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Mohammad Islamuddin, Garima Chouhan, Muzamil Yaqub Want, Hani A Ozbak, Hassan A Hemeg, Farhat Afrin
BACKGROUND: The therapy of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is limited by resistance, toxicity and decreased bioavailability of the existing drugs coupled with dramatic increase in HIV-co-infection, non-availability of vaccines and down regulation of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Thus, we envisaged combating the problem with plant-derived antileishmanial drug that could concomitantly mitigate the immune suppression of the infected hosts. Several plant-derived compounds have been found to exert leishmanicidal activity via immunomodulation...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Mariangela Marrelli, Filomena Conforti, Fabrizio Araniti, Giancarlo A Statti
Obesity is one of the greatest public health problems. This complex condition has reached epidemic proportions in many parts of the world, and it constitutes a risk factor for several chronic disorders, such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. In the last few decades, several studies dealt with the potential effects of natural products as new safe and effective tools for body weight control. Saponins are naturally-occurring surface-active glycosides, mainly produced by plants, whose structure consists of a sugar moiety linked to a hydrophobic aglycone (a steroid or a triterpene)...
October 20, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Chatchai Muanprasat, Varanuj Chatsudthipong
Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) is an oligomer of β-(1➔4)-linked D-glucosamine. COS can be prepared from the deacetylation and hydrolysis of chitin, which is commonly found in the exoskeletons of arthropods and insects and the cell walls of fungi. COS is water soluble, non-cytotoxic, readily absorbed through the intestine and mainly excreted in the urine. Of particular importance, COS and its derivatives have been demonstrated to possess several biological activities including anti-inflammation, immunostimulation, anti-tumor, anti-obesity, anti-hypertension, anti-Alzheimer's disease, tissue regeneration promotion, drug and DNA delivery enhancement, anti-microbial, anti-oxidation and calcium-absorption enhancement...
October 20, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
C Patrick McAtee, Christopher A Seid, Molly Hammond, Elissa Hudspeth, Brian P Keegan, Zhuyun Liu, Junfei Wei, Bin Zhan, Raul Arjona-Sabido, Vladimir Cruz-Chan, Eric Dumonteil, Peter J Hotez, Maria Elena Bottazzi
The nucleoside hydrolase gene from Leishmania donovani was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as a full length 36-kDa protein (LdNH36). Following lysis and extraction, the protein was purified by anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The purified protein had a molecular mass of approximately 36-kDa and was confirmed to be >99% pure. Using a nucleoside hydrolase assay, the protein was found to exhibit a Km of 741 ± 246 μM. Protein integrity was confirmed by lithium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (LDS-PAGE), mass spectrometry (MS), and enzymatic assay...
October 20, 2016: Protein Expression and Purification
Henryka Długońska, Justyna Gatkowska
Extracellular vesicles – EV’s, including exosomes, are known to be essential tools of intercellular communication, enabling the exchange of information without direct contact between cells. Exosomes are secreted both in vitro and in vivo by single- and multi-cellular organisms, regardless of their type, and play an essential role in cell-to-cell communication. EV’s may carry various materials and ongoing studies have provided a new insight into their potential participation in various critical biological processes, including carcinogenesis, protein trafficking, immunostimulation and pathogenesis of infectious diseases...
October 1, 2016: Annals of Parasitology
Carolin de Groot, Christel C Müller-Goymann
Saponins are used in medicine due to their pharmacological and immunological effects. To better understand interactions of saponins with model membranes and natural membranes of, for example, erythrocytes, Langmuir film balance experiments are well established. For most saponins, a strong interaction with cholesterol was demonstrated in dependence of both the aglycone part and the sugar moieties and is suggested to be correlated with a strong hemolytic activity, high toxicity, and high surface activity, as was demonstrated for the steroid saponin digitonin...
October 19, 2016: Planta Medica
Chandrabhan Kumar Bharshiv, Satish Kumar Garg, A K Bhatia
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the immunomodulatory activity of aqueous extract of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis flowers (NAFE) with particular reference to splenocytes proliferation and induction of cytokines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antibody titer was determined by tube agglutination and indirect ELISA assay in four groups of mice-control, antigen alone, and NAFE-treated (400 and 800 mg/kg for 21 days) after immunization with Salmonella antigen while cellular immunity was studied in three groups of rats (control and NAFE-treated - 400 and 800 mg/kg) following DNCB application...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Khamphone Yelithao, Utoomporn Surayot, Ju Hun Lee, SangGuan You
Water-soluble polysaccharides isolated from the rhizome of Polygonatum sibiricum and fractionated using ion-exchange chromatography were investigated to determine their structure and immunostimulating activity. Crude and fractions (F1 and F2) consisted of carbohydrates (85.1~88.3%) with proteins (4.51~11.9%) and uronic acid (1.79~7.47%), and included different levels of mannose (62.3~76.3%), glucose (15.2~20.3%), galactose (4.35~15.3%), and arabinose (4.00~7.65%). The crude contained two peaks with molecular weights (Mw) of 151×10(3) and 31...
September 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar, Fazel Zoheiri, Carlo C Lazado
Immunostimulation through the use of sustainable and eco-friendly dietary additives is one of the current prophylactic strategies in fish husbandry. Plant-based immunostimulants are highly considered for this intent, both for their scientific and practical advantages. Persian hogweed (Heracleum persicum) is a flower-bearing herb that possesses interesting pharmacological importance due to its bioactive compounds. It is commonly used as a spice, food additive, dietary supplement and traditional remedy. The present study evaluated the potential of H...
October 14, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Felipe E Rodríguez, Beatriz Valenzuela, Ana Farías, Ana María Sandino, Mónica Imarai
The diets of farmed salmon are usually supplemented with immunostimulants to improve health status. Because β-glucan is one of the most common immunostimulants used in diets, here we examined the effect of two β-1,3/1,6-glucan-supplemented diets on the expression of immune response genes of Atlantic salmon. The relative abundances of IFN-α1, Mx, IFN-γ, IL-12, TGF-β1, IL-10, and CD4 transcripts were evaluated in head kidney by qRT-PCR. We assessed the effects of the diets under normoxia and acute hypoxia, as salmon are especially sensitive to changes in the concentration of dissolved oxygen, which can also affect immunity...
October 11, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Shoji Takenaka, Masataka Oda, Hisanori Domon, Tatsuya Ohsumi, Yuki Suzuki, Hayato Ohshima, Hirofumi Yamamoto, Yutaka Terao, Yuichiro Noiri
An ideal antibiofilm strategy is to control both in the quality and quantity of biofilm while maintaining the benefits derived from resident microflora. Vizantin, a recently developed immunostimulating compound, has also been found to have antibiofilm property. This study evaluated the influence on biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans in the presence of sulfated vizantin and biofilm development following bacterial adhesion on a hydroxyapatite disc coated with sulfated vizantin. Supplementation with sulfated vizantin up to 50 μM did not affect either bacterial growth or biofilm formation, whereas 50 μM sulfated vizantin caused the biofilm to readily detach from the surface...
October 11, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Bin Qi, Shan Wang, Qiu Wang, He Zhang, Xue-Yuan Bai, Hui-Nan He, Wei-Jie Sun, Li Liu, Da-Qing Zhao
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Panax quinquefolius L. has been used as a proverbial tonic in oriental countries for hundreds of years. It is used as a traditional medicinal herb to nourish vitality. AIM OF THE STUDY: The purpose of our study was to inquiry the activation effects on murine peritoneal macrophages of a novel protein separated from the roots of Panax quinquefolius L. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In our work, a novel protein of the roots of American ginseng (AGNP) was separated and purified from the roots of Panax quinquefolius L...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Hien Van Doan, Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar, Wanaporn Tapingkae, Sudaporn Tongsiri, Pimporn Khamtavee
The present study investigates the effects of combined or singular administration of low molecular weight sodium alginate (LWMSA) and Lactobacillus plantarum on innate immune response, disease resistance and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Three hundred and twenty fish were supplied and randomly stocked in sixteen glass tanks (150 L) assigned to four treatments as follows: 0 g kg(-1) LMWSA (Control, Diet 1), 10 g kg(-1) LMWSA (Diet 2), 10(8) CFU g(-1)L. plantarum (Diet 3), and 10 g kg(-1) LMWSA + 10(8) CFU g(-1)L...
October 11, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Joseph D Hantho, Timothy A Strayer, Amy E Nielsen, Rock J Mancini
Herein we report the synthesis and activity of an enzyme-directed immunostimulant with immune cell activation mediated by β-galactosidase, either exogenously added, or on B16 melanoma cells. Covalent attachment of a β-galactopyranoside to an imidazoquinoline immunostimulant at a position critical for activity resulted in a pro-immunostimulant that could be selectively converted by β-galactosidase into an active immunostimulant. The pro-immunostimulant exhibited β-galactosidase-directed immune cell activation as measured by NF-κB transcription in RAW-Blue macrophages or cytokine production (TNF, IL-6, IL-12) in JAWSII monocytes...
October 11, 2016: ChemMedChem
Débora Torrealba, Joaquin Seras-Franzoso, Uwe Mamat, Kathleen Wilke, Antonio Villaverde, Nerea Roher, Elena Garcia-Fruitós
The control of infectious diseases is a major current challenge in intensive aquaculture. Most commercial vaccines are based on live attenuated or inactivated pathogens that are usually combined with adjuvants, oil emulsions being as the most widely used for vaccination in aquaculture. Although effective, the use of these oil emulsions is plagued with important side effects. Thus, the development of alternative safer and cost-effective immunostimulants and adjuvants is highly desirable. Here we have explored the capacity of inclusion bodies produced in bacteria to immunostimulate and protect fish against bacterial infections...
2016: PloS One
Haiyan Zhang, Guobin Hu, Qiuming Liu, Shicui Zhang
Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in mammals is a member of the ancient Toll-like family of receptors that predominantly recognizes conserved components of Gram-positive bacteria. In the present study, a tlr2 gene and its 5'-flanking sequence were cloned from turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, its responsive expressions to various immunostimulants were subsequently studied in vivo. The turbot (sm)tlr2 gene spans over 9.0 kb with a structure of 12 exon-11 intron and encodes 816 amino acids. The deduced protein shows the highest sequence identity (76...
October 3, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
A Rodrigues, L P Gualdi, R G de Souza, M H M Vargas, N K Nuñez, A A da Cunha, M H Jones, L A Pinto, R T Stein, P M Pitrez
BACKGROUND: OM-85 is an immunostimulant bacterial lysate, which has been proven effective in reducing the number of lower airways infections. We investigated the efficacy of the bacterial lysate OM-85 in the primary prevention of a murine model of asthma. METHODS: In the first phase of our study the animals received doses of 0.5μg, 5μg and 50μg of OM-85 through gavage for five days (days -10 to -6 of the protocol), 10 days prior to starting the sensitisation with ovalbumin (OVA), in order to evaluate the results of dose-response protocols...
October 1, 2016: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
Fernando Rodríguez-Serrano, Nuria Mut-Salud, Teresa Cruz-Bustos, Mercedes Gomez-Samblas, Esther Carrasco, Jose Manuel Garrido, F Javier López-Jaramillo, Francisco Santoyo-Gonzalez, Antonio Osuna
BACKGROUND: Around 20%-30% of breast cancers overexpress the proto-oncogene human epidermal growth receptor 2 (HER2), and they are characterized by being very invasive. Therefore, many current studies are focused on testing new therapies against tumors that overexpress this receptor. In particular, there exists major interest in new strategies to fight breast cancer resistant to trastuzumab (Tmab), a humanized antibody that binds specifically to HER2 interfering with its mitogenic signaling...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
E Kaczorek, J Szarek, M Mikiewicz, E Terech-Majewska, P Schulz, J Małaczewska, R Wójcik, A K Siwicki
Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous substance produced on the kynurenine pathway which is primarily known for its neuroactive properties. Recently, it has been proven that KYNA is a selective ligand for G protein-coupled receptor (GPR 35), presented on immunocompetent cells such as T lymphocytes. This opens up new possibilities of its application as an immunostimulating substance in aquaculture. Thus far, no histopathological investigations in fish have been completed to evaluate influence of KYNA supplementation in feed...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
Paula Zwicker, Nadin Schultze, Sarah Niehs, Karen Methling, Martina Wurster, Dirk Albrecht, Jörg Bernhardt, Gerhild Wachlin, Michael Lalk, Ulrike Lindequist, Beate Haertel
The immune system is permanently exposed to several environmental influences that can have adverse effects on immune cells or organs leading to immunosuppression or inappropriate immunostimulation, called direct immunotoxicity. The natural compound Tulipalin A (TUPA), a lactone with α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone moiety, can influence the immune system and lead to allergic contact dermatitis. This in vitro study focused on effects of TUPA using two immune cell lines (Jurkat T cells, THP-1 monocytes). To evaluate the immunotoxic potential of the compound, a proteomic approach applying 2D gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS in combination with metabolomic analysis was used after exposure of the cells to IC10 of TUPA...
September 30, 2016: Proteomics
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