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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907073/how-do-allied-health-professionals-construe-the-role-of-the-remote-workforce-new-insight-into-their-recruitment-and-retention
#1
Narelle Campbell, Diann S Eley, Lindy McAllister
PURPOSE: Allied health workforce recruitment and retention in remote areas is a global problem. Using case studies from the Australian allied health workforce, this paper adds new information by combining personality trait information with a detailed understanding of how the cases construe the demands of remote work, which may be useful in addressing this problem. METHODS: Four cases (two urban, two remote) are presented from a mixed methods study (n = 562), which used (1) the Temperament and Character Inventory to investigate personality traits of allied health professionals; and (2) repertory grid interviews to reveal quantitatively and qualitatively how the cases construed their Ideal work role compared with their Current and a Remote role...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901211/how-to-tell-a-happy-from-an-unhappy-schizotype-personality-factors-and-mental-health-outcomes-in-individuals-with-psychotic-experiences
#2
Letícia O Alminhana, Miguel Farias, Gordon Claridge, Claude R Cloninger, Alexander Moreira-Almeida
Objective: It is unclear why some individuals reporting psychotic experiences have balanced lives while others go on to develop mental health problems. The objective of this study was to test if the personality traits of harm avoidance, self-directedness, and self-transcendence can be used as criteria to differentiate healthy from unhealthy schizotypal individuals. Methods: We interviewed 115 participants who reported a high frequency of psychotic experiences. The instruments used were the Temperament and Character Inventory (140), Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, and the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences...
November 24, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879038/detecting-and-avoiding-likely-false-positive-findings%C3%A2-%C3%A2-a-practical-guide
#3
Wolfgang Forstmeier, Eric-Jan Wagenmakers, Timothy H Parker
Recently there has been a growing concern that many published research findings do not hold up in attempts to replicate them. We argue that this problem may originate from a culture of 'you can publish if you found a significant effect'. This culture creates a systematic bias against the null hypothesis which renders meta-analyses questionable and may even lead to a situation where hypotheses become difficult to falsify. In order to pinpoint the sources of error and possible solutions, we review current scientific practices with regard to their effect on the probability of drawing a false-positive conclusion...
November 23, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874153/effects-of-personality-traits-on-collaborative-performance-in-problem-based-learning-tutorials
#4
Hye Won Jang, Seung Won Park
To examine the relationship between students' collaborative performance in a problem-based learning (PBL) environment and their personality traits. Methods:This retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted using student data of a PBL program between 2013 and 2014 at Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. Eighty students were included in the study. Student data from the Temperament and Character Inventory were used as a measure of their personality traits. Peer evaluation scores during PBL were used as a measure of students' collaborative performance...
December 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862108/predictors-of-dropout-in-face-to-face-and-internet-based-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-bulimia-nervosa-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Hunna J Watson, Michele D Levine, Stephanie C Zerwas, Robert M Hamer, Ross D Crosby, Caroline S Sprecher, Amy O'Brien, Benjamin Zimmer, Sara M Hofmeier, Hans Kordy, Markus Moessner, Christine M Peat, Cristin D Runfola, Marsha D Marcus, Cynthia M Bulik
OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify predictors and moderators of failure to engage (i.e., pretreatment attrition) and dropout in both Internet-based and traditional face-to-face cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for bulimia nervosa. We also sought to determine if Internet-based treatment reduced failure to engage and dropout. METHOD: Participants (N = 191, 98% female) were randomized to Internet-based CBT (CBT4BN) or traditional face-to-face group CBT (CBTF2F). Sociodemographics, clinical history, eating disorder severity, comorbid psychopathology, health status and quality of life, personality and temperament, and treatment-related factors were investigated as predictors...
November 12, 2016: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861511/open-access-mega-journals-a-bibliometric-profile
#6
Simon Wakeling, Peter Willett, Claire Creaser, Jenny Fry, Stephen Pinfield, Valérie Spezi
In this paper we present the first comprehensive bibliometric analysis of eleven open-access mega-journals (OAMJs). OAMJs are a relatively recent phenomenon, and have been characterised as having four key characteristics: large size; broad disciplinary scope; a Gold-OA business model; and a peer-review policy that seeks to determine only the scientific soundness of the research rather than evaluate the novelty or significance of the work. Our investigation focuses on four key modes of analysis: journal outputs (the number of articles published and changes in output over time); OAMJ author characteristics (nationalities and institutional affiliations); subject areas (the disciplinary scope of OAMJs, and variations in sub-disciplinary output); and citation profiles (the citation distributions of each OAMJ, and the impact of citing journals)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857686/novelty-seeking-harm-avoidance-and-cerebral-responses-to-conflict-anticipation-an-exploratory-study
#7
Jianping Hu, Sien Hu, Julianna R Maisano, Herta H Chao, Sheng Zhang, Chiang-Shan R Li
Proactive control allows us to maneuver a changing environment and individuals are distinct in how they anticipate and approach such changes. Here, we examined how individual differences in personality traits influence cerebral responses to conflict anticipation, a critical process of proactive control. We explored this issue in an fMRI study of the stop signal task, in which the probability of stop signal - p(Stop) - was computed trial by trial with a Bayesian model. Higher p(Stop) is associated with prolonged go trial reaction time, indicating conflict anticipation and proactive control of motor response...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819466/the-structure-of-psychopathology-in-adolescence-and-its-common-personality-and-cognitive-correlates
#8
Natalie Castellanos-Ryan, Frederic N Brière, Maeve O'Leary-Barrett, Tobias Banaschewski, Arun Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Herta Flor, Vincent Frouin, Juergen Gallinat, Hugh Garavan, Jean-Luc Martinot, Frauke Nees, Tomas Paus, Zdenka Pausova, Marcella Rietschel, Michael N Smolka, Trevor W Robbins, Robert Whelan, Gunter Schumann, Patricia Conrod
The traditional view that mental disorders are distinct, categorical disorders has been challenged by evidence that disorders are highly comorbid and exist on a continuum (e.g., Caspi et al., 2014; Tackett et al., 2013). The first objective of this study was to use structural equation modeling to model the structure of psychopathology in an adolescent community-based sample (N = 2,144) including conduct disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD), obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, substance use, anxiety, depression, phobias, and other emotional symptoms, assessed at 16 years...
November 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782872/the-influence-of-depression-on-personality-traits-in-patients-with-fibromyalgia-a-case-control-study
#9
Daniela M Santos, Laís V Lage, Eleonora K Jabur, Helena H S Kaziyama, Dan V Iosifescu, Mara Cristina S De Lucia, Renério Fráguas
OBJECTIVES: We developed this study to investigate the association of fibromyalgia with personality traits, controlling for depression and other potential confounders. METHODS: We assessed personality traits with the Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) in 78 female patients with fibromyalgia and in a control group of 78 subjects without fibromyalgia. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to assess depression and anxiety diagnoses...
October 20, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746379/cellular-activation-of-hypothalamic-hypocretin-orexin-neurons-facilitates-short-term-spatial-memory-in-mice
#10
Teemu Aitta-Aho, Elpiniki Pappa, Denis Burdakov, John Apergis-Schoute
The hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin (HO) system holds a central role in the regulation of several physiological functions critical for food-seeking behavior including mnemonic processes for effective foraging behavior. It is unclear however whether physiological increases in HO neuronal activity can support such processes. Using a designer rM3Ds receptor activation approach increasing HO neuronal activity resulted in improved short-term memory for novel locations. When tested on a non-spatial novelty object recognition task no significant difference was detected between groups indicating that hypothalamic HO neuronal activation can selectively facilitate short-term spatial memory for potentially supporting memory for locations during active exploration...
December 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733949/relationship-between-temperament-and-character-traits-mood-and-medications-in-bipolar-i-disorder
#11
Sergio B Chavez, Luis A Alvarado, Robert Gonzalez
INTRODUCTION: Bipolar I disorder is an illness causing mood shifts that can result in personality and character trait alterations. The relationship between mood and personality and character traits in bipolar I disorder is unclear at this time. METHODS: We conducted a study from February 2009 to March 2010 that included 42 subjects with bipolar I disorder, which was confirmed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. Mood was assessed via the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and the 30-item Clinician-rated Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-C)...
2016: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718469/depression-and-anxiety-mediate-the-relationship-between-temperament-and-character-and-psychotic-like-experiences-in-healthy-subjects
#12
Katarzyna Prochwicz, Łukasz Gawęda
In this study we examined the hypothesis that depression and anxiety may mediate the relationship between personality traits and both positive and negative psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) in healthy adults. The Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) scale, Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were administered to 492 healthy individuals. Multiple stepwise regression and mediation analyses were performed to examine whether depressive and anxiety symptoms influence the relationship between the TCI dimensions and positive and negative PLEs...
September 23, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718157/new-clinical-trials-regulation-in-spain-analysis-of-royal-decree-1090-2015
#13
M Martin Jimenez, A Calvo Ferrandiz, J Aparicio Urtasun, R Garcia-Campelo, E Gonzalez-Flores, M Lazaro Quintela, M Muñoz Mateu, C A Rodriguez Sanchez, A Santaballa Bertran, J M Sepulveda Sanchez, R Vera Garcia, J A Virizuela Echaburu, M A Segui Palmer
The coming into force of Directive 2001/20/EC represented a step forward in harmonising clinical trial regulation in European countries, guaranteeing a uniform protection of subjects participating in clinical research across Europe. However, it led to a disproportionate increase in the bureaucratization, and thus, it became evident that procedures needed to be simplified without detriment to patient's safety. Thus, Regulation 536/2014, that repealed Directive 2001/20/EC, with the aim of decreasing the growing bureaucratization and stimulating clinical research in Europe, established simplified procedures, such as regulating a common procedure for authorising trials in Europe, the institution of strict assessment timelines, or the definition of new concepts, such as "low-intervention clinical trial"...
October 7, 2016: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717234/can-temperament-and-character-features-of-patients-predict-alcohol-use-after-laryngectomy
#14
Ayşegül Batıoğlu Karaaltın, Zerrin Binbay, Özgür Yiğit, Zehra Dönmez, Umur Yollu
AIM: Larynx cancer patients usually use alcohol besides tobacco. It has been reported earlier that nearly half of the patients who have undergone laryngectomcy after larynx cancer diagnosis still continue to consume alcohol after the operation. The aim of this study is to compare the mood and character features of patients who do or do not consume alcohol during the post-operative period and thus to be able to predict the patients who will continue their alcohol use at the post-operative period...
September 26, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703778/asperger-syndrome-in-childhood-personality-dimensions-in-adult-life-temperament-character-and-outcome-trajectories
#15
Adam Helles, Märta Wallinius, I Carina Gillberg, Christopher Gillberg, Eva Billstedt
BACKGROUND: Temperament and character have been shown to be important factors in understanding psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorder. Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have repeatedly been shown to have a distinct temperament and character, but this has not been evaluated in relation to psychiatric comorbidity and ASD diagnostic stability. AIMS: To examine temperament and character in males that were diagnosed with ASD in childhood and followed prospectively over almost two decades...
May 2016: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690510/an-integrated-perspective-on-insight
#16
Øyvind L Martinsen, Adrian Furnham, Thorvald Hærem
The present study on insight is based on an integration of Kaplan and Simon's (1990) information processing theory of insight, a cognitive style theory, and achievement motivation theory. The style theory is the Assimilator (rule oriented, familiarity seeking)-Explorer (novelty seeking, explorative) styles (Kaufmann, 1979). Our hypothesis is that the effectiveness of 2 types of search constraints (prior experience and solution hints) for solving insight problems is moderated by both cognitive style and achievement needs, and depending on optimal levels of achievement motivation for different task conditions...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677830/psychiatric-evaluation-of-youths-with-disruptive-behavior-disorders-and-psychopathic-traits-a-critical-review-of-assessment-measures
#17
Gabriele Masi, Annarita Milone, Paola Brovedani, Simone Pisano, Pietro Muratori
Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) are stable and impairing disorders, heterogeneous in presentation, developmental pathways, and treatment needs. Disentangling subtypes according to psychopathological dimensions is helpful for timely diagnoses, precise prognoses and tailored interventions. Psychopathic traits are relevant in subtyping DBDs with severe antisocial and aggressive behaviors. Three psychopathy dimensions have been found: 1) an affective dimension, the callous-unemotional (CU) trait, with lack of empathy and remorse, and with short-lived emotions; 2) an interpersonal dimension, the narcissistic domain, with manipulative abilities, superficial charm, egocentricity and grandiosity; 3) a behavioral dimension, the impulsivity or impulsive-irresponsibility, with irresponsibility, proneness to boredom, and novelty seeking...
September 25, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659709/palmitoylation-of-the-carboxyl-terminal-tail-of-dopamine-d4-receptor-is-required-for-surface-expression-endocytosis-and-signaling
#18
Xiaowei Zhang, Kyeong-Man Kim
The amino acid sequences and signaling pathways of D2-like dopamine receptors (D2R, D3R, and D4R) are highly conserved. D4R has been suggested to be associated with novelty seeking, and binds with high affinity to an atypical antipsychotic drug with fewer motor function-related side effects than typical neuroleptics. A study comparing D2R and D3R reported that palmitoylation is important for the proper functioning of D3R. Although D4R is a member of the D2-like receptor family, its palmitoylation status and the functional significance of any such posttranslational modification are unknown...
October 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650554/interactive-effects-of-ethanol-and-hiv-1-proteins-on-novelty-seeking-behaviors-and-addiction-related-gene-expression
#19
Taylor Wingo, Tanseli Nesil, Sulie L Chang, Ming D Li
BACKGROUND: Novelty-seeking behavior is related to the reward system in the brain and can predict the potential for addiction. Alcohol use is prevalent in HIV-1-infected patients and adversely affects antiretroviral medication. The difference in vulnerability to alcohol addiction between HIV-1-infected and noninfected populations has not been fully investigated. This study was designed to determine whether HIV-1 proteins alter the effects of ethanol (EtOH) on novelty-seeking behavior using the HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1Tg) rat as the study model and to examine the molecular mechanisms responsible for this behavior...
October 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624430/temperament-and-characteristics-related-to-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms
#20
Hwanjin Park, Byung Seong Suh, Hye-Kyung Lee, Kounseok Lee
OBJECTIVE: Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibits symptoms, such as attention deficit and impulsivity, that make it difficult for patients to manage social activities. In this study, we investigated the association of adult ADHD symptoms with temperament and character dimensions, taking into account possible sex interactions. METHOD: A total of 2917 (1462 males and 1455 females) college students completed the 140 5-point Likert items on the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised Short version (TCI-RS) and the Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Self-Rated Scale (ASRS)...
October 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
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