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Xing Wang, Zhi-Cheng Dai, Yong-Fei Chen, Ling-Ling Cao, Wei Yan, Sheng-Kun Li, Jian-Xin Wang, Zheng-Guang Zhang, Yong-Hao Ye
A series of new 1,2,3-triazole derivatives have been prepared and screened for their antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi using the mycelium growth inhibition method in vitro. The results indicated that the 1,2,3-triazole hydrazide scaffold displayed significant antifungal activity. Compound 6ad exhibited the most potent anti-phytopathogenic activity, with EC50 values of 0.18, 0.35, 0.37 and 2.25 μg mL(-1) against Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Fusarium graminearum, and Magnaporthe oryzae, respectively...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Chao Deng, Yuanyuan Sun, Haitian Fu, Sixiu Zhang, Jinghua Chen, Xin Xu
In the present study, the physiochemical and biological properties of crude mycelium polysaccharide (CMCP) and purified mycelium polysaccharide (MCP) extracted from the Tremella aurantialba mycelium were investigated. A series of physiochemical properties were determined, including the total sugar, uronic acid and protein content, monosaccharide composition and structure, and molecular weight. The reducing power and scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radicals were determined to investigate the antioxidant activity of CMCP and MCP...
October 4, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Andrea Kunova, Cristina Pizzatti, Matteo Cerea, Andrea Gazzaniga, Paolo Cortesi
AIMS: This study aimed to develop a new formulation of Cryphonectria parasitica hypovirulent mycelium suitable for inoculations of tall trees from the ground. C. parasitica hypovirulent strains are widely used for biological control of chestnut blight. However, it is often inconsistent and ineffective not only for biological reasons, but also because the current manual application of hypovirulent strains on adult plants is difficult, time-consuming and expensive. Here, we propose an improved formulation and more effective mode of application of hypovirulent strains, which could boost chestnut blight biocontrol...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Jinxin Li, Shujie Liu, Juan Wang, Jing Li, Dahui Liu, Jianli Li, Wenyuan Gao
In this work, we selected three fungi strains (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae) as elicitors prepared from mycelium or fermentation broth to improve ginsenosides production in adventitious roots culture. The results showed that ginsenosides production (29.90±4.67mg·g(-1)) was significantly enhanced upon elicitation with 200 mg· L(-1)A. niger elicitor prepared from mycelium, which was 3.52-fold of untreated group. HPLC-ESI-MS(n) analysis was performed, showing that ginsenoside Rb3 was present after treatment with the A...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
Clara Chepkirui, Christian Richter, Josphat Clement Matasyoh, Marc Stadler
Eight previously undescribed compounds were isolated and characterised from the supernatant and mycelium of a culture of the basidiomycete Favolaschia calocera originating from Kakamega equatorial rainforest in Kenya. These were: 9- oxostrobilurins A, G, K and I and the four monochlorinated calocerins A, B, C and D. The calocerins extend our knowledge of halogenated compounds obtained from natural sources. Four further known compounds were also identified: strobilurin G, favolon, pterulinic acid and 2,3 -dihydro-1-benzoxepin derivative...
October 13, 2016: Phytochemistry
Alessandra Quarantin, Anika Glasenapp, Wilhelm Schäfer, Francesco Favaron, Luca Sella
The genome of Fusarium graminearum, a necrotrophic fungal pathogen causing Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease of wheat, barley and other cereal grains, contains five genes putatively encoding for proteins with a cerato-platanin domain. Cerato-platanins are small secreted cysteine-rich proteins possibly localized in the fungal cell walls and also contributing to the virulence. Two of these F. graminearum proteins (FgCPP1 and FgCPP2) belong to the class of SnodProt proteins which exhibit phytotoxic activity in the fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Magnaporthe grisea...
October 4, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Zhugui Wen, Liang Shi, Yangze Tang, Zhenguo Shen, Yan Xia, Yahua Chen
We used Pisolithus tinctorius and Cenococcum geophilum to determine the copper (Cu) resistance of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi and their potential for improving phytoremediation of Cu-contaminated soil by Chinese red pine (Pinus tabulaeformis). The results showed that nutrient accumulation in C. geophilum mycelium was significantly lower under higher Cu concentrations in the soil, which was not observed in P. tinctorius. Meanwhile, P. tinctorius exhibited greater Cu tolerance than C. geophilum. Inoculation with ECM fungi significantly improved the growth of pine shoots planted in polluted soil in pot experiments (p < 0...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Hisayuki Komaki, Akira Hosoyama, Shuhei Yabe, Akira Yokota, Yoshihito Uchino, Hideaki Takano
Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Thermogemmatispora onikobensis NBRC 111776(T), an aerial mycelium- and spore-forming thermophilic bacterium belonging to the class Ktedonobacteria The genome contains five biosynthetic gene clusters coding for secondary metabolites, such as terpene, thiopeptide, lantipeptide, nonribosomal peptide, and lassopeptide, suggesting the potential to produce secondary metabolites.
October 13, 2016: Genome Announcements
Ko-Chao Lee, Hsing-Chun Kuo, Chien-Heng Shen, Chien-Chang Lu, Wen-Shih Huang, Meng-Chiao Hsieh, Cheng-Yi Huang, Yi-Hung Kuo, Yung-Yu Hsieh, Chih-Chuan Teng, Li-Ya Lee, Shui-Yi Tung
Erinacine A, a major active component of a diterpenoid derivative isolated from Hericium erinaceus mycelium, has been demonstrated to exert anticancer effects. Herein, we present an investigation of the molecular mechanism of erinacine A induction associated with cancer cells' aggressive status and death. A proteomic approach was used to purify and identify the differentially expressed proteins following erinacine A treatment and the mechanism of its action in apoptotic and the targets of erinacine A. Our results demonstrate that erinacine A treatment of HCT-116 and DLD-1 cells increased cell cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production as well as decreased cell proliferation and invasiveness...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Wei Wei, Shaohua Shu, Wenjun Zhu, Ying Xiong, Fang Peng
Wolfiporia cocos is an edible and medicinal fungus that grows in association with pine trees, and its dried sclerotium, known as Fuling in China, has been used as a traditional medicine in East Asian countries for centuries. Nearly 10% of the traditional Chinese medicinal preparations contain W. cocos. Currently, the commercial production of Fuling is limited because of the lack of pine-based substrate and paucity of knowledge about the sclerotial development of the fungus. Since protein kinase (PKs) play significant roles in the regulation of growth, development, reproduction, and environmental responses in filamentous fungi, the kinome of W...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
G Huo, C Liu, Y Hui, X Chen, D Xiao
Saponins are naturally-occurring units with broad diversity and are usually recognized as phytoanticipins. In order to develop new saponin chemical entities with high activity against Magnaporthe oryzae, we selected oleanolic acid (OA), which has wide natural distribution and rich content in plants. We used the ability of OA to act as an aglycone for glycosylation to obtain information on the structure-activity relationship (SAR) for rational molecular pesticide design. Oleanolic mono- or di-glycosides were synthesized at either the C3-hydroxy and/or C28-carboxyl position, using trichloroacetimidate or glycosyl bromide donors, respectively...
September 23, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Jorge L Sarmiento-Villamil, Nicolás E García-Pedrajas, Lourdes Baeza-Montañez, María D García-Pedrajas
Plant pathogens of the genus Verticillium pose a threat to many important crops worldwide. They are soil-borne fungi which invade the plant systemically, causing wilt symptoms. We functionally characterized the APSES family transcription factor Vst1 in two Verticillium species, V. dahliae and V. nonalfalfae, which produce microsclerotia and melanised hyphae as resistant structures, respectively. We found that in V. dahliae Δvst1 strains, microsclerotium biogenesis stalled after an initial swelling of hyphal cells and cultures were never pigmented...
October 3, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
He Liu, Qiang Lin, Yixian Xie, Huoming Shu, Bo Li, Ge Gao, Kai Xiao, Xiaojun Yao, Runcong Dong, Yanlin Liu, Mengxiong He, Luyong Wu, Zhenfan Sun, Wenying He
1-(4-Bromophenyl)-5-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole (BPT) was a newly synthesized compound. The acute toxicities of BPT to mice by intragastric administration have been determined and the result indicates that the intragastric administration of BPT did not produce any significant toxic effect on Kunming strain mice. It is also evaluated for the antimicrobial activity of BPT against three kinds of plant mycoplasma, Fusarium Wilt (race 4), Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. and Xanthomonas oryzae by different method in vitro...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Hideaki Takano, Yuhei Matsui, Junpei Nomura, Masahiro Fujimoto, Naoto Katsumata, Takafumi Koyama, Isamu Mizuno, Shoichi Amano, Hatsumi Shiratori-Takano, Mamoru Komatsu, Haruo Ikeda, Kenji Ueda
AmfS, a class III lantipeptide serves as a morphogen in Streptomyces griseus. Here, we constructed a high production system of AmfS in S. griseus. We isolated S. griseus Grd1 strain defective in glucose repression of aerial mycelium formation and found it suitable for the overproduction of AmfS. Two expression vectors carrying the strong and constitutive ermE2 promoter were constructed using a multicopy number plasmid, pIJ702. The use of the Grd1 strain combined with the expression vectors enabled high production of AmfS by S...
October 3, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Katsutoshi Nishino, Misao Shiro, Ryuki Okura, Kazuya Oizumi, Toru Fujita, Takahiro Sasamori, Norihiro Tokitoh, Akiyoshi Yamada, Chihiro Tanaka, Muneyoshi Yamaguchi, Syuntaro Hiradate, Nobuhiro Hirai
Tricholoma matsutake, a basidiomycete, forms ectomycorrhizas with Pinus densiflora as the host tree. Its fruiting body, "matsutake" in Japanese, is an edible and highly prized mushroom, and it grows in a circle called a fairy ring. Beneath the fairy ring of T. matsutake, a whitish mycelium-soil aggregated zone, called "shiro" in Japanese, develops. The front of the shiro, an active mycorrhizal zone, functions to gather nutrients from the soil and roots to nourish the fairy ring. Bacteria and sporulating fungi decrease from the shiro front, whereas they increase inside and outside the shiro front...
October 3, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
L Thoma, G Muth
Conjugative DNA-transfer in the Gram-positive mycelial soil bacterium Streptomyces, well known for the production of numerous antibiotics, is a unique process involving the transfer of a double-stranded DNA molecule. Apparently it does not depend on a type IV secretion system but resembles the segregation of chromosomes during bacterial cell division. A single plasmid-encoded protein, TraB, directs the transfer from the plasmid-carrying donor to the recipient. TraB is a FtsK-like DNA-translocase, which recognizes a specific plasmid sequence, clt, via interaction with specific 8-bp repeats...
September 28, 2016: Plasmid
Dattatray K Bedade, Rekha S Singhal, Ossi Turunen, Jan Deska, Salem Shamekh
Interaction of truffle mycelium with the host plant involves the excretion of extracellular enzymes. The ability of Tuber maculatum mycelium to produce an extracellular cellulase during submerged fermentation was demonstrated for the first time. T. maculatum mycelia were isolated and tested for extracellular cellulase production at variable pH on solid agar medium, and the highest activity was observed at pH 7.0. Furthermore, T. maculatum was subjected to submerged fermentation in basal salt medium for cellulase production...
September 26, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Hidehisa Kawahara, Yoshiyuki Matsuda, Takuya Sakaguchi, Naoki Arai, Yoshihide Koide
An identified class of antifreeze, a xylomannan-based thermal hysteresis (TH)-producing glycolipid, has been discovered from diverse taxa, including plants, insects, and amphibians. We isolated xylomannan from the mycelium and fruit body of the basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes using successive hot extraction with water, 2% and 25% aqueous KOH, and gel filtration chromatography. The xylomannan from the fruit body had a recrystallization inhibiting (RI) activity (RI=0.44) at 0.5 mg/mL. The dried weight yield of the fruit body (7...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Ruyi Sha, Qin Meng
In this paper, rhamnolipids are investigated, for the first time, for their feasibility for inhibiting dimorphic fungi. Rhamnolipids were found to effectively inhibit a dimorphic fungus isolated from tomato plants which was identified as Mucor circinelloides according to characterizations by morphologies as well as 28S rDNA sequences. Rhamnolipids markedly reduced growth of this fungus in both the yeast-like form and the filamentous form. Such an inhibitive effect was similarly obtained with Verticillium dahliae, a representative member of dimorphic fungi, confirming the effectiveness of rhamnolipids in the two growth forms of dimorphic fungi...
September 21, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Martina Letizia Contente, Benedetta Guidi, Immacolata Serra, Valerio De Vitis, Diego Romano, Andrea Pinto, Roberto Lenna, Ricardo Pinheiro de Souza Oliveira, Francesco Molinari
A high yielding bioprocess for 11-α hydroxylation of canrenone (1a) using Aspergillus ochraceus ATCC 18500 was developed. The optimization of the biotransformation involved both fermentation (for achieving highly active mycelium of A. ochraceus) and biotransformation with the aim to obtain 11-α hydroxylation with high selectivity and yield. A medium based on sucrose as C-source resulted particularly suitable for conversion of canrenone into the corresponding 11-hydroxy derivative, whereas the use of O2-enriched air and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a co-solvent for increasing substrate solubility played a crucial role for obtaining high yields (>95%) of the desired product in high chemical purity starting from 30mM (10...
September 22, 2016: Steroids
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