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Novelty seeking

Teemu Aitta-Aho, Elpiniki Pappa, Denis Burdakov, John Apergis-Schoute
The hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin (HO) system holds a central role in the regulation of several physiological functions critical for food-seeking behavior including mnemonic processes for effective foraging behavior. It is unclear however whether physiological increases in HO neuronal activity can support such processes. Using a designer rM3Ds receptor activation approach increasing HO neuronal activity resulted in improved short-term memory for novel locations. When tested on a non-spatial novelty object recognition task no significant difference was detected between groups indicating that hypothalamic HO neuronal activation can selectively facilitate short-term spatial memory for potentially supporting memory for locations during active exploration...
October 13, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Sergio B Chavez, Luis A Alvarado, Robert Gonzalez
INTRODUCTION: Bipolar I disorder is an illness causing mood shifts that can result in personality and character trait alterations. The relationship between mood and personality and character traits in bipolar I disorder is unclear at this time. METHODS: We conducted a study from February 2009 to March 2010 that included 42 subjects with bipolar I disorder, which was confirmed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. Mood was assessed via the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and the 30-item Clinician-rated Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-C)...
2016: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
Katarzyna Prochwicz, Łukasz Gawęda
In this study we examined the hypothesis that depression and anxiety may mediate the relationship between personality traits and both positive and negative psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) in healthy adults. The Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) scale, Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were administered to 492 healthy individuals. Multiple stepwise regression and mediation analyses were performed to examine whether depressive and anxiety symptoms influence the relationship between the TCI dimensions and positive and negative PLEs...
September 23, 2016: Psychiatry Research
M Martin Jimenez, A Calvo Ferrandiz, J Aparicio Urtasun, R Garcia-Campelo, E Gonzalez-Flores, M Lazaro Quintela, M Muñoz Mateu, C A Rodriguez Sanchez, A Santaballa Bertran, J M Sepulveda Sanchez, R Vera Garcia, J A Virizuela Echaburu, M A Segui Palmer
The coming into force of Directive 2001/20/EC represented a step forward in harmonising clinical trial regulation in European countries, guaranteeing a uniform protection of subjects participating in clinical research across Europe. However, it led to a disproportionate increase in the bureaucratization, and thus, it became evident that procedures needed to be simplified without detriment to patient's safety. Thus, Regulation 536/2014, that repealed Directive 2001/20/EC, with the aim of decreasing the growing bureaucratization and stimulating clinical research in Europe, established simplified procedures, such as regulating a common procedure for authorising trials in Europe, the institution of strict assessment timelines, or the definition of new concepts, such as "low-intervention clinical trial"...
October 7, 2016: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Ayşegül Batıoğlu Karaaltın, Zerrin Binbay, Özgür Yiğit, Zehra Dönmez, Umur Yollu
AIM: Larynx cancer patients usually use alcohol besides tobacco. It has been reported earlier that nearly half of the patients who have undergone laryngectomcy after larynx cancer diagnosis still continue to consume alcohol after the operation. The aim of this study is to compare the mood and character features of patients who do or do not consume alcohol during the post-operative period and thus to be able to predict the patients who will continue their alcohol use at the post-operative period...
September 26, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
Adam Helles, Märta Wallinius, I Carina Gillberg, Christopher Gillberg, Eva Billstedt
BACKGROUND: Temperament and character have been shown to be important factors in understanding psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorder. Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have repeatedly been shown to have a distinct temperament and character, but this has not been evaluated in relation to psychiatric comorbidity and ASD diagnostic stability. AIMS: To examine temperament and character in males that were diagnosed with ASD in childhood and followed prospectively over almost two decades...
May 2016: BJPsych Open
Øyvind L Martinsen, Adrian Furnham, Thorvald Hærem
The present study on insight is based on an integration of Kaplan and Simon's (1990) information processing theory of insight, a cognitive style theory, and achievement motivation theory. The style theory is the Assimilator (rule oriented, familiarity seeking)-Explorer (novelty seeking, explorative) styles (Kaufmann, 1979). Our hypothesis is that the effectiveness of 2 types of search constraints (prior experience and solution hints) for solving insight problems is moderated by both cognitive style and achievement needs, and depending on optimal levels of achievement motivation for different task conditions...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Gabriele Masi, Annarita Milone, Paola Brovedani, Simone Pisano, Pietro Muratori
Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) are stable and impairing disorders, heterogeneous in presentation, developmental pathways, and treatment needs. Disentangling subtypes according to psychopathological dimensions is helpful for timely diagnoses, precise prognoses and tailored interventions. Psychopathic traits are relevant in subtyping DBDs with severe antisocial and aggressive behaviors. Three psychopathy dimensions have been found: 1) an affective dimension, the callous-unemotional (CU) trait, with lack of empathy and remorse, and with short-lived emotions; 2) an interpersonal dimension, the narcissistic domain, with manipulative abilities, superficial charm, egocentricity and grandiosity; 3) a behavioral dimension, the impulsivity or impulsive-irresponsibility, with irresponsibility, proneness to boredom, and novelty seeking...
September 25, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Xiaowei Zhang, Kyeong-Man Kim
The amino acid sequences and signaling pathways of D2-like dopamine receptors (D2R, D3R, and D4R) are highly conserved. D4R has been suggested to be associated with novelty seeking, and binds with high affinity to an atypical antipsychotic drug with fewer motor function-related side effects than typical neuroleptics. A study comparing D2R and D3R reported that palmitoylation is important for the proper functioning of D3R. Although D4R is a member of the D2-like receptor family, its palmitoylation status and the functional significance of any such posttranslational modification are unknown...
October 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Taylor Wingo, Tanseli Nesil, Sulie L Chang, Ming D Li
BACKGROUND: Novelty-seeking behavior is related to the reward system in the brain and can predict the potential for addiction. Alcohol use is prevalent in HIV-1-infected patients and adversely affects antiretroviral medication. The difference in vulnerability to alcohol addiction between HIV-1-infected and noninfected populations has not been fully investigated. This study was designed to determine whether HIV-1 proteins alter the effects of ethanol (EtOH) on novelty-seeking behavior using the HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1Tg) rat as the study model and to examine the molecular mechanisms responsible for this behavior...
October 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Hwanjin Park, Byung Seong Suh, Hye-Kyung Lee, Kounseok Lee
OBJECTIVE: Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibits symptoms, such as attention deficit and impulsivity, that make it difficult for patients to manage social activities. In this study, we investigated the association of adult ADHD symptoms with temperament and character dimensions, taking into account possible sex interactions. METHOD: A total of 2917 (1462 males and 1455 females) college students completed the 140 5-point Likert items on the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised Short version (TCI-RS) and the Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Self-Rated Scale (ASRS)...
October 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Hila Z Gvirts, Naama Mayseless, Aviv Segev, D Yael Lewis, Kfir Feffer, Yael Barnea, Yuval Bloch, Simon G Shamay-Tsoory
In recent years the use of psychostimulants for cognitive enhancement in healthy individuals with no psychiatric disorders has been on the rise. However, it is still unclear whether psychostimulants improve certain cognitive functions at the cost of others, and how these psychostimulants interact with individual personality differences. In the current study, we investigated whether the effect of one common stimulant, methylphenidate (MPH), on creativity is associated with novelty seeking. Thirty-six healthy adults, without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomology, were assigned randomly in a double-blind fashion to receive MPH or placebo...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Petra Heiden, Andreas Heinz, Nina Romanczuk-Seiferth
The incidence of pathological gambling in Parkinson's patients is significantly greater than in the general population. A correlation has been observed between dopamine agonist medication and the development of pathological gambling. However, scientists conjecture that the affected patients have underlying risk factors. Studies analysing Parkinson's patients have detected that patients who developed pathological gambling are younger, score higher on novelty-seeking tests, are more impulsive and are more likely to have a personal or family history of alcohol addiction...
September 13, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Sarah Kann, Sheng Zhang, Peter Manza, Hoi-Chung Leung, Chiang-Shan R Li
Resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) is widely used to examine cerebral functional organization. The imaging literature has described lateralization of insula activations during cognitive and affective processing. Evidence appears to support a role of the right-hemispheric insula in attentional orientation to salient stimulus, interoception, and physiological arousal, and a role of the left-hemispheric insula in cognitive and affective control, as well as perspective taking. In this study, in a large data set of healthy adults, we examined lateralization of the rsFC of the anterior insula (AI) by computing a laterality index (LI) of connectivity with 54 regions from the Automated Anatomic Labeling atlas...
September 30, 2016: Brain Connectivity
Shilpa Ravinder, Elizabeth A Donckels, Julian S B Ramirez, Dimitri A Christakis, Jan-Marino Ramirez, Susan M Ferguson
Early life experiences affect the formation of neuronal networks, which can have a profound impact on brain function and behavior later in life. Previous work has shown that mice exposed to excessive sensory stimulation during development are hyperactive and novelty seeking, and display impaired cognition compared with controls. In this study, we addressed the issue of whether excessive sensory stimulation during development could alter behaviors related to addiction and underlying circuitry in CD-1 mice. We found that the reinforcing properties of cocaine were significantly enhanced in mice exposed to excessive sensory stimulation...
July 2016: ENeuro
Deniz Yilmazer-Hanke, Marina Eliava, Joachim Hanke, Herbert Schwegler, Esther Asan
The cholinergic and dopaminergic innervation of the amygdala plays an important role in attention, emotional arousal, aversive forms of associative learning, conditioned responses, and stress responsivity. Roman High- (RHA) and Low-Avoidance (RLA) rats are an ideal model to study the potential impact of this innervation on behavioral responses, because they were selected bidirectionally for differences in their two-way active avoidance performance. RHA rats are known to quickly acquire two-way active avoidance and show indications of enhanced impulsive behavior, novelty seeking, and vulnerability to substance abuse, whereas RLA rats exhibit a passive coping style with high levels of immobility and enhanced stress responsivity...
October 6, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Min-Wei Huang, Tai-An Chiang, Pei-Yu Lo, Ching-Shan Huang
BACKGROUND: We investigated whether variation in the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) and tri-dimensional personality questionnaire (TPQ) scores could be used to aid adjustment of daily methadone requirements of heroin addicts. DRD2 TaqI B polymorphisms and TPQ scores were determined in 138 male Taiwanese heroin addicts who were receiving methadone treatment. Borderline index (harm avoidance + novelty seeking-reward dependence) was calculated for each subject, and three groups were defined: high (mean from all subjects plus 1 standard deviation, or greater), low (half of the calculated high score, or lower) and medium (all values between the high and low scores)...
2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
So Hyeon Park, Hyun Soo Park, Sang Eun Kim
Novelty seeking (NS) and antisocial personality (ASP) are commonly exhibited by those who suffer from addictions, such as substance abuse. NS has been suggested to be a fundamental aspect of ASP. To investigate the neurobiological substrate of NS and ASP, we tested the relationship between regional cerebral glucose metabolism and the level of NS, determining the differences between individuals with and without ASP. Seventy-two healthy adults (43 males, mean age±SD=38.8±16.6 years, range=20~70 years; 29 females, 44...
August 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
Vesa Paavonen, Kaisa Luoto, Antti Koivukangas, Antero Lassila, Esa Leinonen, Olli Kampman
There is limited knowledge on the relationship between temperament and character profiles and substance abuse comorbidity in depressed patients. We recruited 127 depressed patients without alcohol use problems (non-AUP) and 89 depressed patients with alcohol use problems (AUP). We assessed all patients using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R) at baseline and after 6 weeks of treatment. Using univariate general linear models (GLMs), we analyzed differences in TCI-R between AUP and non-AUP. GLMs were also used in analyzing the associations between TCI-R changes and antidepressive treatment responses measured with changes in Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale score (ΔMADRS)...
November 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
M Rodríguez-Arias, C Roger-Sánchez, I Villanova, N Revert, C Manzanedo, J Miñarro, M A Aguilar
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2016/6481862.].
2016: Neural Plasticity
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