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Immunostimulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435437/improvement-of-antitumor-therapies-based-on-vaccines-and-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-by-counteracting-tumor-immunostimulation
#1
Paula Chiarella, Mónica Vermeulen, Daniela R Montagna, Pablo Vallecorsa, Ariel Ramiro Strazza, Roberto P Meiss, Oscar D Bustuoabad, Raúl A Ruggiero, Richmond T Prehn
Immune-checkpoint inhibitors and antitumor vaccines may produce both tumor-inhibitory and tumor-stimulatory effects on growing tumors depending on the stage of tumor growth at which treatment is initiated. These paradoxical results are not necessarily incompatible with current tumor immunology but they might better be explained assuming the involvement of the phenomenon of tumor immunostimulation. This phenomenon was originally postulated on the basis that the immune response (IR) evoked in Winn tests by strong chemical murine tumors was not linear but biphasic, with strong IR producing inhibition and weak IR inducing stimulation of tumor growth...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427722/effect-of-argemone-mexicana-active-principles-on-inhibiting-viral-multiplication-and-stimulating-immune-system-in-pacific-white-leg-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei-against-white-spot-syndrome-virus
#2
Pandi Palanikumar, Dani Joel Daffni Benitta, Chinnadurai Lelin, Eswaramoorthy Thirumalaikumar, Mariavincent Michaelbabu, Thavasimuthu Citarasu
Argemone mexicana called as Mexican prickly poppy is a species of poppy found in Mexico and now widely naturalized in many parts of the world with broad range of bioactivities including anthelmintic, cures lepsory, skin-diseases, inflammations and bilious fevers. Plant parts of A. mexicana were serially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and performed antiviral and immunostimulant screening against WSSV and Vibrio harveyi respectively. The control groups succumbed to death 100% within three days, whereas the mortality was significantly (P < 0...
February 7, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409836/immunological-effects-of-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-and-iron-based-complex-drug-formulations-therapeutic-benefits-toxicity-mechanistic-insights-and-translational-considerations
#3
REVIEW
Ankit Shah, Marina A Dobrovolskaia
Nanotechnology offers several advantages for drug delivery. However, there is the need for addressing potential safety concerns regarding the adverse health effects of these unique materials. Some such effects may occur due to undesirable interactions between nanoparticles and the immune system, and they may include hypersensitivity reactions, immunosuppression, and immunostimulation. While strategies, models, and approaches for studying the immunological safety of various engineered nanoparticles, including metal oxides, have been covered in the current literature, little attention has been given to the interactions between iron oxide-based nanomaterials and various components of the immune system...
January 31, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380694/herbal-immunomodulators-a-remedial-panacea-for-the-designing-and-developing-effective-drugs-and-medicines-current-scenario-and-future-prospects
#4
Ruchi Tiwari, Shyma K Latheef, Ishtiaq Ahmed, Hafiz M N Iqbal, Mohammed Hussen Bule, Kuldeep Dhama, Hari Abdul Samad, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Mahmoud Alagawany, Mohamed Ezzat Abd El-Hack, Mohd Iqbal Yatoo, Mayada Ragab Farag
Constant exposure to various stressors, such as immune pressure, rapidly increasing population, deleterious changes in the ecosystem, climate change, infection with emerging and re-emerging pathogens, and fast-paced lifestyle, is a critical factor in the globally increasing incidences of immunocompromising health conditions, as well as stress. Synthetic chemotherapeutic agents, which are widely available in the commercial market, may be highly efficacious, but most are immunosuppressive and exert many side effects...
January 29, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378134/tlr-agonist-conjugation-a-chemical-perspective
#5
Bob J Ignacio, Tyler Albin, Aaron P Esser-Kahn, Martijn Verdoes
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are vital elements of the mammalian immune system that function by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), bridging innate and adaptive immunity. They have become a prominent therapeutic target for the treatment of infectious diseases, cancer, and allergies, with many TLR agonists currently in clinical trials or approved as immunostimulants. Numerous studies have shown that conjugation of TLR agonists to other molecules can beneficially influence their potency, toxicity, pharmacokinetics, or function...
January 29, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336256/mushrooms-as-potent-sources-of-new-biofungicides
#6
Jelena Vukojevic, Mirjana Stajic, Jasmina Cilerdzic
BACKGROUND: Microfungi are causal agents of numerous diseases and disorders of agricultural plants, farm mushrooms and animals as well as human, which results are serious global reduction of the food amount, decrease of life quality, the severe life-threatening diseases and enormous economic losses. METHODS: In spite of organism innate ability to combat against pathogens, in invasions of some pathogens, support of additional antimycotic agents to defence system is required...
January 15, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320765/emerging-treatment-options-in-atopic-dermatitis-systemic-therapies
#7
Uffe Nygaard, Christian Vestergaard, Mette Deleuran
The pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) is multifactorial and intricate, and the clinical presentation of the condition varies greatly. Symptoms and severity depend on individual trigger factors and stage of the disease. The majority of AD patients are sufficiently treated with emollients in combination with existing topical or systemic therapies. Yet treatment failure with existing drugs and treatment options can be a significant clinical problem. New treatments are under development, and the majority of these new drugs focus on targeting a skewed immune response in AD...
January 11, 2018: Dermatology: International Journal for Clinical and Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319525/physiological-effects-of-whey-and-milk-based-probiotic-yogurt-in-rats
#8
Judit Szabó-Fodor, András Bónai, Brigitta Bóta, Linda Szommerné Egyed, Ferenc Lakatos, Gréta Pápai, Attila Zsolnai, Róbert Glávits, Katalin Horvatovich, Melinda Kovács
In an in vitro experiment commercially available probiotic products were tested for the survival of bacteria under conditions of simulated human digestion either when used alone or mixed into yogurt. In the in vivo experiment the effects of feeding a whey- and milk-based yogurt prepared with the probiotic strain showing adequate survival in the in vitro experiment, was measured on body weight, feed con¬sumption and immune response of rats (IgG and IgA level after immunisation), on the composition and volatile fatty acid production of the intestinal microbiota and on the structure of intestinal villi...
December 4, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317309/immune-related-proteins-detected-through-itraq-based-proteomics-analysis-of-intestines-from-apostichopus-japonicus-in-response-to-tussah-immunoreactive-substances
#9
Rui Mi, Yongxin Sun, Jianguang Li, Shuhui Ma, Zhixin Wen, Xuejun Li, Nan Meng, Yajie Li, Xingfan Du, Shuying Li
Apostichopus japonicus is a species of sea cucumber that is extensively bred as a marine delicacy because of its high nutritive and medicinal value. Immunostimulants are usually used to enhance the immunity of sea cucumber against diseases, but the physiological function of immunostimulants is poorly understood. In this study, we fed A. japonicus individuals with a diet supplemented with different concentrations of tussah immunoreactive substances (TIS), and then subjected their intestines to iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis...
January 6, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289653/in-vitro-investigations-on-the-effects-of-semi-synthetic-sulphated-carbohydrates-on-the-immune-status-of-cultured-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-leucocytes
#10
N Kareem, E Yates, M Skidmore, D Hoole
The rapid emergence of drug resistance, unfavourable immunosuppression and mounting evidence to suggest the deleterious accumulation of drug breakdown residues within animal tissues has driven a strong desire to move away from these current methods of disease control. Some natural products such as β-glucan, which are extracted from, for example, plants and fungi, are able to modulate the immune system and increase protection against diseases. However, these products are heterogeneous and their effects can be variable thus limiting their applicability and reliability...
December 28, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285399/fighting-against-a-protean-enemy-immunosenescence-vaccines-and-healthy-aging
#11
Giuseppe Del Giudice, Jörg J Goronzy, Beatrix Grubeck-Loebenstein, Paul-Henri Lambert, Tomas Mrkvan, Jeffrey J Stoddard, T Mark Doherty
The progressive increase of the aged population worldwide mandates new strategies to ensure sustained health and well-being with age. The development of better and/or new vaccines against pathogens that affect older adults is one pivotal intervention in approaching this goal. However, the functional decline of various physiological systems, including the immune system, requires novel approaches to counteract immunosenescence. Although important progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms underlying the age-related decline of the immune response to infections and vaccinations, knowledge gaps remain, both in the areas of basic and translational research...
2018: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249322/saponin-quil-a-up-regulates-type-i-interferon-regulated-gene-and-type-i-and-ii-interferon-expressions-which-are-suppressed-by-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#12
Wasin Charerntantanakul, Dante Fabros
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) suppresses innate immune response following infection of myeloid antigen-presenting cells. Poor innate immune response results in weak and delayed PRRSV-specific adaptive immunity, and facilitates PRRSV replication, pathogenesis, and persistent infection. Numerous efforts have been made to enhance the effective innate and adaptive immune defenses to PRRSV, however, only a few attempts have so far elicited satisfactory results. The present study aims to evaluate in vitro the potential of saponin quil A to enhance the expression of type I interferon (IFN)-regulated gene, type I and II IFNs, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in PRRSV-inoculated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)...
January 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246318/size-shape-and-sequence-dependent-immunogenicity-of-rna-nanoparticles
#13
Sijin Guo, Hui Li, Mengshi Ma, Jian Fu, Yizhou Dong, Peixuan Guo
RNA molecules have emerged as promising therapeutics. Like all other drugs, the safety profile and immune response are important criteria for drug evaluation. However, the literature on RNA immunogenicity has been controversial. Here, we used the approach of RNA nanotechnology to demonstrate that the immune response of RNA nanoparticles is size, shape, and sequence dependent. RNA triangle, square, pentagon, and tetrahedron with same shape but different sizes, or same size but different shapes were used as models to investigate the immune response...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243967/extracts-of-porphyra-tenera-nori-seaweed-activate-the-immune-response-in-mouse-raw264-7-macrophages-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#14
Ji-Hye Song, Hee-Bum Kang, Seung-Ho Park, Ji-Hoon Jeong, Jeongjin Park, Yanghee You, Yoo-Hyun Lee, Jeongmin Lee, Eungpil Kim, Kyung-Chul Choi, Woojin Jun
Porphyra tenera, also known as nori, is a red algal species of seaweed. It is cultivated in Asia for culinary purposes. We report that P. tenera extract (PTE) enhances the immune response in mouse macrophages. We found that P. tenera extract regulates the NF-κB IκB kinase (IKK) signaling pathway, and we assessed the expression and translocation of p65, a subunit of NF-κB, in RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells after treatment with PTE. We also investigated the effects of 10% ethanol PTE (PTE10) in RAW264.7 cells...
December 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242133/role-of-aloin-in-the-modulation-of-certain-immune-parameters-in-skin-mucus-of-an-indian-major-carp-labeo-rohita
#15
Ayan Srivastava, Ashwini Kumar Nigam, Swati Mittal, Ajay Kumar Mittal
Enhancement of immune system seems to be the most promising method of preventing fish diseases. Several herbal products have immunostimulant properties, and are environmental friendly, economical and can act against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Present study was designed with an aim to evaluate the role of aloin, extracted from a herb Aloe barbadensis, in the modulation of certain immune parameters in an Indian major carp, Labeo rohita. Fishes were divided into control, vehicle control and aloin treated groups...
December 11, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238889/immunomodulatory-effects-of-rhodomyrtus-tomentosa-leaf-extract-and-its-derivative-compound-rhodomyrtone-on-head-kidney-macrophages-of-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#16
Pinanong Na-Phatthalung, Mariana Teles, Supayang Piyawan Voravuthikunchai, Lluís Tort, Camino Fierro-Castro
Rhodomyrtus tomentosa is a medicinal plant that shows biological effects including immunomodulatory activity on human and other mammals but not in fish. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro immunomodulatory effects of R. tomentosa leaf extract and its active compound, rhodomyrtone, on the immune responses, using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) head kidney (HK) macrophages as a model. The tested immune functions included the expression of genes involved in innate immune and inflammatory responses and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
December 13, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229441/does-dietary-insect-meal-affect-the-fish-immune-system-the-case-of-mealworm-tenebrio-molitor-on-european-sea-bass-dicentrarchus-labrax
#17
M A Henry, L Gasco, S Chatzifotis, G Piccolo
Feeding small European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, for 6 weeks with Tenebrio molitor larval meal showed significant anti-inflammatory responses (ceruloplasmin, myeloperoxidase and nitric oxide). Serum bacteriolytic activity against a Gram negative bacterium was not significantly affected by dietary Tenebrio, while both lysozyme antibacterial activity and serum trypsin inhibition usually linked to the anti-parasite activity of the fish, were significantly enhanced. The latter may be due to the similarities in the composition of the exoskeleton of parasites and insects that may therefore act as an immunostimulant potentially increasing the anti-parasitic activity...
December 8, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229245/fabrication-of-fluorescent-labeled-ginseng-polysaccharide-nanoparticles-for-bioimaging-and-their-immunomodulatory-activity-on-macrophage-cell-lines
#18
Kazi Farida Akhter, Md Abdul Mumin, Edmund M K Lui, Paul A Charpentier
Polysaccharides are a major active component of American ginseng root showing various biological activities including anti-carcinogenic, anti-aging, immunostimulatory and antioxidant effects. Although their biological activity has been reported by several groups, no research has explored their cellular uptake and biodistribution, owing to the lack of suitable detection techniques in living cells. This work examines a novel, simple and efficient fluorescent labeling procedure of ginseng polysaccharides (PS), in order to examine their cellular distribution using confocal microscopy...
December 8, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228683/lenalidomide-overcomes-the-immunosuppression-of-regulatory-cd8-cd28-t-cells
#19
Brigitte Neuber, Jingying Dai, Wjahat A Waraich, Mohamed H S Awwad, Melanie Engelhardt, Michael Schmitt, Sergej Medenhoff, Mathias Witzens-Harig, Anthony D Ho, Hartmut Goldschmidt, Michael Hundemer
Although lenalidomide and pomalidomide are well-established treatment options in patients with multiple myeloma, their immune-modulating effects are not fully understood. While CD8+CD28- regulatory T-cells in patients with hematologic disorders display a known immune-escape mechanism, we show that lenalidomide can overcome the immunosuppressive impact of CD8+CD28- T-cells. We analyzed in vitro the antigen-specific T-cell responses of healthy donors and patients with multiple myeloma with or without the addition of autologous CD8+CD28- T-cells in the absence and presence of lenalidomide...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214185/administration-of-rhodiola-kirilowii-extracts-during-mouse-pregnancy-and-lactation-stimulates-innate-but-not-adaptive-immunity-of-the-offspring
#20
Sławomir Lewicki, Ewa Skopińska-Różewska, Aleksandra Brewczyńska, Robert Zdanowski
The use of antibiotics during pregnancy and lactation is associated with an increased risk of developmental disorders. One of the natural medicinal plants-Rhodiola kirilowii, widely used as an immunostimulant in adults-might be a good alternative to antibiotic treatment. The aim of present study was to assess whether daily oral administration of 20 mg/kg of Rhodiola kirilowii aqueous (RKW) or 50% hydroalcoholic (RKW-A) extracts affected hematological and immunological parameters of 6-week-old mouse progeny...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
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