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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334264/antifungal-activity-of-phenolic-monoterpenes-and-structure-related-compounds-against-plant-pathogenic-fungi
#1
Kaibo Wang, Shanshan Jiang, Te Pu, Liming Fan, Fawu Su, Min Ye
The aim of this work is to explore the possibility of using the phenolic monoterpenes (PMs) as leading compounds with antifungal activity against plant disease. The in vitro antifungal activities of carvacrol and thymol against seven kinds of plant pathogenic fungi were evaluated on mycelium growth rate method, and the results showed that carvacrol and thymol exhibited broad spectrum antifungal activity. Structure requirement for the antifungal activity of PMs was also investigated. The preliminary conclusion was that phenolic hydroxyl and monoterpene were basic structures for the antifungal activity of PMs, and the position of phenolic hydroxyl showed less effect...
January 15, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333391/analysis-of-antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-activities-of-solvent-fractions-from-rhynchosia-nulubilis-cultivated-with-ganoderma-lucidum-mycelium
#2
Mihye Park, Meera Kim
In this study, the crude ethanol Rhynchosia nulubilis cultivated with Ganoderma lucidum mycelium (RNGM) extract was solvent fractionated with organic solvents such as n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and water. The anticancer activities, anti-inflammatory activity total polyphenols, total flavonoids, isoflavones, and β-glucan of the solvent fractions of RNGM were studied. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity of 76.60% at 800 μg/mL. The ethyl acetate fraction also showed higher antioxidant activity in 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and ferric reducing ability of plasma assays compared to the other fractions...
December 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332277/efficient-degradation-of-triclosan-by-an-endophytic-fungus-penicillium-oxalicum-b4
#3
Hao Tian, Yan Jun Ma, Wan Yi Li, Jian Wen Wang
Triclosan (TCS), a widely used antimicrobial and preservative agent, is an emerging contaminant in aqueous and soil environment. Microbial degradation of TCS has not been reported frequently because of its inhibition of microbe growth. To explore the new microbial resources for TCS biodegradation, fungal endophytes were isolated and screened for the degradation potential. The endophytic strain B4 isolated from Artemisia annua L. showed higher degradation efficiency and was identified as Penicillium oxalicum based on its morphology and ITS sequences of ribosomal DNA...
January 13, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330369/bio-templated-fabrication-of-three-dimensional-network-activated-carbons-derived-from-mycelium-pellets-for-supercapacitor-applications
#4
Junnan Hao, Yajing Huang, Chun He, Wenjun Xu, Libei Yuan, Dong Shu, Xiaona Song, Tao Meng
In this work, a three-dimensional porous mycelium-derived activated carbon (3D-MAC) was fabricated via a facile bio-templating method using mycelium pellets as both the carbon source and the bio-template. After ZnCl2 activation and high-temperature carbonization, the specific thread-like chain structure of mycelium in the pellets can be maintained effectively. The hyphae and junctions of the cross-linking hyphae form nanowires and carbon nanoparticles that link with the neighboring nanoparticles to form a network structure...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325120/strigolactone-biosynthesis-genes-of-rice-is-required-for-the-punctual-entry-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-into-the-roots
#5
Yoshihiro Kobae, Hiromu Kameoka, Yusaku Sugimura, Katsuharu Saito, Ryo Ohtomo, Toru Fujiwara, Junko Kyozuka
Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is a mutualistic association between most plant species and the ancient fungal phylum Glomeromycota in roots, and it plays a key role in a plant's nutrient uptake from the soil. Roots synthesize strigolactones (SLs), derivatives of carotenoids, and exude them to induce energy metabolism and hyphal branching of AM fungi. Despite the well-documented roles of SLs in the presymbiotic phase, little is known about the role of SLs in the process of root colonization. Here we show that the expansion of root colonization is suppressed in the mutants of rice (Oryza sativa) SL biosynthesis genes, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase D10 and more severely in D17...
January 9, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316710/novel-4-methylumbelliferone-amide-derivatives-synthesis-characterization-and-pesticidal-activities
#6
Yan Wei, Kai-Long Miao, Shuang-Hong Hao
A series of novel 4-methylumbelliferone amide derivatives were designed, synthesized and characterized by ¹H NMR, 13C NMR and HR-ESI-MS. The structures of compounds 4bd and 4be (compounds named by authors) were further confirmed by X-ray single crystal diffraction. The acaricidal, herbicidal and antifungal activities of the synthesized compounds were assayed for their potential use as pesticide. The results indicated that compounds 4bi, 4ac and 4bd were strong acaricidals against Tetranychus cinnabarinus, with 72h corrected mortalities of greater than 80% at 1000 mg/L...
January 8, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316464/comparison-of-tolerance-and-biosorption-of-three-trace-metals-cd-cu-pb-by-the-soil-fungus-absidia-cylindrospora
#7
Quentin Albert, Lydia Leleyter, Mélanie Lemoine, Natacha Heutte, Jean-Philippe Rioult, Lucile Sage, Fabienne Baraud, David Garon
Trace metals cause deterioration of the soil and constitute a major concern for the environment and human health. Bioremediation could be an effective solution for the rectification of contaminated soils. Fungi could play an important role in biodegradation because of the morphology of their mycelium (highly reactive and extensive biological surface) and its physiology (high tolerance to many stresses, production of enzymes and secondary metabolites). Fungi can effectively biosequestrate, or biotransform many organic and inorganic contaminants into a non-bioavailable form...
December 28, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306805/changes-in-mycelia-growth-sporulation-and-virulence-of-phytophthora-capsici-when-challenged-by-heavy-metals-cu2-cr2-and-hg2-under%C3%A2-acid-ph-stress
#8
Peiqing Liu, Mengyao Wei, Jinzhu Zhang, Rongbo Wang, Benjin Li, Qinghe Chen, Qiyong Weng
Phytophthora capsici, an economically devastating oomycete pathogen, causes devastating disease epidemics on a wide range of vegetable plants and pose a grave threat to global vegetables production. Heavy metals and acid pH are newly co-occurring stresses to soil micro-organisms, but what can be expected for mycelia growth and virulence and how they injure the oomycetes (especially P. capsici) remains unknown. Here, the effects of different heavy metals (Cu2+, Cr2+, and Hg2+) on mycelia growth and virulence were investigated at different pHs (4...
January 4, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305696/14-3-3-proteins-are-involved-in-growth-hyphal-branching-ganoderic-acid-biosynthesis-and-response-to-abiotic-stress-in-ganoderma-lucidum
#9
Tian-Jun Zhang, Liang Shi, Dong-Dong Chen, Rui Liu, Deng-Ke Shi, Chen-Gao Wu, Ze-Hua Sun, Ang Ren, Ming-Wen Zhao
Ganoderma lucidum, which contains many pharmacologically active compounds, is regarded as a traditional medicinal fungus. Nevertheless, the scarcity of basic research limits the commercial value and utilization of G. lucidum. As a class of highly conserved, phosphopeptide-binding proteins present in all eukaryotes, 14-3-3 proteins play vital roles in controlling multiple physiological processes, including signal transduction, primary metabolism, and stress responses. However, knowledge of the roles of 14-3-3 proteins in Basidiomycetes is sparse...
January 5, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300677/nuclear-populations-of-the-multinucleate-fungus-of-leafcutter-ants-can-be-dekaryotized-and-recombined-to-manipulate-growth-of-nutritive-hyphal-nodules-harvested-by-the-ants
#10
Alexis L Carlson, Heather D Ishak, James Kurian, Alexander S Mikheyev, Isaac Gifford, Ulrich G Mueller
We dekaryotized the multinucleate fungus Leucocoprinus gongylophorus, a symbiotic fungus cultivated vegetatively by leafcutter ants as their food. To track genetic changes resulting from dekaryotization (elimination of some nuclei from the multinuclear population), we developed two multiplex microsatellite fingerprinting panels (15 loci total), then characterized the allele profiles of 129 accessions generated by dekaryotization treatment. Genotype profiles of the 129 accessions confirmed allele loss expected by dekaryotization of the multinucleate fungus...
November 10, 2017: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261152/increasing-antioxidant-activity-and-protein-digestibility-in-phaseolus-vulgaris-and-avena-sativa-by-fermentation-with-the-pleurotus-ostreatus-fungus
#11
Edith Espinosa-Páez, Ma Guadalupe Alanis-Guzmán, Carlos E Hernández-Luna, Juan G Báez-González, Carlos A Amaya-Guerra, Ana M Andrés-Grau
The aim of the research was to determine the impact of fermentation with Pleurotus ostreatus on kidney beans, black beans, and oats. The results indicate that the fungus has a positive effect on the substrates when compared to the controls. The antioxidant activity (39.5% on kidney beans and 225% on oats in relation to the controls) and content of total polyphenols (kidney beans three times higher regarding the controls) increased significantly by the presence of the fungus mycelium, even after simulated digestion...
December 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260908/chemical-investigation-of-metabolites-produced-by-an-endophytic-fungi-phialemonium-curvatum-from-the-leaves-of-passiflora-edulis
#12
G R Nalin Rathnayake, N Savitri Kumar, Lalith Jayasinghe, Hiroshi Araya, Yoshinori Fujimoto
Phialemonium curvatum, an endophytic fungus isolated from the leaves of Passiflora edulis was cultured in potato dextrose broth (PDB) media and chromatographic separation of the EtOAc extract of the broth and mycelium led to the isolation of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (1), 3-indole acetic acid (2), solaniol (3), uracil (4), uridine (5) and glycerol (6). Compound 2 showed a weak antifungal activity against Cladosporium cladosporioides. This is the first report of the isolation of the endophytic fungus P. curvatum from P...
December 20, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245037/production-of-bio-fertilizer-from-microwave-vacuum-pyrolysis-of-palm-kernel-shell-for-cultivation-of-oyster-mushroom-pleurotus-ostreatus
#13
Wai Lun Nam, Xue Yee Phang, Man Huan Su, Rock Keey Liew, Nyuk Ling Ma, Mohd Haqqi Nazilli Bin Rosli, Su Shiung Lam
Microwave vacuum pyrolysis of palm kernel shell (PKS) was performed to produce biochar, which was then tested as bio-fertilizer in growing Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). The pyrolysis approach produced biochar containing a highly porous structure with a high BET surface area of up to 270m2/g and low moisture content (≤10wt%), exhibiting desirable adsorption properties to be used as bio-fertilizer since it can act as a housing that provides many sites on which living microorganisms (mycelium or plant-growth promoting bacteria) and organic nutrients can be attached or adsorbed onto...
December 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228272/an-investigation-into-the-possible-regulation-of-the-expression-of-genes-by-yapa-in-talaromyces-marneffei-using-the-qrt-pcr-method
#14
Wiyada Dankai, Monsicha Pongpom, Nongnuch Vanittanakom
The pathogenic dimorphic fungus Talaromyces marneffei is known to cause a fatal systemic mycosis in immunocompromised patients, especially in HIV patients in Southeast Asia. The basic leucine-zipper (bZip) transcription factor gene, yapA, has been identified in T. marneffei. A prior study described that yapA was involved in the oxidative and nitrosative stress response in T. marneffei. Interestingly, an essential role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yap1p in the oxidative stress response is the activation of the transcription of its target genes...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226147/antifungal-activity-of-aqueous-extracts-of-some-dominant-algerian-medicinal-plants
#15
Nasrine Salhi, Sultan Ayesh Mohammed Saghir, Valeria Terzi, Iman Brahmi, Naima Ghedairi, Samia Bissati
Aim: This study investigated the antifungal properties of aqueous extracts obtained from indigenous plants that grow spontaneously in the Northern Sahara of Algeria. The activities of these plants in controlling two fungal species that belong to Fusarium genus were evaluated in an in vitro assay. Materials and Methods: Fresh aerial parts of four plant species (Artemisia herba alba, Cotula cinerea, Asphodelus tenuifolius, and Euphorbia guyoniana) were collected for the preparation of aqueous extracts...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222576/microbial-ecology-of-the-agaricus-bisporus-mushroom-cropping-process
#16
REVIEW
Conor F McGee
Agaricus bisporus is the most widely cultivated mushroom species in the world. Cultivation is commenced by inoculating beds of semi-pasteurised composted organic substrate with a pure spawn of A. bisporus. The A. bisporus mycelium subsequently colonises the composted substrate by degrading the organic material to release nutrients. A layer of peat, often called "casing soil", is laid upon the surface of the composted substrate to induce the development of the mushroom crop and maintain compost environmental conditions...
December 8, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210029/photoacoustic-spectroscopy-applied-to-the-direct-detection-of-bioactive-compounds-in-agaricus-brasiliensis-mycelium
#17
Fernando Maia de Oliveira, João Benhur Mokochinski, Yohandra Reyes Torres, Herta Stutz Dalla Santa, Pedro Pablo González-Borrero
This paper describes the application of the photoacoustic spectroscopic (PAS) for detection of bioactive compounds in Agaricus brasiliensis mycelium. The mycelium was cultivated by solid-state fermentation and by submerged fermentation. Vegetal residues from food industry were used as substrates for fermentation: apple pomace (Malus domestica), wheat (Triticum aestivum), peel and pomace of pineapple (Ananas comosus), malt (Hordeum vulgare) and grape pomace (Vitis vinifera). Dry and ground samples of biomass were directly put into the PA cell...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209784/acaxl2-and-acmst1-regulate-arthrospore-development-and-stress-resistance-in-the-cephalosporin-c-producer-acremonium-chrysogenum
#18
Janina Kluge, Ulrich Kück
The filamentous fungus Acremonium chrysogenum is the primordial producer of the β-lactam antibiotic cephalosporin C. This antibiotic is of major biotechnological and medical relevance because of its antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Antibiotic production during the lag phase of fermentation is often accompanied by a typical morphological feature of A. chrysogenum, the fragmentation of the mycelium into arthrospores. Here, we sought to identify factors that regulate the hyphal septation process and present the first comparative functional characterization of the type I integral plasma membrane protein Axl2 (axial budding pattern protein 2), a central component of the bud site selection system (BSSS) and Mst1 (mammalian Sterile20-like kinase), a septation initiation network (SIN)-associated germinal center kinase (GCK)...
December 5, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202109/ylmd-and-ylme-genes-are-dispensable-for-growth-cross-wall-formation-and-sporulation-in-streptomyces-venezuelae
#19
Fernando Santos-Beneit, Jing-Ying Gu, Ulrich Stimming, Jeff Errington
Streptomycetes are Gram-positive filamentous soil bacteria that grow by tip extension and branching, forming a network of multinucleoid hyphae. These bacteria also have an elaborate process of morphological differentiation, which involves the formation of an aerial mycelium that eventually undergoes extensive septation into chains of uninucleoid cells that further metamorphose into spores. The tubulin-like FtsZ protein is essential for this septation process. Most of the conserved cell division genes (including ftsZ) have been inactivated in Streptomyces without the anticipated lethality, based on studies of many other bacteria...
November 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199585/optimization-of-submerged-cultivation-conditions-for-production-of-big-cup-culinary-medicinal-mushroom-clitocybe-maxima-agaricomycetes-biomass-with-significant-antioxidative-and-antihyperlipidemic-activities
#20
Shu-Hui Hu, Ker-Shew Chen, Ming-Yi Liu, Peter Chi Keung Cheung, Jinn-Chyi Wang, Sue-Joan Chang
In this study, a large Clitocybe maxima mycelium biomass was obtained by submerged cultivation under optimal conditions. Three test samples from lyophilized mycelia, including hot water extract (CW) and elutes from solvents with different polarity (CA and CB), were combined and used to explore antioxidant and antihyper-lipidemic activities in vitro and in vivo. The CA group showed the highest DPPH free radical scavenging activity and iron-reducing capability at concentrations of 6.0% and 3.0% (w/v), respectively...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
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