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Freek V W Appels, Jan Dijksterhuis, Catherine E Lukasiewicz, Kaspar M B Jansen, Han A B Wösten, Pauline Krijgsheld
Filamentous fungi colonize substrates by forming a mycelium. This network of hyphae can be used as a bio-based material. Here, we assessed the impact of environmental growth conditions and deletion of the hydrophobin gene sc3 on material properties of the mycelium of the mushroom forming fungus Schizophyllum commune. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that Δsc3 mycelium retained more water with increasing temperature when compared to the wild type. The Young's modulus (E) of the mycelium ranged between 438 and 913 MPa when the wild type strain was grown in the dark or in the light at low or high CO2 levels...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anna Koziróg, Bogumił Brycki, Katarzyna Pielech-Przybylska
This study investigates the biological activity of two cationic gemini surfactants, hexamethylene-1,6-bis-( N , N -dimethyl- N -dodecylammonium bromide) C6 and pentamethylene-1,5-bis-( N , N -dimethyl- N -dodecyla,.mmonium bromide) C5, and their two neutral analogs, hexamethylene-1,6-bis-( N -methyl- N -dodecylamine) (A6) and pentamethylene-1,5-bis-( N -methyl- N -dodecylamine) (A5). Experiments were performed with Aspergillus brasiliensis , which is used in the standard tests for biocides. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for conidia and mycelium were determined using the dilution method...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Chitti Thawai
A novel actinomycete, designated strain DH51B-4-3T , which formed long chains of spherical spores borne on the tip of sporophores arising from the aerial mycelium, was isolated from rice rhizosphere soil. The isolate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The whole-cell sugars of strain DH51B-4-3T were arabinose, galactose, glucose, rhamnose and ribose. The phospholipids in the cell membrane were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidyl methylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Donato Gerin, Luis González-Candelas, Ana-Rosa Ballester, Stefania Pollastro, Rita Milvia De Miccolis Angelini, Francesco Faretra
Aspergillus carbonarius, belonging to the group Nigri , is the main species responsible for contamination by ochratoxin A (OTA) in grapes and derivative products. OTA can accumulate in the mycelium and in black conidia of the fungus and released into the matrix. Here, we have deleted in A. carbonarius the alb1 orthologue gene of A. fumigatus , involved in melanin biosynthesis. Three A. carbonarius Δ alb1 mutants were characterized for morphologic traits and OTA production on different media and temperatures...
March 12, 2018: Toxins
Celia Munck, Elsa Thierry, Sarah Gräßle, Si Hui Chen, Adeline Su Yien Ting
The isolate Coriolopsis sp. (1c3) was cultured on muslin cloth to induce formation of filamentous biofilm. The biofilm and the free-mycelium forms (control) were then used to treat two triphenylmethane dyes; Cotton Blue (CB) and Crystal Violet (CV). The biofilm comprised primarily of a compact mass of mycelium while sparse mycelium network was detected in free-mycelium forms. Results revealed significant decolourization activities by filamentous biofilm of 1c3 for CB (79.6%) and CV (85.1%), compared to free-mycelium forms (72...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Maurice Tibiru Apaliya, Hongyin Zhang, Xiangfeng Zheng, Qiya Yang, Gustav K Mahunu, Emmanuel Kwaw
BACKGROUND: Primarily, chemical pesticides are commonly used to control pre- and postharvest diseases of fruits and vegetables. However, there is a strong public apprehension on the probable human and environmental health problems that emanate from the residues of these chemical pesticides. As a result, biocontrol is often preferred due to its safety on humans and animals. The microbial antagonists employed are often encountered with variable climatic conditions which affect their efficacy...
March 13, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Boris Zacchetti, Agathoklis Andrianos, Dino van Dissel, Evelien de Ruiter, Gilles P van Wezel, Dennis Claessen
BACKGROUND: Filamentous bacteria of the genus Streptomyces produce a large arsenal of industrially relevant antibiotics and enzymes. The industrial production of these molecules occurs in large fermenters, where many streptomycetes form dense mycelial networks called pellets. Pellets are characterized by slow growth and inefficient nutrient transfer and therefore regarded as undesirable from the perspective of productivity. Although non-pelleting strains have increased growth rates, their morphology also leads to a dramatic increase in the viscosity of the culture broth, which negatively impacts the process dynamics...
March 12, 2018: BMC Biotechnology
Imane Laraba, Abdelaziz Keddad, Houda Boureghda, Nora Abdallah, Martha M Vaughan, Robert H Proctor, Mark Busman, Kerry O'Donnell
A novel crown rot pathogen of wheat discovered during pathogen surveys in Algeria in 2014 and 2015 is formally described as Fusarium algeriense. Multilocus molecular phylogenetic data resolved the eight isolates of this pathogen as a genealogically exclusive species lineage in the F. burgessii species complex. The previously described species of this complex, F. burgessii and F. beomiforme, produce abundant chlamydospores in culture, and their optimal temperature for growth is 30 C. In comparison, F. algeriense did not produce chlamydospores under the conditions tested and its optimal temperature for growth is 25 C...
February 13, 2018: Mycologia
Bianca Braz Mattos, Caroline Montebianco, Elisson Romanel, Tatiane da Franca Silva, Renato Barroso Bernabé, Fernanda Simas-Tosin, Lauro M Souza, Guilherme L Sassaki, Maite F S Vaslin, Eliana Barreto-Bergter
Cladosporium herbarum is a plant pathogen associated with passion fruit scab and mild diseases in pea and soybean. In this study, a peptidogalactomannan (pGM) of C. herbarum mycelium was isolated and structurally characterized, and its role in plant-fungus interactions was evaluated. C. herbarum pGM is composed of carbohydrates (76%) and contains mannose, galactose and glucose as its main monosaccharides (molar ratio, 52:36:12). Methylation and13 C-nuclear magnetic resonance (13 C-NMR) spectroscopy analysis have shown the presence of a main chain containing (1 → 6)-linked α-D-Manp residues, and β-D-Galf residues are present as (1 → 5)-interlinked side chains...
March 2, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Sheila J Sestari, Wesley A Brito, Bruno J Neves, Celia M A Soares, Silvia M Salem-Izacc
A critical step in the lifecycle of many fungal pathogens is the ability to switch between filamentous and yeast growth, a process known as dimorphism. cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) controls morphological changes and the pathogenicity of several animal and plant pathogenic fungi. In this work, we report the analysis of PKA activity during the mycelium to yeast transition in the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides lutzii. This fungus, as well as the closely related species Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, causes paracoccidioidomycosis, a systemic mycosis that affects thousands of people in Latin America...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
María T López-García, Paula Yagüe, Nathaly González-Quiñónez, Beatriz Rioseras, Angel Manteca
Extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors are a major type of bacterial signal-transducers whose biological functions remain poorly characterized in streptomycetes. In this work we studied SCO4117, a conserved ECF sigma factor from the ECF52 family overexpressed during substrate and aerial mycelium stages. The ECF52 sigma factors harbor, in addition to the ECF sigma factor domain, a zinc finger domain, a transmembrane region, a proline-rich C-terminal extension, and a carbohydrate-binding domain. This class of ECF sigma factors is exclusive to Actinobacteria...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Marilize Le Roes-Hill, Kim Durrell, Alaric Prins, Paul R Meyers
The actinobacterium, strain M26T , was isolated from garden soil that was pre-treated with microwave radiation. The soil sample was collected in Roodepoort, Gauteng Province, South Africa as part of an antibiotic-screening programme. The isolate produced branched vegetative mycelium with sporangiophores bearing small sporangia ranging from 3 to 6 μm in diameter. Rapid genus identification revealed that the isolate belongs to the genus Streptosporangium. To confirm this result, the strain was subjected to polyphasic taxonomic characterisation...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
M R Islam, G Tudryn, R Bucinell, L Schadler, R C Picu
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ulrike Steiner, Eckhard Leistner
Naturally occurring and semisynthetic ergot alkaloids play a role in health care or as recreational drugs in Western and indigenous Mexican societies. Evidence is summarized that ergot alkaloids present in Central American Convolvulaceae like Turbina corymbosa, Ipomoea violacea , and Ipomoea asarifolia are colonized by different species of a newly described clavicipitaceous fungal genus named Periglandula . The fungi are associated with peltate glandular trichomes on the adaxial leaf surface of its host plants...
March 2, 2018: Planta Medica
Luciana da Silva Amaral, Edson Rodrigues-Filho, Christian P Kubicek, Christoph Herwig, Martina Marchetti-Deschmann, Günter Allmaier
RATIONALE: Although the fruiting-body of fungi of the genus Xylaria shows a great variety of morphological characteristics, their mycelial form are always very similar, imposing difficulties for their identification. Intact cell mass spectrometry (ICMS) using MALDI TOF MS can be a fast and reliable strategy to support the differentiation/identification of Xylaria species in those cases where fruit-bodies are not available. METHODS: Many experimental parameters such as sample preparation and culture media are crucial for filamentous fungi analysis by MALDI TOF MS...
March 2, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Jinzhe He, Peng Fan, Simin Feng, Ping Shao, Peilong Sun
High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was used to separate and purify two isoflavones for the first time from Hericium erinaceum ( H. erinaceum ) mycelium using a two-phase solvent system composed of chloroform-dichloromethane-methanol-water (4:2:3:2, v / v / v / v ). These two isoflavones were identified as genistein (4',5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone, C15 H10 O₅) and daidzein (4',7-dihydroxyisoflavone, C15 H10 O₄), using infrared spectroscopy (IR), electro-spary ionisation mass (ESI-MS), ¹H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and13 C-NMR spectra...
March 2, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Antonietta Mello, Raffaella Balestrini
The roots of most terrestrial plants are colonized by mycorrhizal fungi. They play a key role in terrestrial environments influencing soil structure and ecosystem functionality. Around them a peculiar region, the mycorrhizosphere, develops. This is a very dynamic environment where plants, soil and microorganisms interact. Interest in this fascinating environment has increased over the years. For a long period the knowledge of the microbial populations in the rhizosphere has been limited, because they have always been studied by traditional culture-based techniques...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yi Yang, Woo Kyun Bae, Sang-Jip Nam, Min-Hye Jeong, Rui Zhou, So-Yeon Park, İsa Taş, Yun-Ho Hwang, Myong-Suk Park, Ik Joo Chung, Kyung Keun Kim, Jae-Seoun Hur, Hangun Kim
BACKGROUND: Endolichenic fungi are microbes that inhabit the thalli of lichens and produce various unique chemicals that can be used for pharmaceutical purposes. PURPOSE: This study screened a library of endolichenic fungal extracts to identify novel anticancer agents capable of suppressing the tumorigenicity of human cancer cells. METHODS: Active compounds were isolated from extracts of endolichenic fungi by column chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC...
February 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Yong-Guang Zhang, Hong-Fei Wang, Dalal Hussien M Alkhalifah, Min Xiao, Xing-Kui Zhou, Yong-Hong Liu, Wael N Hozzein, Wen-Jun Li
A novel endophytic actinobacterium, designated strain EGI 6500139T , was isolated from the surface-sterilized roots of Anabasis aphylla L., collected from Xinjiang, northwest PR China, and subjected to polyphasic taxonomic characterization. Strain EGI 6500139T formed sparse aerial mycelium with rod-like spores. Whole-cell hydrolysates of the isolate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the cell-wall diamino acid, glucose as major sugar, and mannose, galactose, xylose and ribose as minor sugars. The polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, one unidentified glycolipid, one unidentified phospholipid and four unidentified polar lipids...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Alessandro Desirò, Zhen Hao, Julian A Liber, Gian Maria Niccolò Benucci, David Lowry, Robert Roberson, Gregory Bonito
Bacterial interactions with animals and plants have been examined for over a century; by contrast, the study of bacterial-fungal interactions has received less attention. Bacteria interact with fungi in diverse ways, and endobacteria that reside inside fungal cells represent the most intimate interaction. The most significant bacterial endosymbionts that have been studied are associated with Mucoromycota and include two main groups: Burkholderia-related and Mycoplasma-related endobacteria (MRE). Examples of Burkholderia-related endobacteria have been reported in the three Mucoromycota subphyla...
February 23, 2018: ISME Journal
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