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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330299/detection-of-antimicrobial-traits-in-fluorescent-pseudomonads-and-molecular-characterization-of-an-antibiotic-pyoluteorin
#1
J U Vinay, M K Naik, R Rangeshwaran, G Chennappa, Sohel S Shaikh, R Z Sayyed
Thirty isolates of fluorescent pseudomonads were obtained from rhizosphere of different crops in Raichur, India. The fluorescent pseudomonad strains were characterized in vitro for biochemical traits, antimicrobial traits, and pyoluteorin antibiotic production. All the isolates that showed fluorescent pigment production under UV light were rod shaped, Gram negative, positive for oxidase, catalase and citrate utilization tests, and negative for indole test. Out of 30 isolates, 07 isolates were positive for HCN production, 15 isolates were positive for H2S production, and all the isolates were positive for siderophore production...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324684/tea-is-a-key-virulence-factor-for-alternaria-alternata-fr-keissler-infection-of-its-host
#2
Ye Kang, Hongwei Feng, Jingxu Zhang, Shiguo Chen, Bernal E Valverde, Sheng Qiang
A toxin-deficient mutant strain, HP001 mutant of Alternaria alternata, whose mycelium is unable to infect its host, produces little tenuazonic acid (TeA) toxin. How TeA plays a role in initiating host infection by A. alternata remains unclear. In this research we use Imaging-PAM based on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and transmission electron microscopy to explore the role of TeA toxin during the infection process of A. alternata. Photosystem II damage began even before wild type mycelium infected the leaves of its host, croftonweed (Ageratina adenophora)...
March 4, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318785/biodegradation-of-polyester-polyurethane-by-aspergillus-tubingensis
#3
Sehroon Khan, Sadia Nadir, Zia Ullah Shah, Aamer Ali Shah, Samantha C Karunarathna, Jianchu Xu, Afsar Khan, Shahzad Munir, Fariha Hasan
The xenobiotic nature and lack of degradability of polymeric materials has resulted in vast levels of environmental pollution and numerous health hazards. Different strategies have been developed and still more research is being in progress to reduce the impact of these polymeric materials. This work aimed to isolate and characterize polyester polyurethane (PU) degrading fungi from the soil of a general city waste disposal site in Islamabad, Pakistan. A novel PU degrading fungus was isolated from soil and identified as Aspergillus tubingensis on the basis of colony morphology, macro- and micro-morphology, molecular and phylogenetic analyses...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314907/structural-characterization-of-a-putative-chitin-synthase-gene-in-phytophthora-spp-and-analysis-of-its-transcriptional-activity-during-pathogenesis-on-potato-and-soybean-plants
#4
Lauren Hinkel, Manuel D Ospina-Giraldo
Although chitin is a major component of the fungal cell wall, in oomycetes (fungal-like organisms), this compound has only been found in very little amounts, mostly in the cell wall of members of the genera Achlya and Saprolegnia. In the oomycetes Phytophthora infestans and P. sojae the presence of chitin has not been demonstrated; however, the gene putatively encoding chitin synthase (CHS), the enzyme that synthesizes chitin, is present in their genomes. The evolutionary significance of the CHS gene in P. infestans and P...
March 17, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303252/evaluation-of-the-biocontrol-potential-of-purpureocillium-lilacinum-qlp12-against-verticillium-dahliae-in-eggplant
#5
Xingjie Lan, Jing Zhang, Zhaofeng Zong, Qing Ma, Yang Wang
A fungus with broad spectrum antifungal activity was isolated from the soil in Qinling Mountain, Shaanxi Province, in China. The fungus was identified as Purpureocillium lilacinum based on ITS rDNA gene analysis. The strain, coded as QLP12, showed high inhibition activity on fungal mycelium growth in vitro, especially to Mucor piriformis, Trichothecium roseum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Verticillium dahliae, and its potential for biocontrol efficacy of eggplant. Verticillium wilt disease caused by Verticillium dahliae among 10 fungal species tested was explored...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297750/ros-scavenging-and-anti-wrinkle-effects-of-clitocybin-a-isolated-from-the-mycelium-of-the-mushroom-clitocybe-aurantiaca
#6
Joo-Eun Lee, Ik-Soo Lee, Kwan-Chul Kim, Ick-Dong Yoo, Han-Mo Yang
Clitocybin A, an isoindolinone from Clitocybe aurantiaca, was investigated to assess its anti-wrinkle properties, through reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and elastase inhibitory activities, procollagen synthesis, and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression, in human dermal fibroblast (HDF-N) cells. Clitocybin A exhibited no significant cytotoxicity up to 10 ppm in HDF-N cells, with cell viability and cell proliferation activity greater than 94.6% and 91.9%, respectively. Strong and concentration-dependent ROS radical scavenging activities of clitocybin A were observed following irradiation with UVB at 30 mJ/cm²...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295032/air-borne-genotype-by-genotype-indirect-genetic-effects-are-substantial-in-the-filamentous-fungus-aspergillus-nidulans
#7
N O Rode, P Soroye, R Kassen, H D Rundle
Genotype by genotype indirect genetic effects (G × G IGEs) occur when the phenotype of an individual is influenced by an interaction between its own genotype and those of neighbour individuals. Little is known regarding the relative importance of G × G IGEs compared with other forms of direct and indirect genetic effects. We quantified the relative importance of IGEs in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, a species in which IGEs are likely to be important as air-borne social interactions are known to affect growth...
March 15, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291379/characterization-of-vdasp-f2-secretory-factor-from-verticillium-dahliae-by-a-fast-and-easy-gene-knockout-system
#8
Chengjian Xie, Qiaoling Li, Xingyong Yang
The vascular wilt fungus Verticillium dahliae produces persistent resting structures known as microsclerotia, which enable long-term survival of this plant pathogen in soil. The completed genome sequence of V. dahliae has facilitated large-scale investigations of individual gene functions using gene-disruption strategies based on Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT). However, the construction of gene-deletion vectors and screening of deletion mutants have remained challenging in V. dahliae...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285052/an-alternative-anionic-bio-sustainable-anti-fungal-agent-investigation-of-its-mode-of-action-on-the-fungal-cell-membrane
#9
Jonas Stenbæk, David Löf, Peter Falkman, Bo Jensen, Marité Cárdenas
The potential of a lactylate (the sodium caproyl lactylate or C10 lactylate), a typical food grade emulsifier, as an anionic environmental friendly anti-fungal additive was tested in growth medium and formulated in a protective coating for exterior wood. Different laboratory growth tests on the blue stain fungus Aureobasidium pullulans were performed and its interactions on a model fungal cell membrane were studied. Promising short term anti-fungal effects in growth tests were observed, although significant but less dramatic effects took place in coating test on wood panels...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281888/medium-ph-in-submerged-cultivation-modulates-differences-in-the-intracellular-protein-profile-of-fusarium-oxysporum-urm-7401
#10
Nathália Gonsales da Rosa-Garzon, Hélen Julie Laure, Cristina Maria de Souza-Motta, José César Rosa, Hamilton Cabral
Fusarium oxysporum is a filamentous fungus that damages a wide range of plants and thus causes severe crop losses. In fungal pathogens, the genes and proteins involved in virulence are known to be controlled by environmental pH. Here, we report the influence of culture-medium pH (5, 6, 7, and 8) on the production of degradative enzymes involved in the pathogenesis of F. oxysporum URM 7401 and on the 2D-electrophoresis profile of intracellular proteins in this fungus. F. oxysporum URM 7401 was grown in acidic, neutral, and alkaline culture media in a submerged bioprocess...
March 10, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261189/association-mapping-reveals-genetic-loci-associated-with-important-agronomic-traits-in-lentinula-edodes-shiitake-mushroom
#11
Chuang Li, Wenbing Gong, Lin Zhang, Zhiquan Yang, Wenyan Nong, Yinbing Bian, Hoi-Shan Kwan, Man-Kit Cheung, Yang Xiao
Association mapping is a robust approach for the detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Here, by genotyping 297 genome-wide molecular markers of 89 Lentinula edodes cultivars in China, the genetic diversity, population structure and genetic loci associated with 11 agronomic traits were examined. A total of 873 alleles were detected in the tested strains with a mean of 2.939 alleles per locus, and the Shannon's information index was 0.734. Population structure analysis revealed two robustly differentiated groups among the Chinese L...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258426/how-interacting-fungal-species-and-mineral-nitrogen-inputs-affect-transfer-of-nitrogen-from-litter-via-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-mycelium
#12
Yuejun He, J Hans C Cornelissen, Zhangcheng Zhong, Ming Dong, Changhong Jiang
In the karst landscape, widespread in the world including southern China, soil nutrient supply is strongly constrained. In such environments, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi may facilitate plant nutrient uptake. However, the possible role of different AM fungal species, and their interactions, especially in transferring nitrogen (N) from litter to plant, is poorly understood. We conducted two microcosm experiments to investigate the role that two karst soil AM fungi, Glomus etunicatum and Glomus mosseae, play in the transfer of N from decomposing litter to the host plant and to determine how N availability influences these processes...
March 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257052/effects-and-mechanism-of-blue-light-on-monascus-in-liquid-fermentation
#13
Xiaowei Zhang, Wenqing Liu, Xiying Chen, Junhui Cai, Changlu Wang, Weiwei He
The effect of light on Monascus and the underlying mechanism have received a great deal of interest for the industrial application of Monascus pigments. In this study, we have examined the effects of blue light on the culture morphology, mycelium growth, pigments, and citrinin yield of Monascus in liquid-state and oscillation fermentation, and explored the mechanism at a physiological level. It was found that blue light affected the colony morphology, the composition (chitin content), and permeability of the Monascus mycelium cell wall in static liquid culture, which indicates blue light benefits pigments secreting from aerial mycelium to culture medium...
March 1, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236353/evaluation-of-growth-conditions-and-dna-extraction-techniques-used-in-the-molecular-analysis-of-dermatophytes
#14
Sebastian Gnat, Aneta Nowakiewicz, Grażyna Ziółkowska, Aleksandra Trościańczyk, Barbara Majer-Dziedzic, Przemysław Zięba
AIMS: Recent molecular methods for diagnosis of superficial mycoses have determined the need for a rapid and easy method of extracting DNA. The aim of study was to determine growth conditions and techniques of DNA extraction for Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and T. verrucosum. METHODS AND RESULTS: Samples were prepared of each of the DNA extraction methods (phenol-chloroform, CTAB, and four different kits) for all of the incubation periods (four, seven, and 10 d) of the cultures on the solid and in the liquid medium...
February 25, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230521/micromonospora-terminaliae-sp-nov-an-endophytic-actinobacterium-isolated-from-the-surface-sterilized-stem-of-the-medicinal-plant-terminalia-mucronata
#15
Onuma Kaewkla, Arinthip Thamchaipinet, Christopher Milton Mathew Franco
An endophytic actinobacterium, strain TMS7T, was isolated from the stem of a Thai medicinal plant collected from the grounds of the Phujong-Nayoa National park, Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand. As a result of a polyphasic taxonomy study, this strain was identified as a member of the genus Micromonospora. This strain was a Gram-stain-positive, aerobic actinobacterium with well-developed substrate mycelium with hyphae forming a single microspore was non-motile. Stran TMS7T was identified according to its 16S rRNA gene sequence as a new member of the genus Micromonospora...
February 24, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230074/lack-of-resistance-development-in-bemisia-tabaci-to-isaria-fumosorosea-after-multiple-generations-of-selection
#16
Tianni Gao, Zhaolei Wang, Yü Huang, Nemat O Keyhani, Zhen Huang
The emergence of insecticide resistant insect pests is of significant concern worldwide. The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, is an important agricultural pest and has shown incredible resilience developing resistance to a number of chemical pesticides. Entomopathogenic fungi such as Isaria fumosorosea offer an attractive alternative to chemical pesticides for insect control, and this fungus has been shown to be an effective pathogen of B. tabaci. Little is known concerning the potential for the development of resistance to I...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219521/butyrate-influences-intracellular-levels-of-adenine-and-adenine-derivatives-in-the-fungus-penicillium-restrictum
#17
Christoph Zutz, Yi Ming Chiang, Bettina Faehnrich, Markus Bacher, Roland Hellinger, Bernhard Kluger, Martin Wagner, Joseph Strauss, Kathrin Rychli
Butyrate, a small fatty acid, has an important role in the colon of ruminants and mammalians including the inhibition of inflammation and the regulation of cell proliferation. There is also growing evidence that butyrate is influencing the histone structure in mammalian cells by inhibition of histone deacetylation. Butyrate shows furthermore an antimicrobial activity against fungi, yeast and bacteria, which is linked to its toxicity at a high concentration. In fungi there are indications that butyrate induces the production of secondary metabolites potentially via inhibition of histone deacetylases...
April 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217148/profiling-metals-in-cordyceps-sinensis-by-using-inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry
#18
Xin Wei, Hankun Hu, Baogeng Zheng, Zikri Arslan, Hung-Chung Huang, Weidong Mao, Yi-Ming Liu
Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) is a natural product that has diverse nutritional and medicinal values. Since the availability of natural C. sinensis becomes limited its authentication and quality control is of high significance. Herein we report on profiling of metals in C. sinensis by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The analysis reveals that C. sinensis contains a wide array of essential elements, including P, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe, etc. Toxic metals detected are Cd, Pb, and As. In all five samples analyzed Pb contents are below 2...
January 28, 2017: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213748/immobilization-of-irpex-lacteus-to-liquid-core-alginate-beads-and-their-application-to-degradation-of-pollutants
#19
Jan Šíma, Rachel Milne, Čeněk Novotný, Pavel Hasal
White rot fungi (WRF) are applicable to biodegradation of recalcitrant pollutants. However, excessive biomass growth typical for WRF cultivation can hinder their large scale applications. Therefore, immobilization of Irpex lacteus to liquid-core alginate beads restricting excessive mycelium growth and simultaneously keeping high degradation rate of pollutants was tested. Effective diffusivities of dyes to the beads varied from (2.98 ± 0.69) × 10(-10) to (10.27 ± 2.60) × 10(-10) m(2)/s. Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), Reactive Orange 16 (RO16), and Naphthol Blue Black (NBB) were used as model dyes...
February 17, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213014/influence-of-temperature-on-decay-mycelium-development-and-sporodochia-production-caused-by-monilinia-fructicola-and-m-%C3%A2-laxa-on-stone-fruits
#20
M Bernat, J Segarra, X-M Xu, C Casals, J Usall
Brown rot on peaches and nectarines caused by Monilinia spp. results in significant economic losses in Europe. Experiments were conducted to study the effects of temperature (0-33 °C) on the temporal dynamics of decay and mycelium development and the subsequent sporulation on peaches and nectarine fruit infected by M. laxa and M. fructicola. The rates of decay and mycelium development increased with temperature from 0 °C to 25 °C for both Monilinia species. At 0 °C, decay was faster for M. laxa (0...
June 2017: Food Microbiology
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