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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300934/an-evolutionary-approach-to-mania-studying-sardinian-immigrants-to-argentina
#1
Mauro G Carta, Alessandra Perra, Michela Atzeni, Silvia D'Oca, Maria F Moro, Peter K Kurotschka, Daniela Moro, Federica Sancassiani, Luigi Minerba, Maria V Brasesco, Gustavo Mausel, Antonio E Nardi, Leonardo Tondo
Objective: To ascertain lifetime prevalence of positivity to a screening questionnaire for bipolar disorders (BD) in Sardinian immigrants to Argentina and residents of Sardinia and assess whether such positivity affects quality of life (QoL) in either group. Our hypothesis is that screen positivity for BD may be more frequent in immigrants. Methods: Observational study. Subjects were randomly selected from the membership lists of associations of Sardinian immigrants in Argentina...
March 9, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293319/character-and-temperament-dimensions-in-subjects-with-depressive-disorder-impact-of-the-affective-state-on-their-expression
#2
Stojan Bajraktarov, Antoni Novotni, Slavica Arsova, Dance Gudeva-Nikovska, Viktorija Vujovik
BACKGROUND: The depression is a cross-cultural condition that occurs in all cultures and within all nations with certain specificities, even though there are some differences in its manifestation. The hereditary load is of major importance, but also the individual personality factors, in the form of risk factors, are associated with the occurrence of depression. Personality characteristics have a significant impact on the occurrence of the recurrent depressive disorder and the outcome of the treatment as well...
March 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279310/personality-and-trait-aggression-profiles-of-male-and-female-prison-inmates
#3
Örjan Falk, Anis Sfendla, Sven Brändström, Henrik Anckarsäter, Thomas Nilsson, Nóra Kerekes
Gender specific personality profiles in association with the level of aggressive antisocial behavior in offenders have not been previously investigated. In the present study we analyzed data collected from 65 male and 50 female offenders using structured protocols regarding criminal history (by criminal register data), trait aggression (by the Life History of Aggression (LHA) questionnaire), and personality profiles (by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI)). Prison inmates differed significantly on several personality dimensions, most pronouncedly were they characterized with low character maturity (low scores in the Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness dimensions of TCI) when compared to gender and age matched controls of the general population...
April 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272110/the-association-between-temperament-and-microbiota-in-healthy-individuals-a-pilot-study
#4
Hojun Kim, Young-Jae Park
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether enterotypes in the gut microbiome could be determined by clustering validity indexes and whether these enterotypes were associated with individual differences in temperament traits. METHODS: Sixty healthy Korean participants (21 men; 27.5 ± 8.1 years, 39 women; 34.5 ± 14.3 years) were asked to answer 60 temperament questions (novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, and persistence) from the Korean version of the temperament and character inventory-125 (K-TCI-125)...
March 7, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266244/psychopathological-temperamental-and-characteristic-factors-in-adults-with-remaining-childhood-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-symptoms
#5
Kyoung Min Kim, Sojeong Nam, Soo Yeon Kim, Soo Min Lee, Jae-Won Choi, Taewoong Kang, Jun Won Kim
OBJECTIVES: To investigate differences in psychopathological, temperamental and characteristic factors between young adults with and without persistent Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. METHODS: A total of 429 university students were divided into three groups: persistent adult ADHD (n = 53), only childhood ADHD (n = 56) and healthy controls (n = 320). The Korean Adult ADHD Scale, Korean Wender-Utah Rating Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Korean Young Internet Addiction Scale, and Temperament Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R; based on Cloninger's seven factor model of temperament and character) were used to evaluate psychopathological factors...
March 7, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258605/dimensional-personality-traits-and-alcohol-treatment-outcome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
James A Foulds, Giles M Newton-Howes, Nicola H Guy, Joseph M Boden, Roger T Mulder
AIMS: To identify dimensional personality traits associated with treatment outcome for patients with an alcohol use disorder (AUD). METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials and longitudinal studies of ≥8 weeks in patients receiving treatment for AUD, in which the association between personality dimensions and treatment outcome was reported. Primary outcomes were relapse and alcohol consumption measures. Treatment retention was a secondary outcome...
March 4, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231481/the-influence-of-personality-traits-and-emotional-and-behavioral-problems-on-repetitive-nonsuicidal-self-injury-in-a-school-sample
#7
Janine Lüdtke, Benedict Weizenegger, Rachel Rauber, Brigitte Contin, Tina In-Albon, Marc Schmid
BACKGROUND: Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is highly prevalent among adolescents and associated with various mental health problems and suicidality. Previous studies have found that certain personality traits are related to NSSI behavior, however only few studies examined personality traits in adolescents with NSSI. Our study aimed to assess the relationship between personality traits and emotional and behavioral problems in predicting repetitive NSSI among adolescents from a school sample...
February 14, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221370/blunted-ventral-striatal-responses-to-anticipated-rewards-foreshadow-problematic-drug-use-in-novelty-seeking-adolescents
#8
Christian Büchel, Jan Peters, Tobias Banaschewski, Arun L W Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Patricia J Conrod, Herta Flor, Dimitri Papadopoulos, Hugh Garavan, Penny Gowland, Andreas Heinz, Henrik Walter, Bernd Ittermann, Karl Mann, Jean-Luc Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillère-Martinot, Frauke Nees, Tomas Paus, Zdenka Pausova, Luise Poustka, Marcella Rietschel, Trevor W Robbins, Michael N Smolka, Juergen Gallinat, Gunter Schumann, Brian Knutson
Novelty-seeking tendencies in adolescents may promote innovation as well as problematic impulsive behaviour, including drug abuse. Previous research has not clarified whether neural hyper- or hypo-responsiveness to anticipated rewards promotes vulnerability in these individuals. Here we use a longitudinal design to track 144 novelty-seeking adolescents at age 14 and 16 to determine whether neural activity in response to anticipated rewards predicts problematic drug use. We find that diminished BOLD activity in mesolimbic (ventral striatal and midbrain) and prefrontal cortical (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) regions during reward anticipation at age 14 predicts problematic drug use at age 16...
February 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212873/temperament-and-character-personality-dimensions-in-nitrate-tilt-induced-vasovagal-syncope-patients
#9
Vincenzo Russo, Ahmed AlTurki, Anna Rago, Riccardo Proietti, Guillaume Chaussé, Alessio Maria Monteleone, Pasquale Scognamiglio, Palmiero Monteleone, Gerardo Nigro
INTRODUCTION: Vasovagal syncope (VVS) is a clinical syndrome characterized by transient loss of consciousness and postural tone that is due to a temporary and spontaneously self-terminating global cerebral hypoperfusion. It is known that personality modulates the individual's sensitivity to stressors, and emotional arousal and psychologic uncertainty are conditions contributing to vasodepressor syncope. Therefore it is postulated that personality characteristics of VVS patients could have a role in the pathophysiology of VVS...
February 14, 2017: Hellenic Journal of Cardiology: HJC, Hellēnikē Kardiologikē Epitheōrēsē
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189081/relationship-between-chronotype-and-temperament-character-among-university-students
#10
Kounseok Lee, Hye-Kyung Lee, Kyungun Jhung, Jin Young Park
Chronotype is largely classified as being morning or evening types according to preference for daily activity and the preferred bedtime. This study examined the relationship between chronotype and temperament/character dimensions among university students. A total of 2857 participants completed the 140-item Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised Short version (TCI-RS) from a 5-score scale as well as the 13-item composite scale for morningness-eveningness (CSM). In this study, we classified chronotype as "morning," "neither," or "evening" types according to CSM scores and compared the scores in terms of 4 temperament dimensions and 3 character dimensions...
January 25, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182634/the-slc6a3-gene-possibly-affects-susceptibility-to-late-onset-alcohol-dependence-but-not-specific-personality-traits-in-a-han-chinese-population
#11
Chang-Chih Huang, Shin-Chang Kuo, Yi-Wei Yeh, Chun-Yen Chen, Che-Hung Yen, Chih-Sung Liang, Pei-Shen Ho, Ru-Band Lu, San-Yuan Huang
Dopaminergic dysfunction has an important role in the pathoetiology of alcohol dependence (AD). The purpose of this study was to determine whether the solute carrier family 6 member 3 (SLC6A3) gene (also known as the dopamine transporter DAT gene) was associated with AD, and whether variants in the SLC6A3 locus were associated with specific personality traits in patients with AD. Sixteen polymorphisms in SLC6A3 were analyzed using 637 patients with AD and 523 healthy controls. To reduce clinical heterogeneity, patients were classified into two subgroups: early-onset AD (EOAD) and late-onset AD (LOAD)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132570/the-comparison-of-temperament-and-character-between-patients-with-internet-gaming-disorder-and-those-with-alcohol-dependence
#12
Young Sik Lee, Ji Hyun Son, Jeong Ha Park, Sun Mi Kim, Baik Seok Kee, Doug Hyun Han
BACKGROUND: The differences in prevalence, natural history, and disease progression between Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and substance use disorder contribute to the controversy over IGD as a diagnosis under substance-related and addictive disorders. AIMS: The purpose of the current study was to assess the temperament and character of subjects with IGD in comparison with those with alcohol dependence (AD). METHODS: Temperament and character were assessed using Cloningernt temperament and character inventory (TCI)...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127411/protein-restricted-diet-during-pregnancy-after-insemination-alters-behavioral-phenotypes-of-the-progeny
#13
Tamio Furuse, Kunio Miyake, Takashi Kohda, Hideki Kaneda, Takae Hirasawa, Ikuko Yamada, Tomoko Kushida, Misho Kashimura, Kimio Kobayashi, Fumitoshi Ishino, Takeo Kubota, Shigeharu Wakana
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest that hyponutrition during the fetal period increases the risk of mental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism-spectrum disorder, which has been experimentally supported using animal models. However, previous experimental hyponutrition or protein-restricted (PR) diets affected stages other than the fetal stage, such as formation of the egg before insemination, milk composition during lactation, and maternal nursing behavior...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110447/hemispheric-lateralization-of-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-ventral-striatum-an-exploratory-study
#14
Sheng Zhang, Sien Hu, Herta H Chao, Chiang-Shan R Li
Resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) is widely used to examine cerebral functional organization. The ventral striatum (VS) is critical to motivated behavior, with extant studies suggesting functional hemispheric asymmetry. The current work investigated differences in rsFC between the left (L) and right (R) VS and explored gender differences in the extent of functional lateralization. In 106 adults, we computed a laterality index (fcLI) to query whether a target region shows greater or less connectivity to the L vs R VS...
January 21, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108176/differential-housing-and-novelty-response-protection-and-risk-from-locomotor-sensitization
#15
Erik J Garcia, Tara N Haddon, Donald A Saucier, Mary E Cain
High novelty seeking increases the risk for drug experimentation and locomotor sensitization. Locomotor sensitization to psychostimulants is thought to reflect neurological adaptations that promote the transition to compulsive drug taking. Rats reared in enrichment (EC) show less locomotor sensitization when compared to rats reared in isolation (IC) or standard conditions (SC). The current research study was designed to test if novelty response contributed locomotor sensitization and more importantly, if the different housing environments could change the novelty response to protect against the development of locomotor sensitization in both adolescence and adulthood...
March 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101133/temperament-and-character-traits-in-female-adolescents-with-nonsuicidal-self-injury-disorder-with-and-without-comorbid-borderline-personality-disorder
#16
Taru Tschan, Claudia Peter-Ruf, Marc Schmid, Tina In-Albon
BACKGROUND: Temperament and character traits of adolescents with nonsuicidal self-injury disorder (NSSI) might differentiate those- with and without comorbid borderline personality disorder (BPD). METHODS: Participants were 57 female adolescents with NSSI disorder without BPD (NSSI - BPD), 14 adolescents with NSSI disorder and BPD (NSSI + BPD), 32 clinical controls (CC), and 64 nonclinical controls (NC). Temperament and character traits were assessed with the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory, and impulsivity with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and a Go/NoGo task...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087060/personality-in-parkinson-s-disease-clinical-behavioural-and-cognitive-correlates
#17
REVIEW
Gabriella Santangelo, Fausta Piscopo, Paolo Barone, Carmine Vitale
Affective disorders and personality changes have long been considered pre-motor aspects of Parkinson's disease (PD). Many authors have used the term "premorbid personality" to define distinctive features of PD patients' personality characterized by reduced exploration of new environmental stimuli or potential reward sources ("novelty seeking") and avoidance behaviour ("harm avoidance") present before motor features. The functional correlates underlying the personality changes described in PD, implicate dysfunction of meso-cortico-limbic and striatal circuits...
March 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054193/personality-as-an-intermediate-phenotype-for-genetic-dissection-of-alcohol-use-disorder
#18
REVIEW
Lars Oreland, Gianvito Lagravinese, Simone Toffoletto, Kent W Nilsson, Jaanus Harro, C Robert Cloninger, Erika Comasco
Genetic and environmental interactive influences on predisposition to develop alcohol use disorder (AUD) account for the high heterogeneity among AUD patients and make research on the risk and resiliency factors complicated. Several attempts have been made to identify the genetic basis of AUD; however, only few genetic polymorphisms have consistently been associated with AUD. Intermediate phenotypes are expected to be in-between proxies of basic neuronal biological processes and nosological symptoms of AUD...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048504/th-c-204-00-medical-physics-workshop-an-update-on-the-journal-s-improvement-activities-and-guidance-on-writing-and-reviewing-papers
#19
Jeffrey Williamson
In this presentation, the Editors will outline our vision for the future of Medical Physics and review recent work-in-progress initiatives to implement this vision. Finally, we will close with guidance to authors on how to write a good Medical Physics paper. A major focus will be the transition to a new publisher in 2017 following a more than 40-year association with American Institute of Physics Publishing (AIPP). Vision for Medical Physics and status of current initiatives: Jeff Williamson, Editor-in-Chief The broad vision of Medical Physics is "to continue the Journal's tradition of publishing the very best science that propels our discipline forward and improves our contribution to patient care...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048316/th-c-204-03-writing-good-scientific-papers-and-responding-to-critiques
#20
M Goodsitt
In this presentation, the Editors will outline our vision for the future of Medical Physics and review recent work-in-progress initiatives to implement this vision. Finally, we will close with guidance to authors on how to write a good Medical Physics paper. A major focus will be the transition to a new publisher in 2017 following a more than 40-year association with American Institute of Physics Publishing (AIPP). Vision for Medical Physics and status of current initiatives: Jeff Williamson, Editor-in-Chief The broad vision of Medical Physics is "to continue the Journal's tradition of publishing the very best science that propels our discipline forward and improves our contribution to patient care...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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