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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800848/cold-generation-of-smoke-flavour-by-the-first-phenolic-acid-decarboxylase-from-a-filamentous-ascomycete-isaria-farinosa
#1
Diana Linke, Stephanie J L Riemer, Silke Schimanski, Annabel Nieter, Ulrich Krings, Ralf G Berger
A decarboxylase (IfPAD) from the ascomycete Isaria farinosa converted ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol (4-VG), a volatile which imparts the distinct "smoke flavor" of pyrolized wood. The activity was enhanced by adding (E)-ferulic acid to the culture medium and peaked with 3.6 U g(-1) mycelium (1 μmol 4-VG min(-1)). The coding sequence of 543 bp was translated into a 25 kDa protein with a homology of 91 % to putative phenolic acid decarboxylases of its teleomorph, Cordyceps militaris, and Beauveria bassiana, the anamorph of Cordyceps bassiana...
September 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793031/airborne-fungi-in-an-intensive-care-unit
#2
C L Gonçalves, F V Mota, G F Ferreira, J F Mendes, E C Pereira, C H Freitas, J N Vieira, J P Villarreal, P S Nascente
The presence of airborne fungi in Intensive Care Unit (ICUs) is associated with increased nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was the isolation and identification of airborne fungi presented in an ICU from the University Hospital of Pelotas - RS, with the attempt to know the place's environmental microbiota. 40 Petri plates with Sabouraud Dextrose Agar were exposed to an environment of an ICU, where samples were collected in strategic places during morning and afternoon periods for ten days. Seven fungi genera were identified: Penicillium spp...
July 27, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790333/new-2-aryl-7-8-dimethoxy-3-4-dihydroisoquinolin-2-ium-salts-as-potential-antifungal-agents-synthesis-bioactivity-and-structure-activity-relationships
#3
Lifei Zhu, Bohang Zhou, Bingyu Zhang, Mingxuan Xu, Huiling Geng, Le Zhou
The title compounds can be considered as simple analogues of quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids (QBAs). In order to develop potent QBA-like antifungal agents, as our continuing study, a series of new title compounds were synthesized and evaluated for bioactivity against five plant pathogenic fungi by the mycelium growth rate method in this study. The SAR were also derived. The majority of the compounds showed good to excellent inhibition activity with average EC50 values of 7.87-20.0 μM for the fungi, superior to sanguinarine and cherythrine (two QBAs) and the commercial fungicide azoxystrobin...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771869/its1-metabarcoding-highlights-low-specificity-of-lichen-mycobiomes-at-a-local-scale
#4
Fernando Fernández-Mendoza, Antonia Fleischhacker, Theodora Kopun, Martin Grube, Lucia Muggia
As self-supporting and long-living symbiotic structures, lichens provide a habitat for many other organisms beside the traditionally considered lichen symbionts - the myco- and the photobionts. The lichen-inhabiting fungi either develop diagnostic phenotypes or occur asymptomatically. Because the degree of specificity toward the lichen host is poorly known, we studied the diversity of these fungi among neighboring lichens on rocks in an alpine habitat. Using a sequencing metabarcoding approach we show that lichen mycobiomes clearly reflect the overlap of multiple ecological sets of taxa, which differ in their trophic association with lichen thalli...
August 3, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766678/identification-of-hispidin-as-a-bioluminescent-active-compound-and-its-recycling-biosynthesis-in-the-luminous-fungal-fruiting-body
#5
Yuichi Oba, Yoshiki Suzuki, Gabriel N R Martins, Rodrigo P Carvalho, Tatiana A Pereira, Hans E Waldenmaier, Shusei Kanie, Masashi Naito, Anderson G Oliveira, Felipe A Dörr, Ernani Pinto, Ilia V Yampolsky, Cassius V Stevani
We previously showed that luminous fungi share a common mechanism in bioluminescence, and identified hispidin as a luciferin precursor in Neonothopanus nambi mycelium. Here we showed the presence of hispidin as a bioluminescent active compound at 25-1000 pmol g(-1) in the fruiting bodies of Mycena chlorophos, Omphalotus japonicus, and Neonothopanus gardneri. These results suggest that luminous mushrooms contain hispidin as a luciferin precursor. We also found that non-luminous "young" fruiting bodies exhibited luminescence by hispidin treatment...
August 2, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765877/investigation-of-the-immunomodulatory-activity-of-tricholoma%C3%A2-matsutake-mycelium-in-cyclophosphamide-induced-immunosuppressed-mice
#6
Quan Li, Yanzhen Wang, Yiling Chen, Meiyu Teng, Jian He, Xiaohan Wang, Fange Kong, Lirong Teng, Di Wang
Tricholoma matsutake, a popular food and biopharmaceutical resource in Asia, possesses various pharmacological activities. Although T. matsutake mycelium (TM) may enhance immunity, previous studies, to the best of our knowledge, have been performed on normal animals or cells alone. The present study aimed to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of TM at doses of 0.3, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg in cyclophosphamide (CTX)‑induced immunosuppressed mouse models. TM treatment for 2 weeks markedly improved the gain in bodyweight, increased organ indices, reduced hind paw swelling and positively regulated the cytotoxicity of natural killer cells and the proliferation of lymphocytes...
July 26, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758954/chemical-constituents-from-hericium-erinaceus-promote-neuronal-survival-and-potentiate-neurite-outgrowth-via-the-trka-erk1-2-pathway
#7
Cheng-Chen Zhang, Chen-Yu Cao, Miwa Kubo, Kenichi Harada, Xi-Tao Yan, Yoshiyasu Fukuyama, Jin-Ming Gao
Hericium erinaceus is a culinary-medicinal mushroom used traditionally in Eastern Asia to improve memory. In this work, we investigated the neuroprotective and neuritogenic effects of the secondary metabolites isolated from the MeOH extract of cultured mycelium of H. erinaceus and the primary mechanisms involved. One new dihydropyridine compound (6) and one new natural product (2) together with five known compounds (1,3-5,7) were obtained and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR and HRMS...
July 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755262/physicochemical-and-microbial-responses-of-streptomyces-natalensis-hw-2-to-fungal-elicitor
#8
Dahong Wang, Lanlan Wei, Ying Zhang, Mengjuan Zhang, Shaobin Gu
The effects of fungal elicitor on the physicochemical and microbial responses of Streptomyces natalensis HW-2 were investigated. The results showed that the elicitor could decrease dry cell weight (DCW) by 17.7% and increase the utilization of glucose, while the curve of pH was not obviously altered. The elicitor enhanced the yield of natamycin from 1.33 to 2.49 g/L. The morphology of the colony and the mycelium treated with elicitor showed significant differences from that of control. The level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased to 333...
July 28, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754205/the-g%C3%AE-1-camp-signaling-pathway-controls-conidiation-development-and-secondary-metabolism-in-the-taxol-producing-fungus-pestalotiopsis-microspora
#9
Xi Yu, Heng Liu, Xueliang Niu, Oren Akhberdi, Dongsheng Wei, Dan Wang, Xudong Zhu
G-protein-mediated signaling pathways regulate fungal morphogenesis, development and secondary metabolism. In this study, we report a gene, pgα1, that putatively encodes the α-subunit of a group I G protein in Pestalotiopsis microspora NK17, which is known to produce various secondary metabolites, including the antitumor drug taxol and pestalotiollide B (PB). Mutants of pgα1 showed retarded vegetative growth, aging of the mycelium, premature conidiation, deformed conidia, significantly increased melanin production, and a sharp decrease in PB production...
October 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751879/carbon-nitrogen-phosphorus-stoichiometry-in-fungi-a-meta-analysis
#10
Ji Zhang, James J Elser
Surveys of carbon:nitrogen:phosphorus ratios are available now for major groups of biota and for various aquatic and terrestrial biomes. However, while fungi play an important role in nutrient cycling in ecosystems, relatively little is known about their C:N:P stoichiometry and how it varies across taxonomic groups, functional guilds, and environmental conditions. Here we present the first systematic compilation of C:N:P data for fungi including four phyla (Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Glomeromycota, and Zygomycota)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742114/a-unique-polysaccharide-purified-from-hericium-erinaceus-mycelium-prevents-oxidative-stress-induced-by-h2o2-in-human-gastric-mucosa-epithelium-cell
#11
Mingxing Wang, Nakajima Kanako, Yanqiu Zhang, Xulang Xiao, Qipin Gao, Konishi Tetsuya
Hericium erinaceus (HE) has been used both as a traditional Chinese medicine and home remedy for treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastritis. EP-1, a purified polysaccharide isolated from HE mycelium, has recently been identified as the active component responsible for HE anti-gastritis activity. Because oxidative stress has been implicated as a pathogenic cause of gastritis and gastric ulcers, EP-1 antioxidant properties were systematically examined in vitro using the human gastric mucosal epithelial cell line, GES-1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740180/aspergillus-labruscus-sp-nov-a-new-species-of-aspergillus-section-nigri-discovered-in-brazil
#12
Maria Helena P Fungaro, Larissa S Ferranti, Fernanda P Massi, Josué J da Silva, Daniele Sartori, Marta H Taniwaki, Jens C Frisvad, Beatriz T Iamanaka
A novel fungal species, Aspergillus labruscus sp. nov., has been found in Brazil during an investigation of the fungal species present on the surface of grape berries (Vitis labrusca L.) for use in the production of concentrated grape juice. It seems to be associated to V. labrusca, and has never been recovered from Vitis vinifera. This new species belonging to Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati section Nigri is described here using morphological characters, extrolite profiling, partial sequence data from the BenA and CaM genes, and internal transcribed spacer sequences of ribosomal DNA...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738069/inoculation-effects-on-root-colonizing-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungal-communities-spread-beyond-directly-inoculated-plants
#13
Martina Janoušková, Karol Krak, Miroslav Vosátka, David Püschel, Helena Štorchová
Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) may improve plant performance at disturbed sites, but inoculation may also suppress root colonization by native AMF and decrease the diversity of the root-colonizing AMF community. This has been shown for the roots of directly inoculated plants, but little is known about the stability of inoculation effects, and to which degree the inoculant and the inoculation-induced changes in AMF community composition spread into newly emerging seedlings that were not in direct contact with the introduced propagules...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735421/ammonia-released-by-streptomyces-aburaviensis-induces-droplet-formation-in-streptomyces-violaceoruber
#14
Kathrin Schmidt, Dieter Spiteller
Streptomyces violaceoruber grown in co-culture with Streptomyces aburaviensis produces an about 17-fold higher volume of droplets on its aerial mycelium than in single-culture. Physical separation of the Streptomyces strains by either a plastic barrier or by a dialysis membrane, which allowed communication only by the exchange of volatile compounds or diffusible compounds in the medium, respectively, still resulted in enhanced droplet formation. The application of molecular sieves to bioassays resulted in the attenuation of the droplet-inducing effect of S...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730353/an-exploration-into-the-bacterial-community-under-different-pasteurization-conditions-during-substrate-preparation-composting-phase-ii-for-agaricus-bisporus-cultivation
#15
Fabricio Rocha Vieira, John Andrew Pecchia
Substrate preparation (i.e., composting) for Agaricus bisporus cultivation is the most critical point of mushroom production. Among many factors involved in the composting process, the microbial ecology of the system is the underlying drive of composting and can be influenced by composting management techniques. Pasteurization temperature at the beginning of phase II, in theory, may influence the bacterial community and subsequently the "selectivity" and nutrition of the final substrate. Therefore, this hypothesis was tested by simulation in bioreactors under different pasteurization conditions (57 °C/6 h, 60 °C/2 h, and 68 °C/2 h), simulating conditions adopted by many producers...
July 20, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729615/deletion-of-the-cela-gene-in-aspergillus-nidulans-triggers-overexpression-of-secondary-metabolite-biosynthetic-genes
#16
Gea Guerriero, Lucia Silvestrini, Sylvain Legay, Frank Maixner, Michael Sulyok, Jean-Francois Hausman, Joseph Strauss
Although much progress has been made in the study of cell wall biosynthetic genes in the model filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, there are still targets awaiting characterization. An example is the gene celA (ANIA_08444) encoding a putative mixed linkage glucan synthase. To characterize the role of celA, we deleted it in A. nidulans, analyzed the phenotype of the mycelium and performed RNA-Seq. The strain shows a very strong phenotype, namely "balloons" along the hyphae and aberrant conidiophores, as well as an altered susceptibility to cell wall drugs...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726315/biomineralization-of-gold-by-mucor-plumbeus-the-progress-in-understanding-the-mechanism-of-nanoparticles-formation
#17
Irena Maliszewska, Włodzimierz Tylus, Izabela Pawlaczyk-Graja, Wojciech Pusz, Anna Baturo-Cieśniewska, Jacek Chęcmanowski, Bogdan Szczygieł
This contribution describes the deposition of gold nanoparticles by microbial reduction of Au(III) ions using the mycelium of Mucor plumbeus. Biosorption as the major mechanism of Au(III) ions binding by the fungal cells and the reduction of them to the form of Au(0) on/in the cell wall, followed by the transportation of the synthesized gold nanoparticles to the cytoplasm, is postulated. The probable mechanism behind the reduction of Au(III) ions is discussed, leading to the conclusion that this process is non enzymatic one...
July 20, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726108/why-does-the-bioluminescent-fungus-armillaria-mellea-have-luminous-mycelium-but-nonluminous-fruiting-body
#18
K V Purtov, V N Petushkov, N S Rodionova, J I Gitelson
By determining the components involved in the bioluminescence process in luminous and nonluminous organs of the honey fungus Armillaria mellea, we have established causes of partial luminescence of this fungus. The complete set of enzymes and substrates required for bioluminescence is formed only in the mycelium and only under the conditions of free oxygen access. Since the synthesis of luciferin precursor (hispidin) and 3-hydroxyhispidin hydroxylase in the fruiting bodies is blocked, the formation of luciferin-the key component of fungal bioluminescent system-was not observed...
May 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725220/a-novel-derivative-of-mycousnine-produced-by-the-endophytic-fungus-mycosphaerella-nawae-exhibits-high-and-selective-immunosuppressive-activity-on-t-cells
#19
Li-Wei Wang, Jin-Liang Wang, Jing Chen, Jia-Jie Chen, Jia-Wei Shen, Xiao-Xiao Feng, Christian P Kubicek, Fu-Cheng Lin, Chu-Long Zhang, Feng-Yang Chen
An endophytic fungus, Mycosphaerella nawae ZJLQ129, was isolated from the leaves of the traditional Chinese medicine Smilax china. From the fermentation broth and mycelium, a dibenzofurane compound (-)mycousnine (1) was isolated. Chemical modification of it to the amide derivative (-)mycousnine enamine (2), which is new to science, was found to have high and selective immunosuppressive activity: similar to cyclosporin A, (-)mycousnine enamine (2) selectively inhibited T cell proliferation, suppressed the expression of the surface activation antigens CD25 and CD69 and the formation and expression of the cytokines interleukin-2 as well as interferon γ in activated T cells, but did not show any effect on the proliferation of B cells and cancer cells (PANC-1 and A549) and the activation of macrophages...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721940/isolation-characterisation-and-enzymatic-activity-of-streptomyces-sp-and-its-ph-control-during-fermentation-process
#20
Balraj Baskaran, Arulmozhi Muthukumarasamy
Streptomyces sp. with grey white mycelium was isolated from Kodiyakkarai marine segment of east coastal of India. The isolate produced spiny spores and did not produce any diffusible pigments. Various biochemical tests were carried out to confirm the isolate classification. The amylolytic enzyme activity was estimated using the isolated strain which was confirmed by golden yellowish zone formation after using the Gram's iodine stain. The amount of amylase produced by the isolate was 6.15 U/ml. Higher living cells always produce better enzymes, so that the process parameters especially pH was maintained in fermentation chamber for higher growth and also for large-scale growth...
August 2017: IET Systems Biology
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