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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089933/hfb7-a-novel-orphan-hydrophobin-of-the-harzianum-and-virens-clades-of-trichoderma-is-involved-in-response-to-biotic-and-abiotic-stresses
#1
Agnes Przylucka, Gunseli Bayram Akcapinar, Komal Chenthamara, Feng Cai, Marica Grujuc, Juriy Karpenko, Miriam Livoi, Qirong Shen, Christian P Kubicek, Irina S Druzhinina
Hydrophobins are small secreted cysteine-rich proteins exclusively found in fungi. They are able to self-assemble in single molecular layers at hydrophobic-hydrophilic interfaces and can therefore be directly involved in establishment of fungi in their habitat. The genomes of filamentous mycotrophic fungi Trichoderma encode a rich diversity of hydrophobins, which are divided in several groups based on their structure and evolution. Here we describe a new member of class II hydrophobins, HFB7, that has a taxonomically restricted occurrence in Harzianum and Virens clades of Trichoderma...
January 12, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089049/variation-in-virulence-of-beauveria-bassiana-and-b-pseudobassiana-to-the-pine-weevil-pissodes-nemorensis-in-relation-to-mycelium-characteristics-and-virulence-genes
#2
Pedro Romón, Hardus Hatting, Arturo Goldarazena, Juan Carlos Iturrondobeitia
Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria spp. have potential applications in the biocontrol of insect pests but little is known regarding their infectivity to the pine weevil Pissodes nemorensis. In this study, five isolates of Beauveria pseudobassiana and five isolates of Beauveria bassiana were tested for characteristics correlating with virulence on P. nemorensis. Isolate UAMH301 had the lowest mean lethal concentration value whereas the highest value was obtained with isolate LRC137. Growth rate was negatively correlated with virulence in B...
February 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089048/identification-of-a-arborescens-a-grandis-and-a-protenta-as-new-members-of-the-european-alternaria-population-on-potato
#3
Sofie Landschoot, Michiel Vandecasteele, Bernard De Baets, Monica Höfte, Kris Audenaert, Geert Haesaert
Alternaria species, primarily the small-spored Alternaria alternata and the large-spored Alternaria solani, are considered a serious threat to potato cultivation. To develop control strategies, it is important to gain insight into the Alternaria population. Based on the sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene, the small-spored and large-spored Alternaria isolates could be separated from each other. Sequence analyses of the calmodulin gene and the RNA polymerase second largest subunit showed that besides A...
February 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088096/mycelium-transformation-of-streptomyces-toxytricini-into-pellet-role-of-culture-conditions-and-kinetics
#4
Punit Kumar, Kashyap Kumar Dubey
The present study envisages the role of different carbon sources, nitrogen sources, metals, pH, inoculum volume and agitation rate in pellet formation of S. toxytricini at shake-flask level. It was found that galactose, ammonium sulphate, sodium nitrate, Cu(2+), Zn(2+), higher inoculum volume (5% v/v) and agitation rate at 300rpm caused significant reduction in pellet size (up to the range of 30μm-0.5mm) but biomass formations was also reduced subsequently. Interestingly diffused type of morphology was obtained in Fe(2+) supplemented medium with reduced biomass (1...
January 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087930/fungal-ecology-principles-and-mechanisms-of-colonization-and-competition-by-saprotrophic-fungi
#5
Lynne Boddy, Jennifer Hiscox
Decomposer fungi continually deplete the organic resources they inhabit, so successful colonization of new resources is a crucial part of their ecology. Colonization success can be split into (i) the ability to arrive at, gain entry into, and establish within a resource and (ii) the ability to persist within the resource until reproduction and dissemination. Fungi vary in their life history strategies, the three main drivers of which are stress (S-selected), disturbance (ruderal, or R-selected), and incidence of competitors (C-selected); however, fungi often have combinations of characteristics from different strategies...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079907/retention-of-fungal-enzyme-activity-in-environmental-liquid-and-filter-samples
#6
A Salmela, V Lappalainen, T Reponen, P Pasanen
Fungal biomass can be determined by measuring the beta-N-acetylhexos-aminidase (NAHA) enzyme activity. NAHA, an enzyme present in fungal mycelium and spores, has been detected in inactive, dormant and non-viable cells. Very little information is available on the enzyme activity of different species or retention of the activity under various storage conditions. This study used fluorometry to evaluate the enzyme activity of liquid and filter samples containing spores of four fungal species from genera Penicillium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, and Acremonium...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076886/the-ectomycorrhizal-basidiomycete-hebeloma-cylindrosporum-undergoes-early-waves-of-transcriptional-reprogramming-prior-to-symbiotic-structures-differentiation
#7
Jeanne Doré, Annegret Kohler, Audrey Dubost, Hope Hundley, Vasanth Singan, Yi Peng, Alan Kuo, Igor V Grigoriev, Francis Martin, Roland Marmeisse, And Gilles Gay
To clarify the early molecular interaction between ectomycorrhizal partners, we performed a RNA-Seq study of transcriptome reprogramming of the basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum before symbiotic structure differentiation with Pinus pinaster. Mycorrhiza transcriptome was studied for comparison. By reference to asymbiotic mycelium, 47 and 46 genes were specifically up-regulated over five-fold (p≤0.05) upon rhizosphere colonization and root adhesion respectively. Other 45 were up-regulated throughout the symbiotic interaction, from rhizosphere colonization to differentiated mycorrhizas, whereas 274 were specifically up-regulated in mycorrhizas...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073400/haloactinomyces-albus-gen-nov-sp-nov-isolated-from-dead-sea
#8
Hangxian Lai, Yingying Jiang, Xiu Chen, Qinyuan Li, Chenglin Jiang, Yi Jiang, Xiaomin Wei
A novel halophilic, filamentous actinomycete strain, designated AFM 10258T, was isolated from a sediment sample collected from Dead Sea of Israel. The isolate grew with 10-35% NaCl and did not grow without NaCl. The isolate formed white aerial mycelium and long spore chains, and two spores were separated by sterile mycelium. The spores were non-motile, spherical and rugose-surfaced. The isolate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and galactose and arabinose as the major whole-cell sugars...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073395/actinophytocola-xanthii-sp-nov-a-novel-actinomycete-isolated-from-rhizosphere-soil-of-the-plant-xanthium-sibiricum
#9
Wei Wang, Bin Wang, Haoyi Meng, Zhaobin Xing, Qiliang Lai, Lijie Yuan
A novel actinomycete strain, 11-183T, was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Xanthium sibiricum, which was collected in Tangshan, Hebei, China. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain 11-183T formed a clade within the genus Actinophytocola, with a maximum similarity of 98.44 % to Actinophytocola xinjiangensis QAIII60T, followed by 97.76 % similarity to Actinophytocola sediminis YIM M13705T(97.76%). The average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values differed by 79...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072879/transcriptomic-analysis-of-calonectria-pseudoreteaudii-during-various-stages-of-eucalyptus-infection
#10
Xiaozhen Ye, Hongyi Liu, Yajie Jin, Mengmeng Guo, Aizhen Huang, Quanzhu Chen, Wenshuo Guo, Feiping Zhang, Lizhen Feng
Eucalyptus leaf blight caused by Calonectria spp. is a serious disease in Eucalyptus seedling and plantations. However, the molecular mechanisms of the infection process and pathogenesis of Calonectria to Eucalyptus is not well-studied. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptomes of C. pseudoreteaudii at three stages of Eucalyptus leaf infection, and in mycelium grown in potato dextrose broth using Illumina RNA-Seq technology. We identified 161 differentially expressed genes between C. pseudoreteaudii from leaf and mycelium grown in potato dextrose broth...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070827/glutamic-acid-promotes-monacolin-k-production-and-monacolin-k-biosynthetic-gene-cluster-expression-in-monascus
#11
Chan Zhang, Jian Liang, Le Yang, Shiyuan Chai, Chenxi Zhang, Baoguo Sun, Chengtao Wang
This study investigated the effects of glutamic acid on production of monacolin K and expression of the monacolin K biosynthetic gene cluster. When Monascus M1 was grown in glutamic medium instead of in the original medium, monacolin K production increased from 48.4 to 215.4 mg l(-1), monacolin K production increased by 3.5 times. Glutamic acid enhanced monacolin K production by upregulating the expression of mokB-mokI; on day 8, the expression level of mokA tended to decrease by Reverse Transcription-polymerase Chain Reaction...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066872/comparative-genomics-and-expression-levels-of-hydrophobins-from-eight-mycorrhizal-genomes
#12
F Rineau, H Lmalem, D Ahren, F Shah, T Johansson, L Coninx, J Ruytinx, H Nguyen, I Grigoriev, A Kuo, A Kohler, E Morin, J Vangronsveld, F Martin, J V Colpaert
Hydrophobins are small secreted proteins that are present as several gene copies in most fungal genomes. Their properties are now well understood: they are amphiphilic and assemble at hydrophilic/hydrophobic interfaces. However, their physiological functions remain largely unexplored, especially within mycorrhizal fungi. In this study, we identified hydrophobin genes and analysed their distribution in eight mycorrhizal genomes. We then measured their expression levels in three different biological conditions (mycorrhizal tissue vs...
January 9, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063182/biogeochemical-spatio-temporal-transformation-of-copper-in-aspergillus-niger-colonies-grown-on-malachite-with-different-inorganic-nitrogen-sources
#13
Marina Fomina, Andrew D Bowen, John M Charnock, Valentin S Podgorsky, Geoffrey M Gadd
This work elucidates spatio-temporal aspects of the biogeochemical transformation of copper mobilized from malachite (Cu2 (CO3 )(OH)2 ) and bioaccumulated within Aspergillus niger colonies when grown on different inorganic nitrogen sources. It was shown that the use of either ammonium or nitrate determined how copper was distributed within the colony and its microenvironment and the copper oxidation state and succession of copper coordinating ligands within the biomass. Nitrate-grown colonies yielded ∼1.7× more biomass, bioaccumulated ∼7× less copper, excreted ∼1...
January 7, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046129/isolation-culture-and-characterization-of-hirsutella-sinensis-mycelium-from-caterpillar-fungus-fruiting-body
#14
Yun-Fei Ko, Jian-Ching Liau, Chien-Sheng Lee, Chen-Yaw Chiu, Jan Martel, Chuan-Sheng Lin, Shun-Fu Tseng, David M Ojcius, Chia-Chen Lu, Hsin-Chih Lai, John D Young
The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (previously called Cordyceps sinensis) has been used for centuries in Asia as a tonic to improve health and longevity. Recent studies show that O. sinensis produces a wide range of biological effects on cells, laboratory animals and humans, including anti-fatigue, anti-infection, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-tumor activities. In view of the rarity of O. sinensis fruiting bodies in nature, cultivation of its anamorph mycelium represents a useful alternative for large-scale production...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038419/comparison-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungal-effects-on-the-heavy-metal-uptake-of-a-host-and-a-non-host-plant-species-in-contact-with-extraradical-mycelial-network
#15
Mejda Mnasri, Martina Janoušková, Jana Rydlová, Chedly Abdelly, Tahar Ghnaya
The effects of inoculation with an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus on Cd and Ni tolerance and uptake in Medicago sativa, an AM host, and Sesuvium portulacastrum, a non-host plant, were investigated in a greenhouse experiment. The plants were cultivated in sterilized sand in a two-compartmented system, which prevented root competition but enabled colonization of the whole substrate by AM fungal extraradical mycelium. M. sativa was either left non-inoculated or inoculated with the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis, and both plants were either cultivated without heavy metal (HM) addition or supplied with cadmium (Cd) or nickel (Ni), each in two doses...
December 22, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036245/mangrovihabitans-endophyticus-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-new-member-of-the-family-micromonosporaceae-isolated-from-bruguiera-sexangula
#16
Shao-Wei Liu, Li Tuo, Xiao-Jun Li, Fei-Na Li, Jing Li, Ming-Guo Jiang, Li Chen, Lin Hu, Cheng-Hang Sun
A novel endophytic actinobacterium, designated strain S3Cf-2T, was isolated from a surface-sterilized bark of Bruguiera sexangula collected from Dongzhaigang National Nature Reserve in Hainan Province, China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences suggested that strain S3Cf-2T fell within the family Micromonosporaceae and formed a distinct clade in the Micromonosporaceae phylogenetic tree. The similarity values between S3Cf-2T and the type species of 30 genera in the family Micromonosporaceae were 91...
December 30, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034645/protein-acetylation-involved-in-streptomycin-biosynthesis-in-streptomyces-griseus
#17
Yuji Ishigaki, Genki Akanuma, Minoru Yoshida, Sueharu Horinouchi, Saori Kosono, Yasuo Ohnishi
Protein acetylation, the reversible addition of an acetyl group to lysine residues, is a protein post-translational modification ubiquitous in living cells. Although the involvement of protein acetylation in the regulation of primary metabolism has been revealed, the function of protein acetylation is largely unknown in secondary metabolism. Here, we characterized protein acetylation in Streptomyces griseus, a streptomycin producer. Protein acetylation was induced in the stationary and sporulation phases in liquid and solid cultures, respectively, in S...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027026/host-tissue-environment-directs-activities-of-an-epichlo%C3%A3-endophyte-while-it-induces-systemic-hormone-and-defense-responses-in-its-native-perennial-ryegrass-host
#18
Jan Schmid, Robert Day, Ningxin Zhang, Pierre-Yves Dupont, Murray P Cox, Christopher Lewis Schardl, Niki Minards, Mauro Truglio, Neil Moore, Daniel R Harris, Yanfei Zhou
Increased resilience of pasture grasses mediated by fungal Epichloë endophytes is crucial to pastoral industries. The underlying mechanisms are only partially understood and likely involve very different activities of the endophyte in different plant tissues and responses of the plant to these. We analyzed the transcriptomes of Epichloë festucae and its host Lolium perenne in host tissues of different function and developmental stages. The endophyte contributed approximately 10x more to the transcriptomes than to the biomass of infected tissues...
December 27, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018402/biocontrol-potential-of-streptomyces-hydrogenans-strain-dh16-toward-alternaria-brassicicola-to-control-damping-off-and-black-leaf-spot-of-raphanus-sativus
#19
Rajesh K Manhas, Talwinder Kaur
Biocontrol agents and their bioactive metabolites provide one of the best alternatives to decrease the use of chemical pesticides. In light of this, the present investigation reports the biocontrol potential of Streptomyces hydrogenans DH16 and its metabolites towards Alternaria brassicicola, causal agent of black leaf spot and damping off of seedlings of crucifers. In vitro antibiosis of strain against pathogen revealed complete suppression of mycelial growth of pathogen, grown in potato dextrose broth supplemented with culture supernatant (20% v/v) of S...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008808/antitumor-activity-of-extracts-from-medicinal-basidiomycetes-mushrooms
#20
Elena Vetchinkina, Alexandr Shirokov, Alla Bucharskaya, Nikita Navolokin, Artur Prilepskii, Andrey Burov, Galina Maslyakova, Valentina E Nikitina
Aqueous extracts from the vegetative submerged mycelia of cultivated Basidiomycetes Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes, and Grifola frondosa, as well as from the fruiting bodies of G. lucidum, were found to have antitumor activity. The antitumor effect of the mycelial extracts from all 3 fungal species was ascertained in vivo in rats with implanted kidney cancer. Dystrophic changes in tumor cells and tumor necrosis (up to 90%) were noted. In vitro cytotoxicity studies of the A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line and HEp-2 human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma cells showed that the extracts from the G...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
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