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Yuriy Kuzhyk, Halyna Mutenko, Victor Fedorenko, Bohdan Ostash
Low molecular weight signaling compounds (LMWC) are important players in regulating various aspects of Streptomyces biology. Their exact roles in certain strain will ultimately depend on overall configuration of regulatory network and thus cannot be predicted on basis of in silico studies. Here, we explored S. ghanaensis gene SSFG_07725 (afsA gh ) presumably involved in initial steps of formation of γ-butyrolactone LMWC. Disruption of afsA gh impaired aerial mycelium formation and increased the transcription of pleiotropic regulatory gene adpA gh , whereas level of moenomycin production remained virtually unaffected...
May 21, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Marco Fischer, Dörte Falke, Carolin Naujoks, R Gary Sawers
Streptomyces coelicolor A3 (2) is a filamentously growing, spore-forming, obligately aerobic actinobacterium that uses both a copper- aa3 - type cytochrome c oxidase and a cytochrome bd oxidase to respire oxygen. Using defined knock-out mutants we demonstrated that either of these terminal oxidases was capable of allowing the bacterium to grow and complete its developmental cycle. The genes encoding the bcc complex and the aa3 oxidase are clustered at a single locus. Using western blot analyses we showed that the bcc-aa3 oxidase branch is more prevalent than the bd oxidase in spores...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
María Isabel Navarro-Mendoza, Carlos Pérez-Arques, Laura Murcia, Pablo Martínez-García, Carlos Lax, Marta Sanchis, Javier Capilla, Francisco E Nicolás, Victoriano Garre
Mucormycosis is an emerging angio-invasive infection caused by Mucorales that presents unacceptable mortality rates. Iron uptake has been related to mucormycosis, since serum iron availability predisposes the host to suffer this infection. In addition, iron uptake has been described as a limiting factor that determines virulence in other fungal infections, becoming a promising field to study virulence in Mucorales. Here, we identified a gene family of three ferroxidases in Mucor circinelloides, fet3a, fet3b and fet3c, which are overexpressed during infection in a mouse model for mucormycosis, and their expression in vitro is regulated by the availability of iron in the culture media and the dimorphic state...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ángel Manteca, Paula Yagüe
Streptomyces is a diverse group of gram-positive microorganisms characterised by a complex developmental cycle. Streptomycetes produce a number of antibiotics and other bioactive compounds used in the clinic. Most screening campaigns looking for new bioactive molecules from actinomycetes have been performed empirically, e.g., without considering whether the bacteria are growing under the best developmental conditions for secondary metabolite production. These screening campaigns were extremely productive and discovered a number of new bioactive compounds during the so-called "golden age of antibiotics" (until the 1980s)...
May 14, 2018: Antibiotics
Stefan Junne, Peter Neubauer
Although the scalability of stainless steel bioreactors has been investigated for more than 50 years, and many methods for the characterization of these bioreactors have been evolved, the investigation of scalability of single-use bioreactors (SUBs) contains several new challenges. SUBs permit a versatile design that is not necessarily oriented towards classical geometric conditions and allows a wide variety of mixing principles. Among the various principles might be some advantageous for the cultivation of particular types of shear-sensitive cells, such as mycelium-forming organisms and stem cells...
May 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Vojtěch Beneš, Tereza Leonhardt, Jan Sácký, Pavel Kotrba
As we have shown previously, the Cu and Ag concentrations in the sporocarps of Ag-hyperaccumulating Amanita strobiliformis are correlated, and both metals share the same uptake system and are sequestered by the same metallothioneins intracellularly. To further improve our knowledge of the Cu and Ag handling in A. strobiliformis cells, we searched its transcriptome for the P1B-1 -ATPases, recognizing Cu+ and Ag+ for transport. We identified transcripts encoding 1097-amino acid (AA) AsCRD1 and 978-AA AsCCC2, which were further subjected to functional studies in metal sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Xu Zeng, Hong Ling, Jianwen Yang, Juan Chen, Shunxing Guo
BACKGROUND: Hericium erinaceus, a famous edible mushroom, is also a well-known traditional medicinal fungus. To date, a large number of bioactive metabolites with antitumor, antibacterial, and immune-boosting effects were isolated from the free-living mycelium and fruiting body of H. erinaceus. OBJECTIVE: Here we used the proteomic approach to explore proteins involved in the regulation of bioactive metabolites, including terpenoid, polyketide, sterol and etc. RESULTS: Using mass spectrometry, a total of 2543 unique proteins were identified using H...
May 5, 2018: Gene
Katarzyna Gucwa, Sławomir Milewski, Tomasz Dymerski, Piotr Szweda
The antimicrobial activity of plant oils and extracts has been recognized for many years. In this study the activity of Thymus vulgaris , Citrus limonum , Pelargonium graveolens , Cinnamomum cassia , Ocimum basilicum , and Eugenia caryophyllus essential oils (EOs) distributed by Pollena Aroma (Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki, Poland) was investigated against a group of 183 clinical isolates of C. albicans and 76 isolates of C. glabrata . All of the oils exhibited both fungistatic and fungicidal activity toward C. albicans and C...
May 8, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Judit Ámon, Kabichandra Keisham, Eszter Bokor, Evelyn Kelemen, Csaba Vágvölgyi, Zsuzsanna Hamari
Aspergillus nidulans produces sterigmatocystin, a secondary metabolite mycotoxin, for the protection of its reproductive structures. Previous studies on grazing behavior of fungivore arthropods, regulation of sexual development, and secondary metabolite biosynthesis have revealed the association of sterigmatocystin biosynthesis with sexual reproduction, but the spatial distribution of sterigmatocystin producing hyphae within the colony has never been investigated. In this work, we aimed to locate the site of sterigmatocystin production within the colony by employing a yCFP reporter system...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Ramkrishna Kandel, Charles Y Chen, Craig R Grau, Ann E Dorrance, Jean Q Liu, Yang Wang, Dechun Wang
Soybean ( Glycine max L. Merr.) white mold (SWM), caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib) de Barry), is a devastating fungal disease in the Upper Midwest of the United States and southern Canada. Various methods exist to evaluate for SWM resistance and many quantitative trait loci (QTL) with minor effect governing SWM resistance have been identified in prior studies. This study aimed to predict field resistance to SWM using low-cost and efficient greenhouse inoculation methods and to confirm the QTL reported in previous studies...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Meeta Masand, Kunjukrishnan Kamalakshi Sivakala, Ekta Menghani, Thangathurai Thinesh, Rangasamy Anandham, Gaurav Sharma, Natesan Sivakumar, Solomon R D Jebakumar, Polpass Arul Jose
Acquisition of Actinobacteria, especially Streptomyces from previously underexplored habitats and the exploration of their biosynthetic potential have gained much attention in the rejuvenated antibiotics search programs. Herein, we isolated some Streptomyces strains, from an arid region of the Great Indian Thar Desert, which possess an ability to produce novel bioactive compounds. Twenty-one morphologically distinctive strains differing in their aerial and substrate mycelium were isolated by employing a stamping method...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jian Liu, Deping Han, Yawei Shi
Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) are the products of a large, highly complex gene family involved in host defense. TLPs also belong to the pathogenesis-related family 5 (PR-5) of plant defense proteins. Most TLPs exhibit potential antifungal activities, and their accumulation in the plant is related to many physiological processes. In this study, a gene encoding TLP named permatin with an open reading frame of 678 bp encoding a protein of 225 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 23.5 kDa was cloned from naked oat leaves...
May 2, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Jialan Yuan, Zhao Wang, Junjie Xing, Qingyong Yang, Xiao-Lin Chen
Numerous circRNAs have been identified in different organisms, but little attention has been addressed on fungal circRNAs. Here, we identified a total of 8,848 circRNAs from the model plant pathogenic fungus M. oryzae. 5,840 circRNAs were identified from mycelium, 2,721 circRNAs from conidium, while only 287 circRNAs from both tissues. This indicated that most of the M. oryzae circRNAs were specifically expressed in mycelium or in conidium. Parental genes of circRNAs in mycelium were enriched in basic metabolisms required for normal growth, while in conidium, they were enriched in biogenesis of storages potentially used for infection...
April 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gerard Sheehan, Gudmundur Bergsson, Noel G McElvaney, Emer P Reeves, Kevin Kavanagh
The pulmonary mucus of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients displays elevated levels of the cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL-37 and the aim of this work was to assess the effect of LL-37 on the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus , a common pathogen of CF patients. Exposure of A. fumigatus to LL-37 and its derived fragment RK-31 (1.95 μg/ml) for 24 hours had a positive effect on growth (199.94 ± 6.172%, p < 0.05) and (218.20 ± 4.63%, p < 0.05) respectively, whereas scrambled LL-37 peptide did not (85.12 ± 2...
April 30, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Elida Yazmín Gómez-Rodríguez, Edith Elena Uresti-Rivera, Olga Araceli Patrón-Soberano, María Auxiliadora Islas-Osuna, Alberto Flores-Martínez, Lina Riego-Ruiz, María Teresa Rosales-Saavedra, Sergio Casas-Flores
Some filamentous fungi of the Trichoderma genus are used as biocontrol agents against airborne and soilborne phytopathogens. The proposed mechanism by which Trichoderma spp. antagonizes phytopathogens is through the release of lytic enzymes, antimicrobial compounds, mycoparasitism, and the induction of systemic disease-resistance in plants. Here we analyzed the role of TGF-1 (Trichoderma Gcn Five-1), a histone acetyltransferase of Trichoderma atroviride, in mycoparasitism and antibiosis against the phytopathogen Rhizoctonia solani...
2018: PloS One
Marina Arredondo-Santoyo, Ma Soledad Vázquez-Garcidueñas, Gerardo Vázquez-Marrufo
The isolation and characterization of fungal strains from poorly described taxa allows undercover attributes of their basic biology useful for biotechnology. Here, a wild fungal strain (CMU-196) from recently described Paraconiothyrium genus was analyzed. CMU-196 was identified as Paraconiothyrium brasiliense by phylogenetic analysis of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). CMU-196 metabolized 57 out of 95 substrates of the Biolog FF microplates. Efficient assimilation of dextrins and glycogen indicates that CMU-196 is a good producer of amylolytic enzymes...
April 30, 2018: Biotechnology Progress
Ping Zhang, Saina Li, Juan Li, Feng Wei, Xianlong Cheng, Guifeng Zhang, Shuangcheng Ma, Bin Liu
Since the cost of Ophiocordyceps sinensis , an important fungal drug used in Chinese medicine, has increased dramatically, and the counterfeits may have adverse health effects, a rapid and precise marker using the peptide mass spectrometry identification system could significantly enhance the regulatory capacity. In this study, we determined the marker peptides in the digested mixtures of fungal proteins in wild O. sinensis fruiting bodies and various commercially available mycelium fermented powders using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometry coupled with chemometrics...
April 26, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Liyun Ye, Shengrong Liu, Fan Xie, Lili Zhao, Xiaoping Wu
Ganoderma lucidum is a medicinal mushroom that has been widely used in East Asia for the treatment of various diseases. The pharmacological activity of this fungus is primarily attributable to the polysaccharides and triterpenoids. In this study, to obtain the fruit bodies with improved content of active constituents, we examined the effect of salicylic acid (SA) and calcium ion on the biosynthesis of polysaccharides and triterpenoids by spraying the chemicals during the fruiting. To explore the underlying mechanisms for the variation, the transcripts of related genes involved in the polysaccharide and triterpenoid biosynthesis were measured...
2018: PloS One
Ke Xing, Yun Xing, Yuanfang Liu, Yu Zhang, Xiaoqiang Shen, Xiaoyan Li, Xiangmin Miao, Zhaozhong Feng, Xue Peng, Sheng Qin
In this study, the fungicidal effects and detailed action of chitosan against Ceratocystis fimbriata were evaluated. The results demonstrated that chitosan exhibited strong antifungal activity that restricted the mycelium extension and changed the hyphal morphology. Fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and propidium iodide (PI) double-staining directly visualized decreased cell viability in response to chitosan treatment. Investigation of the PI influx showed that chitosan induced irreversible cell membrane damage. The efflux of potassium ions from the cytosol into the extracellular matrix demonstrated that chitosan induced the leakage of intracellular components...
July 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
S K Kimaru, E Monda, R C Cheruiyot, J Mbaka, A Alakonya
Anthracnose disease of avocado contributes to a huge loss of avocado fruits due to postharvest rot in Kenya. The causal agent of this disease has not been clear but presumed to be Colletotrichum gloeosporioides as reported in other regions where avocado is grown. The fungus mainly infects fruits causing symptoms such as small blackish spots, "pepper spots," and black spots with raised margin which coalesce as infection progresses. Due to economic losses associated with the disease and emerging information of other species of fungi as causal agents of the disease, this study was aimed at identifying causal agent(s) of the disease...
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
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