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Novelty seeking

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717972/characteristics-of-patients-in-an-eating-disorder-sample-who-dropped-out-2-year-follow-up
#1
Andrés Gómez Del Barrio, María Yolanda Vellisca Gonzalez, Jana González Gómez, José Ignacio Latorre Marín, Laura Carral-Fernández, Santos Orejudo Hernandez, Inés Madrazo Río-Hortega, Laura Moreno Malfaz
OBJECTIVE: This manuscript explores the characteristics of individuals diagnosed with an eating disorder who dropped out of treatment, compared with those who completed it. METHOD: The participants were 196 patients diagnosed with eating disorders (according to DSM-IV-TR criteria) who consecutively began treatment for the first time in an eating disorders unit. They were assessed at baseline with a set of questionnaires evaluating eating habits, temperament, and general psychopathology...
July 17, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714952/a-circuit-based-mechanism-underlying-familiarity-signaling-and-the-preference-for-novelty
#2
Susanna Molas, Rubing Zhao-Shea, Liwang Liu, Steven R DeGroot, Paul D Gardner, Andrew R Tapper
Novelty preference (NP) is an evolutionarily conserved, essential survival mechanism often dysregulated in neuropsychiatric disorders. NP is mediated by a motivational dopamine signal that increases in response to novel stimuli, thereby driving exploration. However, the mechanism by which once-novel stimuli transition to familiar stimuli is unknown. Here we describe a neuroanatomical substrate for familiarity signaling, the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) of the midbrain, which is activated as novel stimuli become familiar with multiple exposures...
July 17, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714052/conservation-of-phenotypes-in-the-roman-high-and-low-avoidance-rat-strains-after-embryo-transfer
#3
Cristóbal Río-Álamos, Cristina Gerbolés, Carles Tapias-Espinosa, Daniel Sampedro-Viana, Ignasi Oliveras, Ana Sánchez-González, Toni Cañete, Gloria Blázquez, María Del Mar López, Carlos Baldellou, Pedro J Otaegui, Adolf Tobeña, Alberto Fernández-Teruel
The Roman high- (RHA-I) and low-avoidance (RLA-I) rat strains are bi-directionally bred for their good versus non-acquisition of two-way active avoidance, respectively. They have recently been re-derived through embryo transfer (ET) to Sprague-Dawley females to generate specific pathogen free (SPF) RHA-I/RLA-I rats. Offspring were phenotyped at generations 1 (G1, born from Sprague-Dawley females), 3 and 5 (G3 and G5, born from RHA-I and RLA-I from G2-G4, respectively), and compared with generation 60 from our non-SPF colony...
July 17, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661161/activity-level-in-the-lab-overlap-with-shyness-indicates-it-is-more-than-pure-motoric-activity
#4
Alexis C Frazier-Wood, Kimberly J Saudino
The observation that children's activity level (AL) differs between novel and familiar situations is well established. What influences individual differences in how AL is different across these situations is less well understood. Drawing on animal literature, which links rats' AL when 1st placed in a novel setting with novelty seeking phenotypes, and child temperament literature, which links AL, novelty response, and shyness, we hypothesized that shyness would be an important component of children's AL in a novel situation...
June 29, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656735/an-analysis-of-genetic-association-in-opioid-dependence-susceptibility
#5
D Nagaya, Z Zahari, M Saleem, B H Yahaya, S C Tan, N M Yusoff
WHAT IS KNOWN: Drug addiction is a novelty-seeking personality trait that is associated with the candidate genes OPRD1 (opioid delta receptors), OPRK1 (opioid kappa receptors) and PDYN (prodynorphin). However, associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs1042114 (80G>T) of the OPRD1 gene, rs702764 (843 A>G) of the OPRK1 gene, and rs910080 (3' UTR _743T>C), rs1997794 (5' UTR -381A>G) and rs1022563 (3' UTR) of the PDYN gene and novelty seeking remain controversial as reported results have not been reproducible...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647670/temperament-and-character-profile-of-college-students-who-have-suicidal-ideas-or-have-attempted-suicide
#6
Kounseok Lee, Hye-Kyung Lee, Seok Hyeon Kim
OBJECTIVE: Suicide is a major cause of death in university students. Personality traits have been suggested as possible risk factors for suicidal behaviors. This study looked at the relationship between the personality dimensions of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and suicidal behaviors. METHOD: A total of 5644 college students took the TCI test and the suicidality module of the M.I.N.I. The students were divided into the suicidal ideation group (n = 302; 5...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643887/personality-dopamine-and-parkinson-s-disease-insights-from-subthalamic-stimulation
#7
Eugénie Lhommée, François Boyer, Maxime Wack, Pierre Pélissier, Hélène Klinger, Emmanuelle Schmitt, Amélie Bichon, Valérie Fraix, Stéphan Chabardès, Patrick Mertens, Anna Castrioto, Andrea Kistner, Emmanuel Broussolle, Stéphane Thobois, Paul Krack
BACKGROUND: Subthalamic stimulation improves the motor and neuropsychiatric symptoms of Parkinson's disease. However, the impact of this treatment on impulse control and personality is the subject of heavy debate. The objective of this study was to investigate personality changes after subthalamic stimulation. METHODS: Using Cloninger's biosocial model, we assessed personality in 73 Parkinson's disease patients before and 12 months after subthalamic stimulation accompanied by a drastic reduction in dopaminergic medication...
June 23, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639132/identifying-the-neural-substrates-of-intrinsic-motivation-during-task-performance
#8
Woogul Lee, Johnmarshall Reeve
Intrinsic motivation is the inherent tendency to seek out novelty and challenge, to explore and investigate, and to stretch and extend one's capacities. When people imagine performing intrinsically motivating tasks, they show heightened anterior insular cortex (AIC) activity. To fully explain the neural system of intrinsic motivation, however, requires assessing neural activity while people actually perform intrinsically motivating tasks (i.e., while answering curiosity-inducing questions or solving competence-enabling anagrams)...
June 21, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636575/the-temperament-and-character-traits-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-and-bipolar-affective-disorder-with-and-without-suicide-attempt
#9
Anamarija Petek Erić, Ivan Erić, Mario Ćurković, Katarina Dodig-Ćurković, Kristina Kralik, Vlatka Kovač, Pavo Filaković
BACKGROUND: Suicide and mood disorders (especially major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar affective disorder (BD)) represent a significant global health burden. Major depressive disorder and bipolar affective disorder have been associated with increased risk for suicide. Some specific suicide risk factors might be found in underlying individual personality traits. Specific personality features may predispose an individual to mood disorders (MDD or BD) hence increased suicide risk...
June 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624436/zonisamide-inhibits-monoamine-oxidase-and-enhances-motor-performance-and-social-activity
#10
Maiko T Uemura, Takeshi Asano, Rie Hikawa, Hodaka Yamakado, Ryosuke Takahashi
Zonisamide (ZNS) is an effective drug for not only motor symptoms but also non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. However, the actions of ZNS as an anti-Parkinsonian drug are not well understood. To clarify the actions of ZNS in vivo, we administered ZNS to mice and examined the effects on neurotransmitter metabolism and behaviors, focusing on motor and non-motor symptoms. Administration of ZNS decreased dopamine (DA) turnover in various brain regions, including the striatum. In behavioral tests, ZNS enhanced locomotor activity and novelty seeking in the open field test, light-dark transition test, and the social interaction test...
June 15, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619545/blast-related-disinhibition-and-risk-seeking-in-mice-and-combat-veterans-potential-role-for-dysfunctional-phasic-dopamine-release
#11
A G Schindler, J S Meabon, K F Pagulayan, R C Hendrickson, K D Meeker, M Cline, G Li, C Sikkema, C W Wilkinson, D P Perl, M R Raskind, E R Peskind, J J Clark, D G Cook
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) caused by exposure to high explosives has been called the "signature injury" of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. There is a wide array of chronic neurological and behavioral symptoms associated with blast-induced mTBI. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here we used a battlefield-relevant mouse model of blast-induced mTBI and in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to investigate whether the mesolimbic dopamine system contributes to the mechanisms underlying blast-induced behavioral dysfunction...
June 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572985/dopamine-disruption-increases-cleanerfish-cooperative-investment-in-novel-client-partners
#12
Marta C Soares, Teresa P Santos, João P M Messias
Social familiarization is a process of gaining knowledge that results from direct or indirect participation in social events. Cooperative exchanges are thought to be conditional upon familiarity with others. Indeed, individuals seem to prefer to engage with those that have previously interacted with them, which are more accurate predictors of reward than novel partners. On the other hand, highly social animals do seek novelty. Truth is that the physiological bases underlying how familiarity and novelty may affect cooperative decision-making are still rather obscure...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570644/comparison-of-the-adolescent-and-adult-mouse-prefrontal-cortex-proteome
#13
Abigail E Agoglia, Sarah E Holstein, Amanda T Small, Marina Spanos, Brainard M Burrus, Clyde W Hodge
Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by unique behavioral phenotypes (increased novelty seeking, risk taking, sociability and impulsivity) and increased risk for destructive behaviors, impaired decision making and psychiatric illness. Adaptive and maladaptive adolescent traits have been associated with development of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a brain region that mediates regulatory control of behavior. However, the molecular changes that underlie brain development and behavioral vulnerability have not been fully characterized...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559169/spontaneous-alternation-a-potential-gateway-to-spatial-working-memory-in-drosophila
#14
Sara A Lewis, David C Negelspach, Sevag Kaladchibachi, Stephen L Cowen, Fabian Fernandez
Despite their ubiquity in biomedical research, Drosophila have yet to be widely employed as model organisms in psychology. Many complex human-like behaviors are observed in Drosophila, which exhibit elaborate displays of inter-male aggression and female courtship, self-medication with alcohol in response to stress, and even cultural transmission of social information. Here, we asked whether Drosophila can demonstrate behavioral indices of spatial working memory in a Y-maze, a classic test of memory function and novelty-seeking in rodents...
May 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549664/role-of-glucocorticoid-receptor-mediated-mechanisms-in-cocaine-memory-enhancement
#15
S J Stringfield, J A Higginbotham, R Wang, A L Berger, R J McLaughlin, R A Fuchs
The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a critical site for the reconsolidation of labile contextual cocaine memories following retrieval-induced reactivation/destabilization. Here, we examined whether glucocorticoid receptors (GR), which are abundant in the BLA, mediate this phenomenon. Rats were trained to lever press for cocaine reinforcement in a distinct environmental context, followed by extinction training in a different context. Rats were then briefly exposed to the cocaine-paired context (to elicit memory reactivation and reconsolidation) or their home cages (no reactivation control)...
September 1, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521251/the-protective-effect-of-character-maturity-in-child-aggressive-antisocial-behavior
#16
Nóra Kerekes, Örjan Falk, Sven Brändström, Henrik Anckarsäter, Maria Råstam, Björn Hofvander
BACKGROUND: Childhood aggressive antisocial behavior (CD) is one of the strongest predictors of mental health problems and criminal behavior in adulthood. The aims of this study were to describe personality profiles in children with CD, and to determine the strength of association between defined neurodevelopmental symptoms, dimensions of character maturity and CD. METHODS: A sample of 1886 children with a close to equal distribution of age (9 or 12) and gender, enriched for neurodevelopmental and psychiatric problems were selected from the nationwide Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden...
July 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513104/novelty-seeking-and-reward-dependence-related-large-scale-brain-networks-functional-connectivity-variation-during-salience-expectancy
#17
Shijia Li, Liliana Ramona Demenescu, Catherine M Sweeney-Reed, Anna Linda Krause, Coraline D Metzger, Martin Walter
A salience network (SN) anchored in the anterior insula (AI) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) plays a key role in switching between brain networks during salience detection and attention regulation. Previous fMRI studies have associated expectancy behaviors and SN activation with novelty seeking (NS) and reward dependence (RD) personality traits. To address the question of how functional connectivity (FC) in the SN is modulated by internal (expectancy-related) salience assignment and different personality traits, 68 healthy participants performed a salience expectancy task using functional magnetic resonance imaging, and psychophysiological interaction analysis (PPI) was conducted to determine salience-related connectivity changes during these anticipation periods...
May 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512365/-temperament-risk-factor-for-mental-health-disturbances-in-the-judiciary-staff
#18
Katarzyna Orlak, Jan Tylka
BACKGROUND: The aim of this paper was to examine how temperament might moderate the health impact of psychosocial hazards at work and thus to attempt to identify the temperament risk factor in the judiciary staff. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data were collected from 355 court employees, including judges, judicial assistants, court clerks and service workers from criminal, civil, commercial as well as from labor and social insurance divisions. The psychosocial work environment was measured with the Psychosocial Working Conditions Questionnaire by Cieślak and Widerszal-Bazyl, temperament with Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory adopted by Hornowska and employee health status was screened with Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire- 28 (GHQ-28) adopted by Makowska and Merecz...
May 16, 2017: Medycyna Pracy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512038/involvement-of-the-oxytocin-system-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-in-the-regulation-of-juvenile-social-novelty-seeking-behavior
#19
Caroline J W Smith, Jazmin N Mogavero, Maxwell T Tulimieri, Alexa H Veenema
Exploration of novel environments, stimuli, and conspecifics is highly adaptive during the juvenile period, as individuals transition from immaturity to adulthood. We recently showed that juvenile rats prefer to interact with a novel individual over a familiar cage mate. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this juvenile social novelty-seeking behavior remain largely unknown. One potential candidate is the oxytocin (OXT) system, given its involvement in various motivated social behaviors. Here, we show that administration of the specific oxytocin receptor antagonist desGly-NH2,d(CH2)5-[Tyr(Me)(2),Thr(4)]OVT reduces social novelty seeking-behavior in juvenile male rats when injected into the nucleus accumbens (10ng/0...
May 20, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499916/effects-of-neonatal-and-adolescent-neuroactive-steroid-manipulation-on-locomotor-activity-induced-by-ethanol-in-male-wistar-rats
#20
Iris Bartolomé, Anna Llidó, Sònia Darbra, Marc Pallarès
Neonatal neuroactive steroids levels are crucial for brain development. Alterations of neonatal neuroactive steroids levels induce anxiolytic-like effects and improve exploration in novel environments in adulthood. These behavioural traits, i.e. sensation/novelty seeking, anxiety or impulsivity, are associated with vulnerability to drug use and abuse. Adolescence is also recognized as a particularly critical developmental phase to contribute to vulnerable phenotype. However, the influence of neuroactive steroids during development in the vulnerability to drug addiction has been poorly studied...
May 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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