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Novelty seeking

Arjun Sethi, Valerie Voon, Hugo D Critchley, Mara Cercignani, Neil A Harrison
Computational models of reinforcement learning have helped dissect discrete components of reward-related function and characterize neurocognitive deficits in psychiatric illnesses. Stimulus novelty biases decision-making, even when unrelated to choice outcome, acting as if possessing intrinsic reward value to guide decisions toward uncertain options. Heightened novelty seeking is characteristic of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, yet how this influences reward-related decision-making is computationally encoded, or is altered by stimulant medication, is currently uncertain...
March 13, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Ivana Glavina Jelaš, Ivan Dević, Dalibor Karlović
BACKGROUND: the objective of this study was to examine the associations between Cloninger temperament and character dimensions with the DAT1 VNTR and COMT Val158Met polymorphisms. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 101 subjects, consisting of students of the Police College in Zagreb and staff of the Sestre Milosrdnice University Hospital in Zagreb. The Cloninger Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was used to test personality traits. RESULTS: A main effect of the DAT1 VNTR polymorphism was found on the subscale self-directedness - SD2 (F=5...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Michiko Sakaki, Ayano Yagi, Kou Murayama
Curiosity is a fundamental part of human motivation that supports a variety of human intellectual behaviors ranging from early learning in children to scientific discovery. However, there has been little attention paid to the role of curiosity in aging populations. By bringing together broad but sparse neuroscientific and psychological literature on curiosity and related concepts (e.g., novelty seeking in older adults), we propose that curiosity, although it declines with age, plays an important role in maintaining cognitive function, mental health, and physical health in older adults...
March 12, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Laura J Mosher, Sean C Godar, Marc Morissette, Kenneth M McFarlin, Simona Scheggi, Carla Gambarana, Stephen C Fowler, Thérèse Di Paolo, Marco Bortolato
The enzyme steroid 5α-reductase 2 (5αR2) catalyzes the conversion of testosterone into the potent androgen 5α-dihydrotestosterone. Previous investigations showed that 5αR2 is expressed in key brain areas for emotional and socio-affective reactivity, yet the role of this enzyme in behavioral regulation remains mostly unknown. Here, we profiled the behavioral characteristics of 5αR2 heterozygous (HZ) and knockout (KO) mice, as compared with their wild-type (WT) littermates. While male 5αR2 KO mice displayed no overt alterations in motoric, sensory, information-processing and anxiety-related behaviors, they exhibited deficits in neurobehavioral correlates of dominance (including aggression against intruders, mating, and tube dominance) as well as novelty-seeking and risk-taking responses...
February 16, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Cristiano Crescentini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Daphne Stam, Yun-An Huang, Jan Van den Stock
Personality reflects the set of psychological traits and mechanisms characteristic for an individual. Geno-neuro-biologically inspired personality accounts have proposed a set of temperaments and characters that jointly compose personality profiles. The present study addresses the link between neurobiology and personality and investigates the association between temperament traits and regional gray matter volume. Furthermore, the specificity of these associations as well as the underlying components that drive the association are addressed...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Daniela Laricchiuta, Diego Andolina, Francesco Angelucci, Francesca Gelfo, Erica Berretta, Stefano Puglisi-Allegra, Laura Petrosini
Background: Approach system considered a motivational system that activates reward-seeking behavior is associated with exploration/impulsivity, whereas avoidance system considered an attentional system that promotes inhibition of appetitive responses is associated with active overt withdrawal. Approach and avoidance dispositions are modulated by distinct neurochemical profiles and synaptic patterns. However, the precise working of neurons and trafficking of molecules in the brain activity predisposing to approach and avoidance are yet unclear...
February 17, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Maria Grazia Melegari, Stefania Sette, Elena Vittori, Luca Mallia, Alessandra Devoto, Fabio Lucidi, Raffaele Ferri, Oliviero Bruni
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the links between temperament and sleep in a group of preschoolers with ADHD. METHOD: Twenty-five ADHD ( M = 5.37 years, SD = 1.09) and 22 typically developing (TD; M = 5.10, SD = 1.18) preschoolers participated in the study. Sleep was assessed with the Sleep Disturbance Scale and wrist actigraphy. The Preschool Temperament and Character Inventory (PsTCI) was used to evaluate the child temperament. RESULTS: ADHD children showed a temperamental profile characterized by higher novelty seeking, lower persistence, self-directness, and cooperativeness and marginally lower harm avoidance (HA) compared with controls...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Riccardo Dalle Grave, Simona Calugi, Marwan El Ghoch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Some personality traits seem to be associated with obesity, but there is little information available regarding their association with obesity treatment outcomes. The aim of this systematic review was therefore to assess the associations between personality traits-evaluated by means of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI)-and outcomes of obesity treatment, including attrition, weight loss, and weight loss maintenance. The PubMed database was searched, and studies were screened as per the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, and data were collated using a narrative approach...
February 9, 2018: Current Obesity Reports
Gemma Mestre-Bach, Trevor Steward, Roser Granero, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, María Teresa Talón-Navarro, Àngel Cuquerella, Amparo Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Neus Aymamí, Mónica Gómez-Peña, Núria Mallorquí-Bagué, Teresa Mena-Moreno, Cristina Vintró-Alcaraz, Marta Baño, Laura Moragas, Pablo Magaña, José Manuel Menchón, Susana Jiménez-Murcia
INTRODUCTION: Women have been underrepresented in the empirical research of gambling disorder (GD), a psychiatric condition included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders (DSM-5). More specifically, no studies to date have been carried out exploring the clinical phenotype of women with GD who have committed gambling-related illegal acts. AIMS: In this study, we sought to delineate the clinical, personality and psychopathological differences between treatment-seeking women with GD, with and without a criminal record...
January 24, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Annalisa Adinolfi, Cristiana Carbone, Damiana Leo, Raul R Gainetdinov, Giovanni Laviola, Walter Adriani
ADHD is a neuro-psychiatric disorder characterized by a developmentally inappropriate, pervasive and persistent pattern of severe inattention, hyper-activity and impulsivity. Despite onset in early childhood, ADHD may continue into adulthood with substantial impairment in social, academic and occupational functioning. A new animal model of this disorder was developed in rats with genetic deletion of the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene (dopamine transporter knockout rats; DAT-KO rats). We analyzed the behavior of DAT-KO rats for a deeper phenotypical characterization of this model...
February 6, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Nicolas Petitdant, Anthony Lecomte, Franck Robidel, Christelle Gamez, Kelly Blazy, Anne-Sophie Villégier
Exposure of pregnant women to radiofrequency (RF) devices raises questions on their possible health consequences for their progeny. We examined the hazard threshold of gestational RF on the progeny's glial homeostasis, sensory-motor gating, emotionality, and novelty seeking and tested whether maternal immune activation would increase RF toxicity. Pregnant dams were daily restrained with loop antennas adjoining the abdomen (fetus body specific absorption rates (SAR): 0, 0.7, or 2.6 W/kg) and received three lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intra-peritoneal injections (0 or 80 μg/kg)...
February 3, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Cristiana Carbone, Annalisa Adinolfi, Stefano Cinque, Enza Lacivita, Enrico Alleva, Marcello Leopoldo, Walter Adriani
AIMS: The serotonin 7 receptor (5-HT7R) subtype, coded by Htr7 gene, is broadly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) with clear involvement in behavioral functions such as learning/memory, regulation of mood, and circadian rhythms. In this study, we assessed effects of 5-HT7R stimulation by administration of its selective agonist, LP-211 (0.25 mg/kg i.p.), in adult Wistar-Han rats. METHODS: We used two different explorative-curiosity tests. Drug was administered either before one side-chamber familiarization (CF/V group) or immediately after it, to act on consolidation of familiarization (V/CF group)...
February 1, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Kirsti I Toivonen, Rie Tamagawa, Michael Speca, Joanne Stephen, Linda E Carlson
PURPOSE: Many cancer survivors seek complementary therapies (CTs) to improve their quality of life. While it is well-known that women who are younger, more highly educated, and have higher incomes are more likely to use CTs, individual differences such as personality factors have been largely unexplored as predictors of CT use. METHODS: In a secondary analysis of a larger study, 270 women with stage I to III breast cancer completed self-report measures of demographic and illness-related information, personality variables, and use of several different types of CTs...
January 1, 2018: Integrative Cancer Therapies
Killu Timm, Kees van Oers, Vallo Tilgar
Individual differences in coping with potentially dangerous situations are affected by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. How genetic polymorphisms and behavioural variations are related to fitness is unknown. One of the candidate genes affecting a variety of behavioural processes, including impulsivity, anxiety and mood fluctuations in both humans and other vertebrates is the serotonin transporter gene (SERT/SLC6A). The aim of this study was to assess an association between SERT genotypes and novelty seeking, risk-taking behaviours and breeding parameters of great tits (Parus major) in a natural environment...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Gabriella Santangelo, Federica Garramone, Chiara Baiano, Alfonsina D'Iorio, Fausta Piscopo, Simona Raimo, Carmine Vitale
INTRODUCTION: Personality changes are considered pre-motor features of Parkinson's disease (PD). Cross-sectional studies revealed that PD patients were more introvert, apprehensive, and cautious than healthy subjects (HS), whereas other studies failed to disclose these behavioural traits. Some studies found mixed results concerning Novelty Seeking (NS) and Harm Avoidance (HA) profiles in PD patients. To better clarify the personality profile in PD we performed a meta-analysis on studies exploring such topic according to both Cloninger's Psychobiological Model (PM) and Big Five Model (BFM) METHODS: The meta-analysis included 17 studies evaluating the personality in PD patients compared with HS...
January 12, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Kadri Andre, Olli Kampman, Merja Viikki, Eija Setälä-Soikkeli, Ari Illi, Nina Mononen, Terho Lehtimäki, Esa Leinonen
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the separate effects of and possible interactions between the functional polymorphisms of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) rs11030101, BDNF rs61888800, and neuregulin-1 (NRG1) rs3924999 and NRG1 rs6994992 on change of temperament scores in a clinical sample of subjects with major depression (MDD), who received selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment for a period of 6 weeks. METHODS: The study population consisted of 98 Finnish individuals with MDD...
January 9, 2018: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Aino Saarinen, Tom Rosenström, Mirka Hintsanen, Christian Hakulinen, Laura Pulkki-Råback, Terho Lehtimäki, Olli T Raitakari, Claude Robert Cloninger, Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen
The aim of this study was to examine (a) the associations of temperament and character dimensions with paranoid ideation over a 15-year follow-up in the general population (b) the associations of explosive temperament and organized character profiles with paranoid ideation. 2137 subjects of the Young Finns Study completed the Temperament and Character Inventory and the Paranoid Ideation Scale of the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised in 1997, 2001, and 2012. Temperament dimensions of high novelty seeking, high harm avoidance, low reward dependence and explosive temperament profile were associated with the development of higher paranoid ideation...
December 21, 2017: Psychiatry Research
Masanao Shirahama, Takeshi Terao, Nobuyoshi Ishii, Koji Hatano, Hirofumi Hirakawa, Kentaro Kohno
AIMS: In order to resolve the equivocal relationship between anxious temperament rated by the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A) and harm avoidance rated by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the present study aims to investigate whether the anxious temperament scale and the harm avoidance scale are significantly associated with adjustment of relevant factors. Our hypothesis is that anxious temperament may be associated with harm avoidance...
December 29, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Nuria Mallorquí-Bagué, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, María Lozano-Madrid, Roser Granero, Gemma Mestre-Bach, Marta Baño, Amparo Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Mónica Gómez-Peña, Neus Aymamí, José M Menchón, Susana Jiménez-Murcia
Background and aims The recent growth of Internet use has led to an increase of potentially problematic behaviors that can be engaged online, such as online gambling or Internet gaming. The aim of this study is to better conceptualize Internet gaming disorder (IGD) by comparing it with gambling disorder (GD) patients who only gamble online (online GD). Methods A total of 288 adult patients (261 online GD and 27 IGD) completed self-reported questionnaires for exploring psychopathological symptoms, food addiction (FA), and personality traits...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
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