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Immunostimulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027229/extracellular-nucleosides-and-nucleotides-as-immunomodulators
#1
REVIEW
Oliver Kepp, Friedemann Loos, Peng Liu, Guido Kroemer
Some anticancer agents induce immunogenic cell death that is accompanied by the emission of danger signals into the tumor microenvironment, thus attracting and activating innate immune effectors and finally inducing anticancer immunity. The release of extracellular nucleosides such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from the tumor in response to anticancer therapy plays a pivotal role in the attraction of antigen presenting cells and the activation of inflammasome-mediated proinflammatory cascades. In contrast, the ectonucleotidase-catalyzed phosphohydrolysis of nucleotides to nucleosides reduces the extracellular availability of nucleotides, hence limiting the recruitment and activation of antigen-presenting cells...
November 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024788/thermostability-of-the-coating-antigen-and-immunostimulator-in-an-adjuvanted-oral-capsule-vaccine-formulation
#2
Stephanie Longet, Vincenzo Aversa, Daire O'Donnell, Joshua Tobias, Monica Rosa, Jan Holmgren, Ivan S Coulter, Ed C Lavelle
Oral vaccines present an attractive alternative to injectable vaccines for enteric diseases due to ease of delivery and the induction of intestinal immunity at the site of infection. However, susceptibility to gastrointestinal proteolysis, limited transepithelial uptake and a lack of clinically acceptable adjuvants present significant challenges. A further challenge to mass vaccination in developing countries is the very expensive requirement to maintain the cold chain. We recently described the effectiveness of a Single Multiple Pill(®) (SmPill(®)) adjuvanted capsule approach to enhance the effectiveness of a candidate enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) oral vaccine...
October 9, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024595/organelle-specific-triggered-release-of-immunostimulatory-oligonucleotides-from-intrinsically-coordinated-dna-metal-organic-frameworks-with-soluble-exoskeleton
#3
Zejun Wang, Yao Fu, Zhengzhong Kang, Xiaoguo Liu, Nan Chen, Qi Wang, Yaoquan Tu, Lihua Wang, Shiping Song, Daishun Ling, Haiyun Song, Xueqian Kong, Chunhai Fan
DNA has proven of high utility to modulate the surface functionality of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for various biomedical applications. Nevertheless, current methods for preparing DNA-MOF nanoparticles rely on either inefficient covalent conjugation or specific modification of oligonucleotides. In this work, we report that unmodified oligonucleotides can be loaded on MOFs with high density (~2,500 strands/particle) via intrinsic, multivalent coordination between DNA backbone phosphate and unsaturated zirconium sites on MOFs...
October 12, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021503/characterization-of-the-chemical-structure-and-innate-immune-stimulating-activity-of-an-extracellular-polysaccharide-from-rhizobium-sp-strain-m2-screened-using-a-silkworm-muscle-contraction-assay
#4
Makoto Urai, Tomoko Aizawa, Katsutoshi Imamura, Hiroshi Hamamoto, Kazuhisa Sekimizu
We screened innate immunostimulant-producing bacteria using a silkworm muscle contraction assay, and isolated Rhizobium sp. strain M2 from soil. We purified the innate immunostimulant from strain M2, and characterized the chemical structure by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and chemical analyses. The innate immunostimulant (M2 EPS) comprised glucose, galactose, pyruvic acid, and succinic acid with a molar ratio of 6.8:1.0:0.9:0.4, and had a succinoglycan-like high molecular-weight heteropolysaccharide structure...
October 11, 2017: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021502/structural-analysis-of-an-innate-immunostimulant-from-broccoli-brassica-oleracea-var-italica
#5
Makoto Urai, Keiko Kataoka, Satoshi Nishida, Kazuhisa Sekimizu
Vegetables are eaten as part of a healthy diet throughout the world, and some are also applied topically as a traditional medicine. We evaluated the innate immunostimulating activities of hot water extracts of various vegetables using the silkworm muscle contraction assay system, and found that broccoli, Brassica oleracea var. italica, contains a strong innate immunostimulant. We purified the innate immunostimulant from broccoli, and characterized the chemical structure by chemical analyses and NMR spectroscopy...
October 11, 2017: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019573/use-of-transfer-factor-in-immunosuppressed-surgical-patients
#6
Celia Regina Oliveira Garritano, Francesco di Nubila, Renata M Couto, Rossano Kepler Alvim Fiorelli, Luciana Berti Aun
OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the action of Transfer Factor on the immune response of patients with malignant neoplasm submitted to surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. METHOD: we analyzed the variations of leukocytes, total lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes and CD4 counts in 60 patients submitted to immunostimulation with a single, daily dose of 0.5mg sublingual Transfer Factor, started simultaneously with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. RESULTS: there were statistically significant increases in the counts of all cell lines studied, more pronounced after 12 months of use of the medication...
September 2017: Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017942/as-cath4-and-5-two-vertebrate-derived-natural-host-defense-peptides-enhance-the-immuno-resistance-efficiency-against-bacterial-infections-in-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#7
Zhilai Guo, Xue Qiao, Ruomei Cheng, Nannan Shi, Aili Wang, Tingting Feng, Yan Chen, Fen Zhang, Haining Yu, Yipeng Wang
Host defense peptides (HDPs), a class of conserved components of animal innate immune system, possess direct antimicrobial activities against invading pathogens and broadly participate in boosting and modulating host immune responses. Cathelicidins is an important family of HDPs that has been identified exclusively in vertebrates. Considering the relatively conserved innate immune system between invertebrates and vertebrates, it is speculated that HDPs from vertebrates may also possess modulating functions on invertebrate innate immune system...
October 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993779/natural-killer-cell-response-to-chemotherapy-stressed-cancer-cells-role-in-tumor-immunosurveillance
#8
REVIEW
Alessandra Zingoni, Cinzia Fionda, Cristiana Borrelli, Marco Cippitelli, Angela Santoni, Alessandra Soriani
Natural killer (NK) cells are innate cytotoxic lymphoid cells that actively prevent neoplastic development, growth, and metastatic dissemination in a process called cancer immunosurveillance. An equilibrium between immune control and tumor growth is maintained as long as cancer cells evade immunosurveillance. Therapies designed to kill cancer cells and to simultaneously sustain host antitumor immunity are an appealing strategy to control tumor growth. Several chemotherapeutic agents, depending on which drugs and doses are used, give rise to DNA damage and cancer cell death by means of apoptosis, immunogenic cell death, or other forms of non-apoptotic death (i...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986213/characterization-of-nuclear-factor-of-activated-t-cells-c3-nfatc3-and-gene-expression-of-upstream-downstream-signaling-molecules-in-response-to-immunostimulants-in-pacific-red-snapper-cells
#9
Carlos Angulo, Erika Alamillo, Felipe Ascencio, Martha Reyes-Becerril
The nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) proteins have crucial roles in the development and function of the immune system since they not only regulate activation of T cells but are also involved in the control of thymocyte development and T-cell differentiation. In this study, NFATc3 was characterized from the Pacific red snapper, Lutjanus peru. LpNFAtc3, which contains an open reading of 3300 bp frame coding for a protein of 1100 aa with a predicted molecular weight of 118.52 kDa. The predicted protein showed a conserved NFAT family structure with signature motifs and domains, sharing high identity (up to 76%) compared to other fish sequences...
October 3, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983786/comparison-of-byakujutsu-atractylodes-rhizome-and-sojutsu-atractylodes-lancea-rhizome-on-anti-inflammatory-and-immunostimulative-effects-in-vitro
#10
Yohta Shimato, Misato Ota, Kohshi Asai, Toshiyuki Atsumi, Yoshiaki Tabuchi, Toshiaki Makino
The Japanese Pharmacopoeia defines byakujutsu (Atractylodes rhizome) as the rhizome of Atractylodes japonica or A. macrocephala and sojutsu (Atractylodes lancea rhizome) as the rhizome of A. lancea, A. chinensis, or their interspecific hybrids. Because their pharmaceutical uses differ in traditional Japanese Kampo medicine and traditional Chinese medicine, with less apparent scientific evidence, we compared the pharmacological properties between byakujutsu and sojutsu. Crude drug specimens of byakujutsu (n = 40) and sojutsu (n = 49) obtained in markets were identified by their species using DNA profiling...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976123/immunostimulant-and-chemoprotective-effect-of-vivartana-a-polyherbal-formulation-against-cyclophosphamide-induced-toxicity-in-swiss-albino-mice
#11
Sadhana Gnanasekaran, Kunnathur Murugesan Sakthivel, Guruvayoorappan Chandrasekaran
The aim of the study is to develop a technology for cost effective immunomodulator from natural products to combat adverse effects during cancer chemotherapy. In the present study, the immunomodulatory efficacy of Vivartana, a poly herbal formulation in immunosuppressed animal model induced by cyclophosphamide (CTX) and its comparison with standard herbal immunostimulators Chyawanprash and Brahma Rasayana was investigated. The effect of Vivartana (500 mg/kg.bw) (p.o.), Chyawanprash (20 mg/kg.bw) (p.o.) and Brahma Rasayana (20 mg/kg...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975891/local-immune-response-in-cutaneous-basal-cell-carcinoma
#12
Silje Haukali Omland
BCC is an immunogenic tumor highlighted by the increased risk in immunosuppressed individuals and the frequent occurrence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in the tumor surroundings. Immunotherapy is evolving as a promising treatment strategy for several cancer types where topical immunostimulators are among the possibilities for superficial BCC. The overall aim of this thesis is to characterize the immunologic response upon BCC as well as characterizing the surrounding tumor stroma. The aim was achieved by the use of a variety of laboratory techniques; immunohistochemistry, immunoflourescence, qRT-PCR and NGS...
October 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971770/marine-natural-product-bis-indole-alkaloid-caulerpin-chemistry-and-biology
#13
Jignesh Lunagariya, Poonam Bhadja, Shenghui Zhong, Rohit Vekariya, Shihai Xu
Marine bis-indole alkaloids comprise a large and increasingly growing class of secondary metabolites, and continue to deliver a great variety of structural templates. The alkaloids derived from marine resources play a crucial role in medicinal chemistry and as chemical agents. In particular, bis-indole alkaloid caulerpin isolated from marine green algae Caulerpa and a red algae Chondria armata at various places around the world, and tested against several therapeutic areas such as anti-diabetic, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-larvicidal, anti-herpes, anti-tubercular, anti-microbial and immunostimulating activity as well as means of other chemical agents...
September 27, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971270/calcium-calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinase-iv-camkiv-mediates-acute-skeletal-muscle-inflammatory-response
#14
DanDan Shi, RuiCai Gu, YaFeng Song, MaoChao Ding, Tao Huang, MengXia Guo, JiangWei Xiao, WenHua Huang, Hua Liao
The objective of this study is to investigate the role of Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) in Cardiotoxin (CTX)-induced mice muscle inflammation. CTX injection i.m. was performed to induce B6 mice acute tibialis anterior (TA) muscle injury. The mice were then injected i.p. with the recombinant CaMKIV protein or its antagonist KN-93. Immunoblotting was used to assess Calmodulin (CaM) and CaMKIV levels. Immunofluorescence was used to detect intramuscular infiltration or major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I expression in damaged muscle...
October 2, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968926/immunopotentiating-significance-of-conventionally-used-plant-adaptogens-as-modulators-in-biochemical-and-molecular-signalling-pathways-in-cell-mediated-processes
#15
REVIEW
Pardeep Kaur, Robin, Victor O Makanjuola, Rohit Arora, Balbir Singh, Saroj Arora
Natural products are of great surge in the identification of chemopreventive agents and biologically active molecules for the development of new promising therapeutic agents. These agents influence the cascade of biochemical and molecular signalling pathways involved in numerous physiological and pathological processes. The natural agents combat the dogma associated with the most dreaded, unconquered health concern and a multigenic disease- cancer. A category of plants known as adaptogens maintain perturbed homoeostasis, augment adaptations to noxious stimuli (exposure to cold, heat, pain, general stress, infectious organisms) and offer endurance to attenuate several disorders in human beings...
September 26, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967792/abatacept-and-granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-in-a-patient-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-neutropenia
#16
Marta Priora, Simone Parisi, Marco Scarati, Richard Borrelli, Clara Lisa Peroni, Enrico Fusaro
Neutropenia in patients with inflammatory diseases increases the risk of infection due to the disease itself and the related immunosuppressive treatments. We report the case of a 54-year-old female with rheumatoid arthritis and following development of chronic neutropenia. All investigations excluded pathogenic relations with drugs and/or other clinical situations; the gravity of neutropenia required a treatment with G-CSF and the increased articular inflammatory activity justified a biologic-therapy, abatacept (CTLA4 inhibitors)...
October 2, 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966480/the-memory-lymphocyte-immunostimulation-assay-in-immune-system-disorders-is-useful-or-useless
#17
Maria Vadalà, Carmen Laurino, Beniamino Palmieri
AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical relevance, sensitivity and specificity of in vitro blood test, Memory Lymphocyte ImmunoStimulation Assay (MELISA(®)), in genetically predisposed patients that suffer by autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants, after HPV-vaccination and that could have a high metal hypersensitivity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen girls (aged 12-24 years) that developed long-lasting and invalidating somatoform symptoms occurring within 20 days postvaccination are included in this descriptive study...
October 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966105/oligonucleotide-based-pharmaceuticals-non-clinical-and-clinical-safety-signals-and-non-clinical-testing-strategies
#18
Enni-Kaisa Mustonen, Tiina Palomäki, Markku Pasanen
Antisense oligonucleotides, short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and aptamers are oligonucleotide-based pharmaceuticals with a promising role in targeted therapies. Currently, five oligonucleotide-based pharmaceuticals have achieved marketing authorization in Europe or USA and many more are undergoing clinical testing. However, several safety concerns have been raised in non-clinical and clinical studies. Oligonucleotides share properties with both chemical and biological pharmaceuticals and therefore they pose challenges also from the regulatory point of view...
September 29, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963556/il-17a-induces-heterogeneous-macrophages-and-it-does-not-alter-the-effects-of-lipopolysaccharides-on-macrophage-activation-in-the-skin-of-mice
#19
Kozo Nakai, Yu-Ying He, Fumiko Nishiyama, Fukiko Naruse, Reiji Haba, Yoshio Kushida, Naomi Katsuki, Tetsuya Moriue, Kozo Yoneda, Yasuo Kubota
Macrophages are central to inflammatory response and become polarized towards the M1 or M2 states upon activation by immunostimulants. In this study, we investigated the effects of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and interleukin (IL)-17A on the activation of macrophages in in vivo mouse skin. We examined whether macrophages are activated in the skin of imiquimod (IMQ)-treated mice, a model for IL-17A-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation, and flaky-tail (Flg (ft) ) mice, a model for IL-17A-induced chronic atopic dermatitis-like skin inflammation...
September 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963016/delivery-of-the-tlr-ligand-poly-i-c-to-liver-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-by-calcium-phosphate-nanoparticles-leads-to-a-pronounced-immunostimulation
#20
Viktoriya Sokolova, Zou Shi, Shunmei Huang, Yanqin Du, Mathis Kopp, Annika Frede, Torben Knuschke, Jan Buer, Dongliang Yang, Jun Wu, Astrid Maria Westendorf, Matthias Epple
The selective activation of the immune system is a concurrent problem in the treatment of persistent diseases like viral infections (e.g. hepatitis). For the delivery of the toll-like receptor ligand poly(I:C), an immunostimulatory action was discovered earlier by hydrodynamic injection. However, this technique is not clinically transferable to human patients. A modular system where the immunoactive toll-like-receptor ligand 3 (TLR-3) poly(I:C) was incorporated into calcium phosphate nanoparticles was developed...
September 27, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
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