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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730353/an-exploration-into-the-bacterial-community-under-different-pasteurization-conditions-during-substrate-preparation-composting-phase-ii-for-agaricus-bisporus-cultivation
#1
Fabricio Rocha Vieira, John Andrew Pecchia
Substrate preparation (i.e., composting) for Agaricus bisporus cultivation is the most critical point of mushroom production. Among many factors involved in the composting process, the microbial ecology of the system is the underlying drive of composting and can be influenced by composting management techniques. Pasteurization temperature at the beginning of phase II, in theory, may influence the bacterial community and subsequently the "selectivity" and nutrition of the final substrate. Therefore, this hypothesis was tested by simulation in bioreactors under different pasteurization conditions (57 °C/6 h, 60 °C/2 h, and 68 °C/2 h), simulating conditions adopted by many producers...
July 20, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729615/deletion-of-the-cela-gene-in-aspergillus-nidulans-triggers-overexpression-of-secondary-metabolite-biosynthetic-genes
#2
Gea Guerriero, Lucia Silvestrini, Sylvain Legay, Frank Maixner, Michael Sulyok, Jean-Francois Hausman, Joseph Strauss
Although much progress has been made in the study of cell wall biosynthetic genes in the model filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, there are still targets awaiting characterization. An example is the gene celA (ANIA_08444) encoding a putative mixed linkage glucan synthase. To characterize the role of celA, we deleted it in A. nidulans, analyzed the phenotype of the mycelium and performed RNA-Seq. The strain shows a very strong phenotype, namely "balloons" along the hyphae and aberrant conidiophores, as well as an altered susceptibility to cell wall drugs...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726315/biomineralization-of-gold-by-mucor-plumbeus-the-progress-in-understanding-the-mechanism-of-nanoparticles-formation
#3
Irena Maliszewska, Włodzimierz Tylus, Izabela Pawlaczyk-Graja, Wojciech Pusz, Anna Baturo-Cieśniewska, Jacek Chęcmanowski, Bogdan Szczygieł
This contribution describes the deposition of gold nanoparticles by microbial reduction of Au(III) ions using the mycelium of Mucor plumbeus. Biosorption as the major mechanism of Au(III) ions binding by the fungal cells and the reduction of them to the form of Au(0) on/in the cell wall, followed by the transportation of the synthesized gold nanoparticles to the cytoplasm, is postulated. The probable mechanism behind the reduction of Au(III) ions is discussed, leading to the conclusion that this process is non enzymatic one...
July 20, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726108/why-does-the-bioluminescent-fungus-armillaria-mellea-have-luminous-mycelium-but-nonluminous-fruiting-body
#4
K V Purtov, V N Petushkov, N S Rodionova, J I Gitelson
By determining the components involved in the bioluminescence process in luminous and nonluminous organs of the honey fungus Armillaria mellea, we have established causes of partial luminescence of this fungus. The complete set of enzymes and substrates required for bioluminescence is formed only in the mycelium and only under the conditions of free oxygen access. Since the synthesis of luciferin precursor (hispidin) and 3-hydroxyhispidin hydroxylase in the fruiting bodies is blocked, the formation of luciferin-the key component of fungal bioluminescent system-was not observed...
May 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725220/a-novel-derivative-of-mycousnine-produced-by-the-endophytic-fungus-mycosphaerella-nawae-exhibits-high-and-selective-immunosuppressive-activity-on-t-cells
#5
Li-Wei Wang, Jin-Liang Wang, Jing Chen, Jia-Jie Chen, Jia-Wei Shen, Xiao-Xiao Feng, Christian P Kubicek, Fu-Cheng Lin, Chu-Long Zhang, Feng-Yang Chen
An endophytic fungus, Mycosphaerella nawae ZJLQ129, was isolated from the leaves of the traditional Chinese medicine Smilax china. From the fermentation broth and mycelium, a dibenzofurane compound (-)mycousnine (1) was isolated. Chemical modification of it to the amide derivative (-)mycousnine enamine (2), which is new to science, was found to have high and selective immunosuppressive activity: similar to cyclosporin A, (-)mycousnine enamine (2) selectively inhibited T cell proliferation, suppressed the expression of the surface activation antigens CD25 and CD69 and the formation and expression of the cytokines interleukin-2 as well as interferon γ in activated T cells, but did not show any effect on the proliferation of B cells and cancer cells (PANC-1 and A549) and the activation of macrophages...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721940/isolation-characterisation-and-enzymatic-activity-of-streptomyces-sp-and-its-ph-control-during-fermentation-process
#6
Balraj Baskaran, Arulmozhi Muthukumarasamy
Streptomyces sp. with grey white mycelium was isolated from Kodiyakkarai marine segment of east coastal of India. The isolate produced spiny spores and did not produce any diffusible pigments. Various biochemical tests were carried out to confirm the isolate classification. The amylolytic enzyme activity was estimated using the isolated strain which was confirmed by golden yellowish zone formation after using the Gram's iodine stain. The amount of amylase produced by the isolate was 6.15 U/ml. Higher living cells always produce better enzymes, so that the process parameters especially pH was maintained in fermentation chamber for higher growth and also for large-scale growth...
August 2017: IET Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720727/impact-of-paracoccin-gene-silencing-on-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-virulence
#7
Fabrício F Fernandes, Aline F Oliveira, Taise N Landgraf, Cristina Cunha, Agostinho Carvalho, Patrícia E Vendruscolo, Relber A Gonçales, Fausto Almeida, Thiago A da Silva, Fernando Rodrigues, Maria Cristina Roque-Barreira
Among the endemic deep mycoses in Latin America, paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by thermodimorphic fungi of the Paracoccidioides genus, is a major cause of morbidity. Disease development and its manifestations are associated with both host and fungal factors. Concerning the latter, several recent studies have employed the methodology of gene modulation in P. brasiliensis using antisense RNA (AsRNA) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) to identify proteins that influence fungus virulence...
July 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715856/nitrogen-deposition-changes-ectomycorrhizal-communities-in-swiss-beech-forests
#8
L C de Witte, N P Rosenstock, S van der Linde, S Braun
Atmospheric pollution has implications for the health and diversity of temperate forests covering large parts of central Europe. Long-term elevated anthropogenic deposition of nitrogen (N) is driving forest ecosystems from the limitation by N to other nutrients and is found to affect tree health and ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF), which most trees depend on for nutrient uptake. However, the consequence of EMF community changes for trees remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated changes in EMF communities on root tips and in soil of beech forests along a N deposition gradient ranging between 16 and 33kgNha(-1)a(-1), where high N deposition was found to negatively affect tree growth and nutrient levels...
July 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709896/comparative-study-on-antifungal-activities-of-chitosan-nanoparticles-and-chitosan-silver-nano-composites-against-fusarium-oxysporum-species-complex
#9
S H S Dananjaya, W K C U Erandani, Cheol-Hee Kim, Chamilani Nikapitiya, Jehee Lee, Mahanama De Zoysa
Though the metal nanoparticles (NPs) have been shown favorable results against fungal diseases, erratic environmental toxicity of NPs have raised serious concerns against their applications. Hence, it is vital to modify antifungal compounds into safe substitutes over synthetic chemicals. In this study, antifungal effects of chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) and chitosan silver nanocomposites (CAgNCs) were compared against Fusarium oxysporum species complex. CNPs and CAgNCs were synthesized, characterized and compared based on the transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis absorbance spectra, particle size distribution, zeta potential and thermal stability analysis...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709434/integrating-multi-omics-analyses-of-nonomuraea-dietziae-to-reveal-the-role-of-soybean-oil-in-4-oh-meleu-4-csa-overproduction
#10
Huanhuan Liu, Di Huang, Lina Jin, Cheng Wang, Shaoxiong Liang, Jianping Wen
BACKGROUND: Nonomuraea dietziae is a promising microorganism to mediate the region-specific monooxygenation reaction of cyclosporine A (CsA). The main product [(4'-OH)MeLeu](4)-CsA possesses high anti-HIV/HCV and hair growth-stimulating activities while avoiding the immunosuppressive effect of CsA. However, the low conversion efficiency restricts the clinical application. In this study, the production of [(4'-OH)MeLeu](4)-CsA was greatly improved by 55.6% from 182.8 to 284.4 mg/L when supplementing soybean oil into the production medium, which represented the highest production of [(4'-OH)MeLeu](4)-CsA so far...
July 14, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705394/melanization-and-ageing-are-not-drawbacks-for-successful-agro-transformation-of-dark-septate-endophytes
#11
Charlotte Berthelot, Yoann Perrin, Corinne Leyval, Damien Blaudez
Dark septate endophytes (DSEs) are melanin-enriched ascomycetous fungi that are abundant in stressed environments. However, little is known about their physiology and metabolism, and DSE genes have not been functionally characterized yet. Therefore developing molecular genetic tools to investigate the biological function of genes of interest in DSEs is of major significance. We investigated Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) efficiency in eight DSE strains belonging to Cadophora sp., Cadophora malorum, Leptodontidium sp...
August 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698675/virgisporangium-myanmarense-sp-nov-a-novel-motile-actinomycete-isolated-from-an-anthill-soil-in-myanmar
#12
Hideki Yamamura, Shoya Miyazaki, Kodai Ikoma, Youji Nakagawa, Moriyuki Hamada, Misa Otoguro, Tomohiko Tamura, Katsuhiko Ando, Nyunt Phay, Masayuki Hayakawa
An actinomycete strain, designated MM04-1133(T), was isolated from an anthill soil sample collected in Bagan, Myanmar. To establish the taxonomic status of this strain, the isolate was subjected to a polyphasic approach. Strain MM04-1133(T) was Gram-staining positive, aerobic, motile and formed long and narrow sporangia directly above the surface of the substrate mycelium. Whole-cell hydrolysates of the strain contained 3-OH-diaminopimelic acid, arabinose, glucose, galactose, mannose, rhamnose and xylose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-10(H6) and MK-10(H8)...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685359/transcriptomic-responses-involved-in-enhanced-production-of-hypocrellin-a-by-addition-of-triton-x-100-in-submerged-cultures-of-shiraia-bambusicola
#13
Xiu Yun Lei, Ming Ye Zhang, Yan Jun Ma, Jian Wen Wang
The addition of surfactant is a useful strategy to enhance the product yield in submerged fermentation process. In this study, we sought to explore the mechanism for the elicitation of Triton X-100 on production of hypocrellin A (HA) in cultures of Shiraia bambusicola through transcriptomic analysis. Triton X-100 at 2.5% (w/v) not only induced HA biosynthesis in mycelia, but also stimulated the release of HA into the medium. We found 23 of 2463 transcripts, possible candidate genes for HA biosynthesis under Triton X-100 induction...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682896/an-endophytic-fungus-efficiently-producing-paclitaxel-isolated-from-taxus-wallichiana-var-mairei
#14
Jian Zaiyou, Meng Li, Hu Xiqiao
Paclitaxel is a medicinal ingredient with high anticancer activity and widely used in hospitals and clinics. In this study, we isolate endophytic fungi efficiently producing paclitaxel from yew for the purpose of paclitaxel manufacture.The bark of Taxus wallichiana var. mairei was surface sterilized and then inoculated in potato dextrose agar culture medium to isolate endophytic fungi. The paclitaxel in the fungal culture was extracted with mixture of chloroform and the same amount of methanol. The content of paclitaxel in the extract was determined and identified with LC-MS...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681119/antiosteoporotic-activity-of-a-syringic-acid-diet-in-ovariectomized-mice
#15
Teruyoshi Tanaka, Nobuhisa Kawaguchi, Nobuhiro Zaima, Tatsuya Moriyama, Yasuhisa Fukuta, Norifumi Shirasaka
In recent years, the number of patients with osteoporosis has risen with the increase in average longevity. Therefore, the chemoprevention of osteoporosis using food materials or food components has become an increasingly important target. Syringic acid (SA) is a phenolic compound present in the fruit of the açaí palm Euterpe oleracea and the mycelium of the shiitake mushroom Lentinula edodes. This compound has no affinity for estrogen receptors and is potentially useful for disease prevention. However, little is known about the effects of a SA diet on bone metabolism, particularly bone resorption in vivo...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680440/vaccatides-antifungal-glutamine-rich-hevein-like-peptides-from-vaccaria-hispanica
#16
Ka H Wong, Wei Liang Tan, Shruthi G Kini, Tianshu Xiao, Aida Serra, Sui Kwan Sze, James P Tam
Hevein and hevein-like peptides are disulfide-constrained chitin-binding cysteine-rich peptides. They are divided into three subfamilies, 6C-, 8C-, and 10C-hevein-like peptides, based on the number of cysteine residues. In addition, hevein-like peptides can exist in two forms, short and long. The long C-terminal form found in hevein and 10C-hevein-like peptides contain a C-terminal protein cargo. In contrast, the short form without a protein cargo is found in all three subfamilies. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of two novel glutamine-rich and protein cargo-free 8C-hevein-like peptides, vaccatides vH1 and vH2, from Vaccaria hispanica of the Caryophyllaceae family...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680077/facilitation-of-phosphorus-uptake-in-maize-plants-by-mycorrhizosphere-bacteria
#17
Fabio Battini, Mette Grønlund, Monica Agnolucci, Manuela Giovannetti, Iver Jakobsen
A major challenge for agriculture is to provide sufficient plant nutrients such as phosphorus (P) to meet the global food demand. The sufficiency of P is a concern because of it's essential role in plant growth, the finite availability of P-rock for fertilizer production and the poor plant availability of soil P. This study investigated whether biofertilizers and bioenhancers, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and their associated bacteria could enhance growth and P uptake in maize. Plants were grown with or without mycorrhizas in compartmented pots with radioactive P tracers and were inoculated with each of 10 selected bacteria isolated from AMF spores...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672152/anthracene-and-benzo-a-pyrene-degradation-in-soil-is-favoured-by-compost-amendment-perspectives-for-a-bioremediation-approach
#18
Daniela Baldantoni, Raffaella Morelli, Alessandro Bellino, Maria Vittoria Prati, Anna Alfani, Flavia De Nicola
In order to validate the use of compost in soil PAH bioremediation, the degradation of anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene was monitored in soils artificially contaminated and incubated in mesocosms under controlled conditions. The dynamics observed in compost amended soil were compared to those observed in soil added with a fungal consortium and untreated soil. At the same time, three microbial enzyme activities usually involved in PAH degradation (laccase, o-diphenol oxidase and peroxidase activities) were monitored...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670321/an-in-vitro-method-for-studying-the-three-way-interaction-between-soybean-rhizophagus-irregularis-and-the-soil-borne-pathogen-fusarium-virguliforme
#19
María L Giachero, Nathalie Marquez, Adrien Gallou, Celina M Luna, Stéphane Declerck, Daniel A Ducasse
In this work, we described an in vitro system adequate for investigating the pathosystem soybean/arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)/Fusarium virguliforme. Pre-mycorrhized plantlets with Rhizophagus irregularis were infected by F. virguliforme either locally via a plug of gel supporting mycelium (Method 1) or via a macroconidia suspension applied to the medium surface (Method 2). Root colonization by the AMF and infection by the pathogen were similar to the usual observations in pot experiments. Within a period of 18 days, more than 20% of the roots were colonized by the AMF and infection by the pathogen was observed in all the plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663148/oral-reproductive-and-developmental-toxicity-of-lignosus-rhinocerotis-mycelium-in-rat
#20
Bo-Yi Jhou, Hsiao-Hui Liu, Shu-Hsing Yeh, Chin-Chu Chen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Lignosus rhinocerotis (L. rhinocerotis), also known as the tiger milk mushroom, is widely used as traditional medicine and as soup ingredient in Malaysia and Hong Kong. It is edible and is used traditionally for the treatment of fever, cough, asthma, wounds, chronic hepatitis, gastric ulcers and cancers. In view of its safety profile, little information is found in scientific literature. The objective of this study is to investigate developmental toxicity of L...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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