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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716129/current-knowledge-on-feline-injection-site-sarcoma-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Katarzyna Zabielska-Koczywąs, Anna Wojtalewicz, Roman Lechowski
Feline injection-site sarcomas (FISS) are malignant skin tumours of mesenchymal origin, the treatment of which is a challenge for veterinary surgeons. The role of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy in FISS treatment has been studied, and a correlation between "clean" surgical margins and disease-free survival has been shown. In addition, clean surgical margins are one of the most important factors for achieving a low recurrence rate. The most effective method of FISS treatment includes combining radical surgery with pre- or postoperative radiotherapy...
July 17, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713349/the-gut-microbiota-of-healthy-chilean-subjects-reveals-a-high-abundance-of-the-phylum-verrucomicrobia
#2
Sayaka Fujio-Vejar, Yessenia Vasquez, Pamela Morales, Fabien Magne, Patricia Vera-Wolf, Juan A Ugalde, Paola Navarrete, Martin Gotteland
The gut microbiota is currently recognized as an important factor regulating the homeostasis of the gastrointestinal tract and influencing the energetic metabolism of the host as well as its immune and central nervous systems. Determining the gut microbiota composition of healthy subjects is therefore necessary to establish a baseline allowing the detection of microbiota alterations in pathologic conditions. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to characterize the gut microbiota of healthy Chilean subjects using 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711615/water-soluble-polysaccharide-from-erythronium-sibiricum-bulb-structural-characterisation-and-immunomodulating-activity
#3
Rena Kasimu, Chunli Chen, Xiangyun Xie, Xue Li
A water-soluble polysaccharide named ESBP2-1 was isolated from Erythronium sibiricum bulb through anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. ESBP2-1 is a neutral polysaccharide fraction with an average molecular weight of 9.4×10(5)Da and is composed of glucose, galactose and arabinose in a ratio of 24.3:1.1:1. Methylation analysis, partial hydrolysis and NMR studies revealed that the backbone of ESBP2-1 primarily consists of repeating →1)-α-D-Glcp-(4→ units where the disaccharide side chains of Arap-(1→6)-α-D-Galp-(1→ residue are attached to the O-6 position of Glc...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711300/raft-dependent-endocytic-movement-and-intracellular-cluster-formation-during-t%C3%A2-cell-activation-triggered-by-concanavalin-a
#4
Satomi Yabuuchi, Satoshi Endo, KeangOk Baek, Kunihide Hoshino, Yoshio Tsujino, Mun'delanji C Vestergaard, Masahiro Takagi
Certain food ingredients can stimulate the human immune system. A lectin, concanavalin A (ConA), from Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean) is one of the most well-known food-derived immunostimulants and mediates activation of cell-mediated immunity through T cell proliferation. Generally, T cell activation is known to be triggered by the interaction between T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) via a juxtacrine (contact-dependent) signaling pathway. The mechanism has been well characterized and is referred to as formation of the immunological synapse (IS)...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702840/oncolytic-viruses-adenoviruses
#5
REVIEW
Julia Niemann, Florian Kühnel
Tumor-selectively replicating (oncolytic) viruses are promising tools for therapy of solid cancers and have been initially developed to achieve potent tumor lysis with acceptable side effects on healthy tissue. However, in recent years, oncolytic viruses have been recognized as therapeutic vehicles exhibiting multipronged anti-tumoral activity. Apart from direct cytolysis, stimulation of both innate and adaptive tumor-directed immune responses have been recognized as important mechanisms of oncolytic virotherapy, which were probably decisive in achieving the long-term tumor remissions that oncolytic viruses have shown in clinical trials in advanced melanoma...
July 12, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694238/functionalized-bioengineered-spider-silk-spheres-improve-nuclease-resistance-and-activity-of-oligonucleotide-therapeutics-providing-a-strategy-for-cancer-treatment
#6
Anna Karolina Kozlowska, Anna Florczak, Maciej Smialek, Ewelina Dondajewska, Andrzej Mackiewicz, Marcin Kortylewski, Hanna Dams-Kozlowska
Cell-selective delivery and sensitivity to serum nucleases remain major hurdles to the clinical application of RNA-based oligonucleotide therapeutics, such as siRNA. Spider silk shows great potential as a biomaterial due to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. Self-assembling properties of silk proteins allow for processing into several different morphologies such as fibers, scaffolds, films, hydrogels, capsules and spheres. Moreover, bioengineering of spider silk protein sequences can functionalize silk by adding peptide moieties with specific features including binding or cell recognition domains...
July 8, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693110/potential-effects-of-brevetoxins-and-toxic-elements-on-various-health-variables-in-kemp-s-ridley-lepidochelys-kempii-and-green-chelonia-mydas-sea-turtles-after-a-red-tide-bloom-event
#7
Justin R Perrault, Nicole I Stacy, Andreas F Lehner, Cody R Mott, Sarah Hirsch, Jonathan C Gorham, John P Buchweitz, Michael J Bresette, Catherine J Walsh
Natural biotoxins and anthropogenic toxicants pose a significant risk to sea turtle health. Documented effects of contaminants include potential disease progression and adverse impacts on development, immune function, and survival in these imperiled species. The shallow seagrass habitats of Florida's northwest coast (Big Bend) serve as an important developmental habitat for Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii) and green (Chelonia mydas) sea turtles; however, few studies have been conducted in this area. Our objectives were (1) to evaluate plasma analytes (mass, minimum straight carapace length, body condition index [BCI], fibropapilloma tumor score, lysozyme, superoxide dismutase, reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, plasma protein electrophoresis, cholesterol, and total solids) in Kemp's ridleys and green turtles and their correlation to brevetoxins that were released from a red tide bloom event from July-October 2014 in the Gulf of Mexico near Florida's Big Bend, and (2) to analyze red blood cells in Kemp's ridleys and green turtles for toxic elements (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, selenium, thallium) with correlation to the measured plasma analytes...
July 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688785/a-single-dose-of-the-novel-chimeric-subunit-vaccine-e2-cd154-confers-early-full-protection-against-classical-swine-fever-virus
#8
Marisela Suárez, Yusmel Sordo, Yanet Prieto, María P Rodríguez, Lídice Méndez, Elsa M Rodríguez, Alina Rodríguez-Mallon, Elianet Lorenzo, Elaine Santana, Nemecio González, Paula Naranjo, María Teresa Frías, Yamila Carpio, Mario Pablo Estrada
Classical swine fever is an economically important, highly contagious disease of swine worldwide. Subunit vaccines are a suitable alternative for the control of classical swine fever. However, such vaccines have as the main drawback the relatively long period of time required to induce a protective response, which hampers their use under outbreak conditions. In this work, a lentivirus-based gene delivery system is used to obtain a stable recombinant HEK 293 cell line for the expression of E2-CSFV antigen fused to porcine CD154 as immunostimulant molecule...
July 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666865/different-%C3%AE-glucans-improve-the-growth-performance-and-bacterial-resistance-in-nile-tilapia
#9
Fabiana Pilarski, Carlos Alberto Ferreira de Oliveira, Fernanda Patrícia Brito Darpossolo de Souza, Fábio Sabbadin Zanuzzo
The role of glucan as a biologically active immunomodulator has been well documented for more than 40 years. However, the wide diversity of β-glucan forms and the extraction process has implications for the benefits of these compounds. Biorigin developed two samples of β-glucans using different biotechnological processes. Thus, in the present study, we fed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) diets containing these two β-glucan molecules (BG01 and BG02) for 30 days prior to bacterial infection with Streptococcus agalactiae...
June 27, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657707/identification-of-biologically-active-pyrimido-5-4-b-indoles-that-prolong-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-without-intrinsic-activity
#10
Michael Chan, Alast Ahmadi, Shiyin Yao, Fumi Sato-Kaneko, Karen Messer, Minya Pu, Brandon Nguyen, Tomoko Hayashi, Maripat Corr, Dennis A Carson, Howard B Cottam, Nikunj M Shukla
Most vaccine adjuvants directly stimulate and activate antigen presenting cells but do not sustain immunostimulation of these cells. A high throughput screening (HTS) strategy was designed to identify compounds that would sustain NF-κB activation by a stimulus from the Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 ligand, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Several pilot studies optimized the parameters and conditions for a cell based NF-κB reporter assay in human monocytic THP-1 cells. The final assay evaluated prolongation of LPS induced NF-κB activation at 12 h...
July 13, 2017: ACS Combinatorial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652560/zymosan-a-enhances-humoral-immune-responses-to-soluble-protein-in-chickens
#11
Mohamed Fahmy Abou Elazab, Yoshiaki Inoue, Hisakazu Kamei, Hiroyuki Horiuchi, Shuichi Furusawa
Vaccination is the most effective method for controlling the infectious diseases that threaten the poultry industry worldwide. The use of adjuvants or immunostimulants is often necessary to improve vaccine efficacy, particularly for vaccines based on recombinant protein or inactivated pathogens. The adjuvant effects of zymosan A on antigen-specific antibody production were investigated in chickens. First, the optimal adjuvant dose of zymosan A was determined. Chicks were immunized with dinitrophenyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (DNP-KLH) at a dosage of 2 mg/kg body weight (BW) with or without zymosan A (at a dosage of 0...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643227/preparation-and-characterization-of-alginate-microparticles-containing-a-model-protein-for-oral-administration-in-gnotobiotic-european-sea-bass-dicentrarchus-labrax-larvae
#12
Eamy Nursaliza Yaacob, Jens Goethals, Aline Bajek, Kristof Dierckens, Peter Bossier, Bruno G De Geest, Daisy Vanrompay
Aquaculture is the fastest growing animal production sector. However, the production of marine fish is still hampered by the high mortality rate in the first few weeks after hatching. Mortality in larvae is often caused by microbial infections. Today, the incorporation of immunostimulants into microparticles provides us new tools to enhance disease resistance in marine larviculture. In this study, we prepared alginate microparticles loaded with the model antigen fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated-bovine serum albumin...
June 22, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633071/structural-characterization-of-the-immunostimulatory-exopolysaccharide-produced-by-leuconostoc-mesenteroides-strain-ntm048
#13
Chiaki Matsuzaki, Chikahiro Takagaki, Yusuke Tomabechi, Lennart S Forsberg, Christian Heiss, Parastoo Azadi, Kenji Matsumoto, Toshihiko Katoh, Koji Hosomi, Jun Kunisawa, Kenji Yamamoto, Keiko Hisa
The exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by probiotic Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides strain NTM048 has been reported to be an immunostimulant that enhances mucosal IgA production. In this study, we found that intranasal administration of mice with the EPS and an antigen (ovalbumin) resulted in secretion of antigen-specific IgA and IgG in the airway mucosa and the serum, suggesting that the EPS has the adjuvant activity for use with mucosal vaccination. Methylation analysis coupled to GC-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy revealed that 94% of the EPS consists of an α-(1 → 6) glucan containing 4% of 1→3-linked α-glucose branches...
June 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626526/efficient-divergent-synthesis-of-new-immunostimulant-4%C3%A2-modified-%C3%AE-galactosylceramide-analogues
#14
Jonas Janssens, Tine Decruy, Koen Venken, Toshiyuki Seki, Simon Krols, Johan Van der Eycken, Moriya Tsuji, Dirk Elewaut, Serge Van Calenbergh
A synthesis strategy for the swift generation of 4″-modified α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) analogues is described, establishing a chemical platform to comprehensively investigate the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of this understudied glycolipid part. The strategy relies on a late-stage reductive ring-opening of a p-methoxybenzylidene (PMP) acetal to regioselectively liberate the 4″-OH position. The expediency of this methodology is demonstrated by the synthesis of a small yet diverse set of analogues, which were tested for their ability to stimulate invariant natural killer T-cells (iNKT) in vitro and in vivo...
June 8, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625840/survival-of-litopenaeus-vannamei-shrimp-fed-on-diets-supplemented-with-dunaliella-sp-is-improved-after-challenges-by-vibrio-parahaemolyticus
#15
Diana Medina Félix, José Antonio López Elías, Ángel Isidro Campa Córdova, Luis Rafael Martínez Córdova, Antonio Luna González, Edilmar Cortes Jacinto, Nolberta Huerta Aldaz, Fernando Cano Mendoza, María Guadalupe Burboa Zazueta
Survival of Litopenaeus vannamei was evaluated during a Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection. This bacteria has been causing significant economic losses in the shrimp industry due to the appearance of early mortality syndrome (EMS), also known as acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND). Control of bacteria in ponds is difficult to achieve with antibiotics due to environmental infections and antibiotic resistance. New methods have been proposed to control and prevent the impact of bacterial infections. The physiological response indicated by plasma biochemical parameters in shrimp can determine their health and stress status...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624194/sustained-inhibition-of-hbv-replication-in%C3%A2-vivo-after-systemic-injection-of-aavs-encoding-artificial-antiviral-primary-micrornas
#16
Mohube Betty Maepa, Abdullah Ely, Wayne Grayson, Patrick Arbuthnot
Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a problem of global significance and improving available treatment is important to prevent life-threatening complications arising in persistently infected individuals. HBV is susceptible to silencing by exogenous artificial intermediates of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. However, toxicity of Pol III cassettes and short duration of silencing by effectors of the RNAi pathway may limit anti-HBV therapeutic utility. To advance RNAi-based HBV gene silencing, mono- and trimeric artificial primary microRNAs (pri-miRs) derived from pri-miR-31 were placed under control of the liver-specific modified murine transthyretin promoter...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618135/self-assembled-nano-immunostimulant-for-synergistic-immune-activation
#17
Zhan-Yi Sun, Pu-Guang Chen, Yan-Fang Liu, Lei Shi, Bo-Dou Zhang, Jun-Jun Wu, Yu-Fen Zhao, Yong-Xiang Chen, Yan-Mei Li
Immunotherapy has become one of the most promising therapies for the treatment of diseases. Chemical molecule immunostimulants and nanomaterial immunostimulant systems are indispensable for the activation of the immune system in cancer immunotherapy. Here we report a strategy of self-assembled nano-immunostimulant (SANI) for synergistic immune activation. Three immunostimulants self-assembled into nanoparticles through electrostatic interactions. SANI showed strong synergistic immunostimulation in macrophages...
June 15, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615127/effect-of-feeding-lipopolysaccharide-as-an-immunostimulant-on-immune-response-and-immune-gene-expression-of-labeo-bata
#18
Lopamudra Sahoo, Janmejay Parhi, Chandan Debnath, Kurcheti Pani Prasad
This study investigates the effects of dietary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as an immunostimulant on hematology, innate immunity, immune gene expression and protection against Edwardsiella tarda on Labeo bata. A basal diet supplemented with 0, 50, 100 and 150mg LPS kg(-1)diet was fed to the four different groups for 30days. The haematological (total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, total serum protein, albumin and globulin), innate immune parameters (respiratory burst, serum lysozyme, myeloperoxidase and serum bactericidal activity), immune gene expression (C3, β-2 microglobulin, lysozyme g, transferrin, IFN-1, IFN-γ) were monitored at 7th, 15th, 30th day and one day post challenge (DPC) with E...
June 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612729/-influenza-and-secondary-bacterial-infections-threats-and-treatments
#19
Antoine Roquilly, François Trottein
Influenza virus infection ("flu") constitutes an important public health issue and is associated with a significant socio-economic burden. The discovery of new antivirals and a better understanding of antiviral immunity might offer new options for preventing or controlling flu infections. A better understanding of the underlying pathomechanism might also prompt the discovery of key molecules whose activity could be modulated in a clinical setting. Lastly, the development of new immunomodulators and immunostimulants might compensate for impaired host defense mechanisms and improve resistance to secondary bacterial infections, since the latter significantly worsen the clinical status of influenza-infected patients...
May 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606014/tlr2-stimulating-contaminants-in-glycoconjugate-fractions-prepared-from-bacteroides-fragilis
#20
Masahito Hashimoto, Junpei Waki, Haruyuki Nakayama-Imaohji, Mami Ozono, Shuhei Hashiguchi, Tomomi Kuwahara
Bacteroides fragilis is a member of the normal intestinal flora and is involved in host immunostimulation via TLR2. On the bacterial cell surface, glycoconjugates, such as LPS and capsular polysaccharide A (PSA), have been reported to participate in host immunostimulation via TLR2. Previously, we identified a TLR2-stimulating lipoprotein in B. fragilis cells. In this study, we demonstrated that TLR2-stimulating principal molecules in glycoconjugate fractions prepared from B. fragilis are contaminating proteinous molecules, which may also be lipoproteins...
January 1, 2017: Innate Immunity
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