia severity. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study aimed at verifying the possibilities of using diagnostic tools for sarcopenia. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The study included residents living in an assisted living unit at the Senior Centre in Blansko (South Moravia, Czech Republic) (n=77)...
2016: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923981/sarcopenia-and-frailty-in-chronic-respiratory-disease-lessons-from-gerontology
#7
Anna E Bone, Nilay Hepgul, Samantha Kon, Matthew Maddocks
Sarcopenia and frailty are geriatric syndromes characterized by multisystem decline, which are related to and reflected by markers of skeletal muscle dysfunction. In older people, sarcopenia and frailty have been used for risk stratification, to predict adverse outcomes and to prompt intervention aimed at preventing decline in those at greatest risk. In this review, we examine sarcopenia and frailty in the context of chronic respiratory disease, providing an overview of the common assessments tools and studies to date in the field...
December 6, 2016: Chronic Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922919/association-between-sarcopenia-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-cancer-survivors
#8
Su Jung Lee, Nam Cho Kim
BACKGROUND: Advanced cancer treatments have improved survival from cancer, but the incidence of cardiovascular disease in survivors has recently increased. Sarcopenia and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are related to cancer survival, and sarcopenia is an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, evidence of a relationship between sarcopenia and MetS in cancer survivors is lacking. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and MetS in cancer survivors and to investigate independent predictors of MetS in cancer survivors...
December 5, 2016: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922824/impaired-energy-metabolism-of-senescent-muscle-satellite-cells-is-associated-with-oxidative-modifications-of-glycolytic-enzymes
#9
Martín A Baraibar, Janek Hyzewicz, Adelina Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Anne-Laure Bulteau, Carina Prip-Buus, Gillian Butler-Browne, Bertrand Friguet
Accumulation of oxidized proteins is a hallmark of cellular and organismal aging. Adult muscle stem cell (or satellite cell) replication and differentiation is compromised with age contributing to sarcopenia. However, the molecular events related to satellite cell dysfunction during aging are not completely understood. In the present study we have addressed the potential impact of oxidatively modified proteins on the altered metabolism of senescent human satellite cells. By using a modified proteomics analysis we have found that proteins involved in protein quality control and glycolytic enzymes are the main targets of oxidation (carbonylation) and modification with advanced glycation/lipid peroxidation end products during the replicative senescence of satellite cells...
December 4, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918964/sarcopenia-in-older-mice-is-characterized-by-a-decreased-anabolic-response-to-a-protein-meal
#10
Miriam van Dijk, Jolanda Nagel, Francina J Dijk, Jerôme Salles, Sjors Verlaan, Stephane Walrand, Klaske van Norren, Yvette Luiking
Ageing is associated with sarcopenia, a progressive decline of skeletal muscle mass, muscle quality and muscle function. Reduced sensitivity of older muscles to respond to anabolic stimuli, i.e. anabolic resistance, is part of the underlying mechanisms. Although, muscle parameters have been studied in mice of various ages/strains; the aim was to study if mice display similar deteriorating processes as human ageing. Therefore, 10,16,21 and 25 months-old C57BL6/6J male mice were studied to measure parameters of sarcopenia and factors contributing to its pathophysiology, with the aim of characterizing sarcopenia in old mice...
November 27, 2016: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914496/computed-tomography-derived-skeletal-muscle-index-a-novel-predictor-of-frailty-and-hospital-length-of-stay-after-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement
#11
Vishal Dahya, Jingjie Xiao, Carla M Prado, Penny Burroughs, Dan McGee, Aline C Silva, Julian E Hurt, Shafi G Mohamed, Thomas Noel, Wayne Batchelor
: To determine the prevalence of low skeletal muscle mass in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and whether skeletal muscle mass measured from preoperative computed tomography (CT) images provides value in predicting postoperative length of stay (LOS). BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the use of body composition as a frailty measure in TAVR patients and no studies have determined if this measure predicts LOS. METHODS: We studied 104 consecutive patients who underwent TAVR at Tallahassee Memorial Hospital from 2012 to 2016...
December 2016: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914295/sarcopenia-and-post-hospital-outcomes-in-older-adults-a-longitudinal-study
#12
Mario Ulises Pérez-Zepeda, Aldo Sgaravatti, Elsa Dent
INTRODUCTION: Sarcopenia poses a significant problem for older adults, yet very little is known about this medical condition in the hospital setting. The aims of this hospital-based study were to determine: (i) the prevalence of sarcopenia; (ii) factors associated with sarcopenia; and (iii) the association of sarcopenia with adverse clinical outcomes post-hospitalisation. METHODS: This is a longitudinal analysis of consecutive patients aged ≥70 years admitted to a Geriatric Management and Evaluation Unit (GEMU) ward...
November 17, 2016: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910102/association-of-serum-klotho-with-loss-of-bone-mineral-density-and-fracture-risk-in-older-adults
#13
Didier Chalhoub, Elisa Marques, Osorio Meirelles, Richard D Semba, Luigi Ferrucci, Suzanne Satterfield, Michael Nevitt, Jane A Cauley, Tamara Harris
OBJECTIVES: Klotho deficiency has been previously linked to aging-like phenotypes such as osteoporosis, cognitive impairment, and sarcopenia. Low serum klotho was shown to be related to grip strength and disability. Nonetheless, no previous study has explored the association between serum klotho and fractures. The purpose of this report is to examine the relationship of serum klotho with bone mineral density (BMD) loss and fractures in older adults. DESIGN: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study is a longitudinal cohort study of 3,075 community-dwelling older adults...
December 2, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907044/coenzyme-q10-status-as-a-determinant-of-muscular-strength-in-two-independent-cohorts
#14
Alexandra Fischer, Simone Onur, Petra Niklowitz, Thomas Menke, Matthias Laudes, Gerald Rimbach, Frank Döring
Aging is associated with sarcopenia, which is a loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is involved in several important functions that are related to bioenergetics and protection against oxidative damage; however, the role of CoQ10 as a determinant of muscular strength is not well documented. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the determinants of muscular strength by examining hand grip force in relation to CoQ10 status, gender, age and body mass index (BMI) in two independent cohorts (n = 334, n = 967)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903148/obesity-and-energy-balance-in-gi-cancer
#15
Justin C Brown, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt
The prevalence of overweight (body mass index [BMI], 25 to 29.9 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) have increased dramatically in the United States. Because increasing BMI is associated with the development of multiple different cancer types, including most GI cancers, providers will frequently encounter patients with GI cancer who are overweight or obese. Mounting evidence associates overweight and/or obesity with worsened prognosis in multiple GI cancers, including esophageal, gastric, hepatocellular, pancreatic, and colorectal...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900103/muscle-wasting-associated-with-the-long-term-use-of-mtor-inhibitors
#16
Bishal Gyawali, Tomoya Shimokata, Kazunori Honda, Chihiro Kondoh, Naomi Hayashi, Yasushi Yoshino, Naoto Sassa, Yasuyuki Nakano, Momokazu Gotoh, Yuichi Ando
Some targeted therapies alter muscle mass due to interference with pathways of muscle metabolism. The effects of mammalian target of ra pamycin (mTOR) inhibitors on muscle mass have yet to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the computerized tomography (CT) scans of patients receiving mTOR inhibitors for at least 6 months taken at baseline and post-therapy were retrospectively retrieved, and body composition analyses were performed using the software, sliceOmatic version 5.0 (TomoVision, Inc., Magog, QC, Canada)...
November 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899894/moderate-load-eccentric-exercise-a-distinct-novel-training-modality
#17
REVIEW
Hans Hoppeler
Over the last 20 years a number of studies have been published using progressive eccentric exercise protocols on motorized ergometers or similar devices that allow for controlled application of eccentric loads. Exercise protocols ramp eccentric loads over an initial 3 weeks period in order to prevent muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness. Final training loads reach 400-500 W in rehabilitative settings and over 1200 W in elite athletes. Training is typically carried out three times per week for durations of 20-30 min...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897431/prevalence-and-incidence-of-sarcopenia-in-the-very-old-findings-from-the-newcastle-85-study
#18
Richard Matthew Dodds, Antoneta Granic, Karen Davies, Thomas B L Kirkwood, Carol Jagger, Avan Aihie Sayer
INTRODUCTION: Recognition that an older person has sarcopenia is important because this condition is linked to a range of adverse outcomes. Sarcopenia becomes increasingly common with age, and yet there are few data concerning its descriptive epidemiology in the very old (aged 85 years and above). Our aims were to describe risk factors for sarcopenia and estimate its prevalence and incidence in a British sample of the very old. METHODS: We used data from two waves (2006/07 and 2009/10) of the Newcastle 85+ Study, a cohort born in 1921 and registered with a Newcastle/North Tyneside general practice...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897430/validation-of-the-sarqol%C3%A2-a-specific-health-related-quality-of-life-questionnaire-for-sarcopenia
#19
Charlotte Beaudart, Emmanuel Biver, Jean-Yves Reginster, René Rizzoli, Yves Rolland, Ivan Bautmans, Jean Petermans, Sophie Gillain, Fanny Buckinx, Nadia Dardenne, Olivier Bruyère
BACKGROUND: A specific self-administrated health-related quality of life questionnaire for sarcopenia, the Sarcopenia and Quality Of Life (SarQoL®), has been recently developed. This questionnaire is composed of 55 items translated into 22 questions and organized into seven domains of quality of life. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the psychometric properties (discriminative power, validity, reliability, floor and ceiling effects) of the SarQoL® questionnaire. METHODS: Sarcopenic subjects were recruited in an outpatient clinic in Liège, Belgium and were diagnosed according to the algorithm developed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897417/sarcopenia-and-physical-independence-in-older-adults-the-independent-and-synergic-role-of-muscle-mass-and-muscle-function
#20
Leandro Dos Santos, Edilson S Cyrino, Melissa Antunes, Diana A Santos, Luís B Sardinha
BACKGROUND: The loss of skeletal muscle mass (MM) or muscle function (MF) alone increases the risk for losing physical independence in older adults. We aimed to examine the independent and synergic associations of low MM and low MF, both criteria of sarcopenia, with the risk for losing projected physical independence in later life (+90 years old). METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted in 3493 non-institutionalized older adults (1166 males). Physical independence was assessed with a 12-item composite physical function scale...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
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