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Immunomodulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436044/structure-bioactivity-and-synthesis-of-methylated-flavonoids
#1
REVIEW
Lingrong Wen, Yueming Jiang, Jiali Yang, Yupeng Zhao, Miaomiao Tian, Bao Yang
Methylated flavonoids are an important type of natural flavonoid derivative with potentially multiple health benefits; among other things, they have improved bioavailability compared with flavonoid precursors. Flavonoids have been documented to have broad bioactivities, such as anticancer, immunomodulation, and antioxidant activities, that can be elevated, to a certain extent, by methylation. Understanding the structure, bioactivity, and bioavailability of methylated flavonoids, therefore, is an interesting topic with broad potential applications...
April 24, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434234/phages-and-immunomodulation
#2
Andrzej Górski, Krystyna Dąbrowska, Ryszard Międzybrodzki, Beata Weber-Dąbrowska, Marzanna Łusiak-Szelachowska, Ewa Jończyk-Matysiak, Jan Borysowski
In the past years, the microbiome and its role in the pathophysiology of diseases have gained great interest. The progress of our knowledge in this field opens completely novel prospects for treating disorders, including those which are most challenging to medicine today. Of special interest are studies on the interactions of the microbiome with the immune system. Only recently has the presence of bacteriophages in the microbiome been highlighted, and their potential role in maintaining normal immunity has gained increasing attention...
April 24, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433474/beneficial-effect-of-tocilizumab-in-myasthenia-gravis-refractory-to-rituximab
#3
Dagur Ingi Jonsson, Ritva Pirskanen, Fredrik Piehl
Muscle fatigue associated with myasthenia gravis is caused by autoantibodies interfering with neuromuscular transmission. Immunomodulating treatment is widely used in moderate to severe myasthenia, although the use of newer biological drugs except rituximab is rare. We describe the effect of tocilizumab, a blocker of interleukin-6 signalling, in two female myasthenia patients with high titres of serum acetylcholine receptor antibodies and insufficient response to rituximab. The first patient had been treated with high dose immunoglobulins regularly for several years and the second patient had been treated both with different oral immune suppressants and immunoglobulins before testing a low dose of rituximab without significant clinical effect...
March 16, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431399/muc2-mucin-deficiency-alters-inflammatory-and-metabolic-pathways-in-the-mouse-intestinal-mucosa
#4
Selamawit Tadesse, Georgia Corner, Elena Dhima, Michele Houston, Chandan Guha, Leonard Augenlicht, Anna Velcich
The mucus layer in the intestine affects several aspects of intestinal biology, encompassing physical, chemical protection, immunomodulation and growth, thus contributing to homeostasis. Mice with genetic inactivation of the Muc2 gene, encoding the MUC2 mucin, the major protein component of mucus, exhibit altered intestinal homeostasis, which is strictly dependent on the habitat, likely due to differing complements of intestinal microbes. Our previous work established that Muc2 deficiency was linked to low chronic inflammation resulting in tumor development in the small, large intestine including the rectum...
April 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431262/immunologic-approaches-for-the-treatment-of-multiple-myeloma
#5
REVIEW
Leo Rasche, Niels Weinhold, Gareth J Morgan, Frits van Rhee, Faith E Davies
The FDA approval of two monoclonal antibodies in 2015has heralded a new era of targeted immunotherapies for multiple myeloma (MM). In this review we discuss the recent approaches using different immunological components to treat MM. In particular, we review current monoclonal antibody based therapies, engineered T- and NK cell products, 'off-target' immunomodulation, and strategies utilizing allogeneic cell transplantation in MM. We discuss how an immunologic approach offers promise for the treatment of this genetically heterogeneous disease, and how patients with acquired drug resistance may particularly benefit from these therapies...
April 6, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428708/indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-as-a-potential-prognostic-marker-and-immunotherapeutic-target-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#6
REVIEW
Kashif Asghar, Asim Farooq, Bilal Zulfiqar, Muhammad Usman Rashid
Tumor cells induce an immunosuppressive microenvironment which leads towards tumor immune escape. Understanding the intricacy of immunomodulation by tumor cells is essential for immunotherapy. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an immunosuppressive enzyme which mediates tumor immune escape in various cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). IDO up-regulation in HCC may lead to recruitment of regulatory T-cells into tumor microenvironment and therefore inhibit local immune responses and promote metastasis...
April 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427014/chemical-and-biological-properties-of-a-supramolecular-complex-of-tuftsin-and-cucurbit-7-uril
#7
Ekaterina A Kovalenko, Ekaterina A Pashkina, Lyubov Y Kanazhevskaya, Alexey N Masliy, Vladimir A Kozlov
Cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) is an uncharged and water-soluble macrocyclic host. CB7 binds to doubly protonated tuftsin, which is the tetrapeptide Thr-Lys-Pro-Arg, with moderate affinity (Ka=2.1×10(3)M(-1)). In this study, the host-guest complexation was confirmed by fluorescence titration. This affinity would allow for easy release of the peptide under physiological conditions. According to density functional theory calculations, the structural binding motif involves hydrogen bonding. The most energetically stable form had the Arg side chain inside the CB7 cavity...
April 17, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424792/sustained-high-levels-of-both-total-and-high-molecular-weight-adiponectin-in-plasma-during-the-convalescent-phase-of-haemorrhagic-fever-with-renal-syndrome-are-associated-with-disease-severity
#8
Kang Tang, Chunmei Zhang, Yusi Zhang, Yun Zhang, Ran Zhuang, Boquan Jin, Ying Ma
Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is characterised by an uncontrolled immune response that causes vascular leakage. Adiponectin (APN) is an adipocytokine involved in prorevascularisation and immunomodulation. To investigate the possible effects of APN in the pathogenesis of HFRS, total and high molecular weight (HMW) APN levels in the plasma of patients with HFRS were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Compared with those in healthy controls, the plasma total and HMW APN levels in patients were elevated to different degrees from the fever onset and remained high at the convalescent phase...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424696/spirochetal-lipoproteins-and-immune-evasion
#9
REVIEW
Alexei Christodoulides, Ani Boyadjian, Theodoros Kelesidis
Spirochetes are a major threat to public health. However, the exact pathogenesis of spirochetal diseases remains unclear. Spirochetes express lipoproteins that often determine the cross talk between the host and spirochetes. Lipoproteins are pro-inflammatory, modulatory of immune responses, and enable the spirochetes to evade the immune system. In this article, we review the modulatory effects of spirochetal lipoproteins related to immune evasion. Understanding lipoprotein-induced immunomodulation will aid in elucidating innate pathogenesis processes and subsequent adaptive mechanisms potentially relevant to spirochetal disease vaccine development and treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424241/microbiota-induced-antibodies-are-essential-for-host-inflammatory-responsiveness-to-sterile-and-infectious-stimuli
#10
Daniel Cisalpino, Caio T Fagundes, Camila B Brito, Fernando R Ascenção, Celso M Queiroz-Junior, Angélica T Vieira, Lirlândia P Sousa, Flávio A Amaral, Leda Q Vieira, Jacques R Nicoli, Mauro M Teixeira, Danielle G Souza
The indigenous intestinal microbiota is frequently considered an additional major organ of the human body and exerts profound immunomodulating activities. Germ-free (GF) mice display a significantly different inflammatory responsiveness pattern compared with conventional (CV) mice, and this was dubbed a "hyporesponsive phenotype." Taking into account that the deposition of immune complexes is a major event in acute inflammation and that GF mice have a distinct Ig repertoire and B cell activity, we aimed to evaluate whether this altered Ig repertoire interferes with the inflammatory responsiveness of GF mice...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422003/efficacy-and-safety-of-leflunomide-as-an-adjuvant-drug-in-refractory-dermatomyositis-with-primarily-cutaneous-activity
#11
Renata C de Souza, Fernando H C de Souza, Renata Miossi, Samuel K Shinjo
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate leflunomide as an adjuvant drug in refractory dermatomyositis (DM) with primarily cutaneous activity. METHODS: A retrospective, single-centre, cohort study including 18 adult patients with DM (classical or clinically amyopathic DM) and cutaneous activity from 2001 to 2016 was conducted. Patients were dependent on glucocorticoid and refractory to at least two full-dose immunosuppressants/immunomodulators or presented previous adverse events with immunobiological drugs...
April 18, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417940/uncaria-tomentosa-leaves-decoction-modulates-differently-ros-production-in-cancer-and-normal-cells-and-effects-cisplatin-cytotoxicity
#12
Anita Kośmider, Edyta Czepielewska, Mieczysław Kuraś, Krzysztof Gulewicz, Wioleta Pietrzak, Renata Nowak, Grażyna Nowicka
Uncaria tomentosa is a woody vine with a long history of use in traditional Peruvian medicine and nowadays supplements containing this vine as ingredient are available. Immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties of Uncaria tomentosa have been suggested and attributed mainly to the presence of tetracyclic or pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids. However, the synergic action of different compounds occurring in extracts and modulation of redox processes may significantly influence the anticancer activity of Uncaria tomentosa...
April 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416692/immunomodulation-accelerated-neuronal-regeneration-following-selective-rod-photoreceptor-cell-ablation-in-the-zebrafish-retina
#13
David T White, Sumitra Sengupta, Meera T Saxena, Qingguo Xu, Justin Hanes, Ding Ding, Hongkai Ji, Jeff S Mumm
Müller glia (MG) function as inducible retinal stem cells in zebrafish, completely repairing the eye after damage. The innate immune system has recently been shown to promote tissue regeneration in which classic wound-healing responses predominate. However, regulatory roles for leukocytes during cellular regeneration-i.e., selective cell-loss paradigms akin to degenerative disease-are less well defined. To investigate possible roles innate immune cells play during retinal cell regeneration, we used intravital microscopy to visualize neutrophil, macrophage, and retinal microglia responses to induced rod photoreceptor apoptosis...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415022/simultaneous-determination-of-tryptophan-and-8-metabolites-in-human-plasma-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#14
Lysiane Boulet, Patrice Faure, Patrice Flore, Julien Montérémal, Véronique Ducros
Tryptophan (Trp) is an essential amino-acid and the precursor of many biologically active substances such as kynurenine (KYN) and serotonin (5HT). Its metabolism is involved in different physiopathological states, such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, immunomodulation or depression. Hence, the quantification of Trp catabolites, from both KYN and 5HT pathways, might be usefulfor the discovery of novel diagnostic and follow-up biomarkers. We have developed a simple method for quantification of Trp and 8 of its metabolites,involved in both KYN and 5HT pathways, using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414969/cytokines-in-the-management-of-rotavirus-infection-a-systematic-review-of-in-vivo-studies
#15
REVIEW
Gopalsamy Rajiv Gandhi, Victor Santana Santos, Marina Denadai, Valdete Kaliane da Silva Calisto, Jullyana de Souza Siqueira Quintans, Ana Mara de Oliveira E Silva, Adriano Antunes de Souza Araújo, Narendra Narain, Luis Eduardo Cuevas, Lucindo José Quintans Júnior, Ricardo Queiroz Gurgel
OBJECTIVE: Rotavirus is a leading cause of childhood diarrhoea. Rotavirus vaccines are effective against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis, but have lower efficacy in low income countries in Africa. Anti-rotavirus treatment is not available. This study reviews the literature of animal studies evaluating whether cytokine mediated pathways of immune activation could improve rotavirus therapy. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of articles in English published from 2010 to 2016 reporting agents with in vivo antirotavirus activity for the management of rotavirus infection...
April 14, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414726/neem-leaf-glycoprotein-prevents-post-surgical-sarcoma-recurrence-in-swiss-mice-by-differentially-regulating-cytotoxic-t-and-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells
#16
Madhurima Sarkar, Sarbari Ghosh, Avishek Bhuniya, Tithi Ghosh, Ipsita Guha, Subhasis Barik, Jaydip Biswas, Anamika Bose, Rathindranath Baral
Post-surgical tumor recurrence is a common problem in cancer treatment. In the present study, the role of neem leaf glycoprotein (NLGP), a novel immunomodulator, in prevention of post-surgical recurrence of solid sarcoma was examined. Data suggest that NLGP prevents tumor recurrence after surgical removal of sarcoma in Swiss mice and increases their tumor-free survival time. In NLGP-treated tumor-free mice, increased cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and a decreased population of suppressor cells, especially myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) was observed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414560/aloe-arborescens-polysaccharides-in-vitro-immunomodulation-and-potential-cytotoxic-activity
#17
Jilan A Nazeam, Haidy A Gad, Ahmed Esmat, Hala M El-Hefnawy, Abdel-Naser B Singab
Different polysaccharides were isolated from the leaves of Aloe arborescens using the gradient power of hydrogen followed by antitumor and immunomodulatory assay. The total polysaccharide content of different fractions, water-soluble polysaccharide (WAP), acid-soluble polysaccharide (ACP), and alkaline-soluble polysaccharide (ALP), was estimated using a phenol-sulfuric acid spectrophotometric method. WAP possessed a higher content of mannose and glucose than either ACP or ALP. In vitro antitumor activity was investigated in three different cancer cell lines, and in vitro immunomodulatory potential was assessed through phagocytosis and lymphocyte transformation assay...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414083/functional-characterization-of-neotropical-snakes-peripheral-blood-leukocytes-subsets-linking-flow-cytometry-cell-features-microscopy-images-and-serum-corticosterone-levels
#18
Marcelo Pires Nogueira de Carvalho, Nicolle Gilda Teixeira Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Cristina de Oliveira Massoco, Sávio Stefanini Sant'Anna, Mariana Mathias Lourenço, Gabriel Levin, Mari Cleide Sogayar, Kathleen Fernandes Grego, José Luiz Catão-Dias
Reptiles are the unique ectothermic amniotes, providing the key link between ectothermic anamniotes fish and amphibians, and endothermic birds and mammals; becoming an important group to study with the aim of providing significant knowledge into the evolutionary history of vertebrate immunity. Classification systems for reptiles' leukocytes have been described by their appearance rather than function, being still inconsistent. With the advent of modern techniques and the establishment of analytical protocols for snakes' blood by flow cytometry, we bring a qualitative and quantitative assessment of innate activities presented by snakes' peripheral blood leukocytes, thereby linking flow cytometric features with fluorescent and light microscopy images...
April 13, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412994/effects-of-high-fat-diet-on-somatic-growth-metabolic-parameters-and-function-of-peritoneal-macrophages-of-young-rats-submitted-to-a-maternal-low-protein-diet
#19
Maria Cláudia Alheiros-Lira, Gabriela Carvalho Jurema-Santos, Helyson Tomaz da-Silva, Amanda Cabral da-Silva, Sueli Moreno Senna, Wylla Tatiana Ferreira E Silva, José Candido Ferraz, Carol Góis Leandro
This study evaluated the effects of a post-weaning high-fat (HF) diet on somatic growth, food consumption, metabolic parameters, phagocytic rate and nitric oxide (NO) production of peritoneal macrophages in young rats submitted to a maternal low-protein (LP) diet. Male Wistar rats (aged 60 d) were divided in two groups (n 22/each) according to their maternal diet during gestation and lactation: control (C, dams fed 17 % casein) and LP (dams fed 8 % casein). At weaning, half of the groups were fed HF diet and two more groups were formed (HF and low protein-high fat (LP-HF))...
April 17, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412343/structural-characterization-and-immunomodulatory-activity-of-a-novel-polysaccharide-from-pteridium-aquilinum
#20
Guanglei Song, Kuiwu Wang, Hong Zhang, Hongxiang Sun, Bin Wu, Xianyan Ju
PAP1-A, a novel heteropolysaccharide with an average molecular mass of 1.35×10(5)Da, was isolated from Pteridium aquilinum using a combination of chromatography by DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow and Sepharose 4B. The monosaccharide component of PAP1-A was L-rhamnose, L-arabinose, L-fucose, D-xylose, D-mannose, D-glucose and D-galactose in the molar ration of 1.82: 1.53: 1.42: 1.31: 5.24: 1: 12.35. The predicted structure of PAP1-A was established to be a complex polysaccharide with a main chain consisted of α-(1→4)-linked galactose partially substituted at O-6 position, with the (1→2)-linked xylose, (1→3)-linked arabinose, (1→3)-linked rhamnose, (1→3,6)-linked mannose, and (1→6)-linked mannose, as branches...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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