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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923606/actinomycetes-benefaction-role-in-soil-and-plant-health
#1
REVIEW
Asma Absar Bhatti, Shamsul Haq, Rouf Ahmad Bhat
Actinomycetes are aerobic, spore forming gram-positive bacteria, belonging to the order actinomycetales characterized with substrate and aerial mycelium growth. They are the most abundant organisms that form thread-like filaments in the soil and are responsible for characteristically "earthy" smell of freshly turned healthy soil. They play major roles in the cycling of organic matter; inhibit the growth of several plant pathogens in the rhizosphere and decompose complex mixtures of polymer in dead plant, animal and fungal material results in production of many extracellular enzymes which are conductive to crop production...
September 16, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923382/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-new-substituted-thioglycolurils-their-analogues-and-derivatives
#2
Galina A Gazieva, Lada V Anikina, Tatyana V Nechaeva, Sergey A Pukhov, Tatyana B Karpova, Sergey V Popkov, Yulia V Nelyubina, Natalya G Kolotyrkina, Angelina N Kravchenko
A novel series of substituted N-aminothioglycolurils was synthesized by tandem hydrazone formation - ring contraction reaction of 3-thioxoperhydroimidazo[4,5-e]-1,2,4-triazin-6-ones with (E)-3-phenyl(furan-2-yl)acrylaldehyde derivatives. S-Alkyl substituted N-aminothioglycolurils were prepared through alkylation of corresponding thioglycolurils with iodoalkane or 4-chlorobenzylchloride. Methylthio group in S-methyl derivatives can be substituted with hydroxyl group in acid medium to give N-aminoglycolurils...
September 7, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921965/mycelium-enhanced-bacterial-degradation-of-organic-pollutants-under-bioavailability-restrictions
#3
Rungroch Sungthong, Margalida Tauler, Magdalena Grifoll, Jose-Julio Ortega-Calvo
This work examines the role of mycelia in enhancing the degradation by attached bacteria of organic pollutants that have poor bioavailability. Two oomycetes, Pythium oligandrum and Pythium aphanidermatum, were selected as producers of mycelial networks, while Mycobacterium gilvum VM552 served as a model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacterium. The experiments consisted of bacterial cultures exposed to a non-disturbed non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) layer containing a heavy fuel spiked with 14C-labeled phenanthrene that were incubated in the presence or absence of the mycelia of the oomycetes in both shaking and static conditions...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917671/scanning-electron-microscopy-and-histopathological-observations-of-beauveria-bassiana-infection-of-colorado-potato-beetle-larvae
#4
Yulin Duan, Hui Wu, Zhiyan Ma, Liu Yang, Deying Ma
Beauveria bassiana is a potential candidate for use as an environmentally friendly bio-pesticide. We studied the infection process and histopathology of B. bassiana strain NDBJJ-BFG infection of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) using scanning electron microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin staining of tissue sections. The results show that the fungus penetrated the insect epidermis through germ tubes and appressoria after spraying the larvae with conidial suspensions. The conidia began to germinate after 24 h and invade the epidermis...
September 13, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911741/growth-hydrolases-and-ultrastructure-of-fusarium-oxysporum-as-affected-by-phenolic-rich-extracts-from-several-xerophytic-plants
#5
Mahmoud S M Mohamed, Ahmed M Saleh, Ibrahim B Abdel-Farid, Sabry A El-Naggar
Fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of rot and wilt diseases, is one of the most detrimental phytopathogens for the productivity of many economic crops. The present study was conducted to evaluate the potentiality of some xerophytic plants as eco-friendly approach for management of F. oxysporum. Phenolic rich extracts from five plants namely: Horwoodia dicksoniae, Citrullus colocynthis, Gypsophila capillaris, Pulicaria incisa and Rhanterium epapposum were examined in vitro. The different extracts showed high variability in their phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as total antioxidant capacity...
September 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905706/classification-of-actinoplanes-sp-atcc-33076-an-actinomycete-that-produces-the-glycolipodepsipeptide-antibiotic-ramoplanin-as-actinoplanes-ramoplaninifer-sp-nov
#6
Giorgia Letizia Marcone, Elisa Binda, Marcella Reguzzoni, Luciano Gastaldo, Claudia Dalmastri, Flavia Marinelli
Strain ATCC 33076, which produces the antibiotic ramoplanin, was isolated from a soil sample collected in India, and it was classified as a member of the genus Actinoplanes on the basis of morphology and cell-wall composition. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the strain forms a distinct clade within the genus Actinoplanes, and it is most closely related to Actinoplanes deccanensis IFO 13994T (98.71 % similarity) and Actinoplanes atraurantiacus Y16T (98.33 %). The strain forms an extensively branched substrate mycelium; the sporangia are formed very scantily and are globose with irregular surface...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900701/the-phosphatome-of-medicinal-and-edible-fungus-wolfiporia-cocos
#7
Wenjun Zhu, Wei Wei, Shaopeng Zhang, Yonglian Zheng, Ping Chen, Xiaowen Xu
Wolfiporia cocos is an important medicinal and edible fungus that grows in association with pine trees, and its dried sclerotium has been used as a traditional medicine in China for centuries. However, the commercial production of W. cocos sclerotia is currently limited by shortages in pine wood resources. Since protein phosphatases (PPs) play significant roles in growth, signal transduction, development, metabolism, sexual reproduction, cell cycle, and environmental stress responses in fungi, the phosphatome of W...
September 12, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895361/-cloning-and-characterization-of-two-glutathione-s-transferases-cdnas-in-foc4-and-expression-under-exogenous-oxidative-stress
#8
Xingzhu Qi, Jun Wang, Lei Liu
In order to identify two putative glutathione S-transferase (GSTs) genes in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 (Foc4), cDNA sequences of the entire coding regions of the two genes were cloned from Foc4 using RT-PCR method. Subsequently, the two genes were named Fogst1 and Fogst2 respectively. The length of open reading frame of Fogst1 was 609 bp and encoded a protein including 202 amino acid residues, Fogst2 possessed an open reading frame with 693 bp which encoded a 230-amino acid protein. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Fogst1 belonged to sigma (σ) subtype members of the GSTs superfamily, and Fogst2 was a new member of an unknown subfamily in the GSTs superfamily...
June 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891979/determination-of-the-main-nucleosides-and-nucleobases-in-natural-and-cultured-ophiocordyceps-xuefengensis
#9
Juan Zou, Ling Wu, Zheng-Mi He, Ping Zhang, Zuo-Hong Chen
Ophiocordyceps xuefengensis, a recently described species of Ophiocordycepsthat is associated with the larvae of Phassusnodus (Hepialidae) in the living root or trunk of the medicinal plant Clerodendrumcyrtophyllum, isthe largest known Cordycepsspecies and is recognized as a desirable alternative for natural Ophiocordycepssinensis. This study investigated the main nucleosides and nucleobases in natural and cultured Ophiocordycepsxuefengensis. The contents of the nucleosides and nucleobases in the natural and cultured samples were determined by reverse phase HPLC...
September 11, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886271/microrna-signature-in-the-chemoprevention-of-functionally-enriched-stem-and-progenitor-pools-fespp-by-active-hexose-correlated-compound-ahcc
#10
Émilie A Graham, Jean-François Mallet, Majed Jambi, Hiroshi Nishioka, Kohei Homma, Chantal Matar
PURPOSE: Many breast cancer patients use natural compounds in their battle against breast cancer. Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC®) is a cultured mushroom mycelium extract shown to favorably modulate the immune system and alleviate cancer burden. Cancer Stem cells (CSCs) are a subset of highly tumorigenic cancer cells that are thought to be responsible for recurrence. CSCs can be epigenetically regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). We hypothesized that AHCC may influence CSCs by modulating tumor-suppressor or oncogenic miRNAs...
September 8, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879478/influence-of-oxygen-availability-on-the-metabolism-and-morphology-of-yarrowia-lipolytica-insights-into-the-impact-of-glucose-levels-on-dimorphism
#11
Asma Timoumi, Carine Bideaux, Stéphane E Guillouet, Yohan Allouche, Carole Molina-Jouve, Luc Fillaudeau, Nathalie Gorret
Dynamic behavior of Yarrowia lipolytica W29 strain under conditions of fluctuating, low, and limited oxygen supply was characterized in batch and glucose-limited chemostat cultures. In batch cultures, transient oscillations between oxygen-rich and -deprived environments induced a slight citric acid accumulation (lower than 29 mg L(-1)). By contrast, no citric acid was detected in continuous fermentations for all stress conditions: full anoxia (zero pO2 value, 100% N2), limited (zero pO2 value, 75% of cell needs), and low (pO2 close to 2%) dissolved oxygen (DO) levels...
September 6, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873206/characterization-and-phylogenetic-affiliation-of-actinobacteria-from-tropical-soils-with-potential-uses-for-agro-industrial-processes
#12
J C M Dornelas, J E F Figueiredo, C S de Abreu, U G P Lana, C A Oliveira, I E Marriel
Secondary metabolites produced by Actinobacteria of tropical soils represent a largely understudied source of novel molecules with relevant application in medicine, pharmaceutical and food industries, agriculture, and environmental bioremediation. The present study aimed to characterize sixty-nine Actinobacteria isolated from compost and tropical soils using morphological, biochemical, and molecular methods. All the isolates showed high variation for morphological traits considering the color of pigments of the aerial and vegetative mycelium and spore chain morphology...
August 31, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872258/conidia-of-penicillium-rubens-formed-at-low-water-activities-can-attract-more-water
#13
Karel A van Laarhoven, Loes H M Peeters, Mirjam Bekker, Hendrik P Huinink, Olaf C G Adan
To address the problem of indoor fungal growth, understanding the influence of moisture conditions on the fungal colonization process is crucial. This paper explores the influence of past moisture conditions on current processes. Specifically, it studies the growth and water sorption of conidia of Penicillium rubens formed at lower water activities (ranging from 0.86 to 0.99). For the first time, dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) is applied as a tool to quantify the water sorption of conidia as a function of the water activity at conidiation...
September 4, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859879/nematophagous-fungi-combinations-reduce-free-living-stages-of-sheep-gastrointestinal-nematodes-in-the-field
#14
Wendeo Ferreira da Silveira, Fabio Ribeiro Braga, Alexandre de Oliveira Tavela, Lucas Fernando Dos Santos, Rafael Reis Domingues, Anderson Rocha Aguiar, Carolina Magri Ferraz, Lorendane Millena de Carvalho, Thiago de Hollanda Ayupe, Jose Cola Zanuncio, Jackson Victor de Araújo
Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) can reduce or limit sheep production. Currently there is a clear deficiency in the action of drugs for the control of these parasites. Nematophagous fungi are natural enemies of GIN. Fungal combinations have potential for reducing GIN populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency combinations of nematophagous fungi in sodium alginate matrix pellets for the biological control agents of gastrointestinal sheep nematode parasites in the field. The nematophagous fungi (0...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854418/a-comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-erinacine-a-s-inhibition-of-gastric-cancer-cell-viability-and-invasiveness
#15
Hsing-Chun Kuo, Yur-Ren Kuo, Kam-Fai Lee, Meng-Chiao Hsieh, Cheng-Yi Huang, Yung-Yu Hsieh, Ko-Chao Lee, Hsiang-Lan Kuo, Li-Ya Lee, Wan-Ping Chen, Chin-Chu Chen, Shui-Yi Tung
Background / Aims: Erinacine A, isolated from the ethanol extract of the Hericium erinaceus mycelium, has been demonstrated as a new alternative anticancer medicine. Drawing upon current research, this study presents an investigation of the molecular mechanism of erinacine A inhibition associated with gastric cancer cell growth. METHODS: Cell viability was determined by Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide staining and migration using a Boyden chamber assay to determine the effects of erinacine A treatment on the proliferation capacity and invasiveness of gastric cancer cells...
August 30, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853687/nonomuraea-stahlianthi-sp-nov-an-endophytic-actinomycete-isolated-from-the-stem-of-stahlianthus-campanulatus
#16
Nantawan Niemhom, Chanikul Chutrakul, Chanwit Suriyachadkun, Chitti Thawai
A novel endophytic actinomycete, designated strain SC1-1T, was isolated from sterilized stem tissue from Stahlianthus campanulatus collected in Udon Thani province, Thailand. The isolate formed short chains of spores on aerial mycelium and presented meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall peptidoglycan. Glucose, madurose, mannose, rhamnose and ribose were observed as sugars in the cells. The cell membrane phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, hydroxy-phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and ninhydrin-positive phosphoglycolipids...
August 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853680/pseudonocardia-thailandensis-sp-nov-an-actinomycete-isolated-from-a-subterranean-termite-nest
#17
Kanaporn Sujarit, Nikhom Sujada, Takuji Kudo, Moriya Ohkuma, Wasu Pathom-Aree, Saisamorn Lumyong
A novel Gram-stain-positive bacterium designated CMU-NKS-70T was isolated from a subterranean termite nest and characterized using a polyphasic approach. The strain exhibited branching, pinkish-cream aerial mycelium and cream-brown substrate mycelium, and formed chains of rod-like spores. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses indicated that strain CMU-NKS-70T belonged to the genus Pseudonocardia, showing high similarity with Pseudonocardia oroxyli D10T (98.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Pseudonocardia xishanensis YIM 63638T (98...
August 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851637/the-antioxidative-and-anti-aging-effects-of-acidic-and-alkalic-extractable-mycelium-polysaccharides-by-agrocybe-aegerita-brig-sing
#18
Huijuan Jing, Juan Li, Jianjun Zhang, Wenshuai Wang, Shangshang Li, Zhenzhen Ren, Zheng Gao, Xinling Song, Xiuxiu Wang, Le Jia
Two extractable polysaccharides of Ac-MPS and Al-MPS were extracted from the mycelium of Agrocybe aegerita (Brig.) Sing and the in vitro antioxidant activities and in vivo anti-aging activities in a d-gal-induced aging mice were investigated in the present study. The in vitro antioxidant analysis showed that Ac-MPS showed superior scavenging effects on hydroxyl of 68.62±2.59% and DPPH of 85.19±3.26% at the concentration of 4,500μg/mL. Biochemical indices and antioxidant analysis in vivo showed that Ac-MPS had better effects in raising hepatic activities of SOD, CAT, GPx and T-AOC, inhibiting hepatic contents of LPO and MDA, as well as improving serum lipid levels of LDL-C, HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, TG and TC...
August 26, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845775/preserving-and-maintaining-culinary-medicinal-royal-sun-mushroom-agaricus-brasiliensis-agaricomycetes-in-sterile-distilled-water
#19
L M Vargas-Del-Rlo, Sandra Montoya, J C Sepulveda-Arias
Strains of Agaricus brasiliensis require special procedures for conservation. Thus, the objective of this research was to establish conservation and maintenance procedures A. brasiliensis strain PSWC838 from the University of Pennsylvania (ABWC838) and an A. brasiliensis strain from the Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University (ABC). The medium in which mycelia grew the quickest for both strains was selected using a multifactorial design with 2 strains, 4 culture media, and incubation for 5 different times; the growth rate (mm/day) was the response variable...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844734/employing-proteomic-analysis-to-compare-paracoccidioides-lutzii-yeast-and-mycelium-cell-wall-proteins
#20
Danielle Silva Araújo, Patrícia de Sousa Lima, Lilian Cristiane Baeza, Ana Flávia Alves Parente, Alexandre Melo Bailão, Clayton Luiz Borges, Célia Maria de Almeida Soares
Paracoccidioidomycosis is an important systemic mycosis caused by thermodimorphic fungi of the Paracoccidioides genus. During the infective process, the cell wall acts at the interface between the fungus and the host. In this way, the cell wall has a key role in growth, environment sensing and interaction, as well as morphogenesis of the fungus. Since the cell wall is absent in mammals, it may present molecules that are described as target sites for new antifungal drugs. Despite its importance, up to now few studies have been conducted employing proteomics in for the identification of cell wall proteins in Paracoccidioides spp...
August 24, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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