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Immunostimulant

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089932/selenizing-hericium-erinaceus-polysaccharides-induces-dendritic-cells-maturation-through-mapk-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways
#1
Tao Qin, Zhe Ren, Yifan Huang, Yulong Song, Dandan Lin, Jian Li, Yufang Ma, Xiuqin Wu, Fuan Qiu, Qi Xiao
In this study, polysaccharides extracted from Hericium erinaceus were modified to obtain its nine selenium derivatives, sHEP1-sHEP9. Their structures were identified, yields and selenium contents were determined, the phenotypic and functional maturation of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and relevant mechanisms were compared taking unmodified HEP as control. The results revealed that the selenylation were successful. sHEP1, sHEP2 and sHEP8 treatment of DCs increased their surface expression of MHC-II and CD86 and indicated that sHEP1, sHEP2 and sHEP8 induced DC maturation...
January 12, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077441/predicting-ifn-%C3%AE-responses-after-bcg-vaccination-in-humans-from-macaques-a-proof-of-concept-study-of-immunostimulation-immunodynamic-modelling-methods
#2
Sophie J Rhodes, Charlotte Sarfas, Gwenan M Knight, Andrew White, Ansar A Pathan, Helen McShane, Thomas G Evans, Helen Fletcher, Sally Sharpe, Richard G White
INTRODUCTION: Macaques play a central role in human tuberculosis(TB) vaccine development. Immune and challenge responses differ across macaque and human subpopulations. We determined which macaque subpopulations best predicted immune responses in different human subpopulations, using novel immunostimulation/immunodynamic modelling methods in a proof of concept study. METHODS: Data on IFN-γ secreting CD4+ T cells over time after recent BCG vaccination were available for 55 humans and 81 macaques...
January 11, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049494/adjuvant-effects-of-a-sequence-engineered-mrna-vaccine-translational-profiling-demonstrates-similar-human-and-murine-innate-response
#3
Darin K Edwards, Edith Jasny, Heesik Yoon, Nigel Horscroft, Brian Schanen, Tanya Geter, Mariola Fotin-Mleczek, Benjamin Petsch, Vaughan Wittman
BACKGROUND: Prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines often depend upon a strong activation of the innate immune system to drive a potent adaptive immune response, often mediated by a strong adjuvant. For a number of adjuvants immunological readouts may not be consistent across species. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the innate immunostimulatory potential of mRNA vaccines in both humans and mice, using a novel mRNA-based vaccine encoding influenza A hemagglutinin of the pandemic strain H1N1pdm09 as a model...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043850/allergies-in-orthopaedic-and-trauma-surgery
#4
REVIEW
C H Lohmann, R Hameister, G Singh
Hypersensitivity reactions to implants in orthopaedic and trauma surgery are a rare but devastating complication. They are considered as a delayed-type of hypersensitivity reaction (type IV), characterized by an antigen activation of sensitized T-lymphocytes releasing various cytokines and may result in osteoclast activation and bone resorption. Potential haptens are originated from metal alloys or bone-cement. A meta-analysis has confirmed a higher probability of developing a metal hypersensitivity postoperatively and noted a greater risk of failed replacements compared to stable implants...
December 30, 2016: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032948/effect-of-peg-architecture-on-the-hybridization-thermodynamics-and-protein-accessibility-of-pegylated-oligonucleotides
#5
Fei Jia, Xueguang Lu, Xuyu Tan, Dali Wang, Xueyan Cao, Ke Zhang
PEGylation is an attractive approach to modifying oligonucleotides intended for therapeutic purposes. PEG conjugation reduces protein interactions with the oligonucleotide, and helps to overcome their intrinsic biopharmaceutical shortcomings, such as poor enzymatic stability, rapid body clearance, and unwanted immunostimulation. However, the effect of PEG architecture and the manner in which the PEG component interferes with the hybridization of the oligonucleotide remain poorly understood. In this study, we systematically compare the hybridization thermodynamics and protein accessibility of several DNA conjugates involving linear, Y-shaped, and brush-type PEG...
December 29, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017536/toxicological-potential-of-acyl-glucuronides-and-its-assessment
#6
REVIEW
Atsushi Iwamura, Miki Nakajima, Shingo Oda, Tsuyoshi Yokoi
Idiosyncratic drug toxicity (IDT) is a serious problem in drug development. Reactive metabolites are postulated to be one of the causes for IDT. Conjugated metabolites are generally non-reactive except for acyl glucuronides (AGs), which are sufficiently reactive to covalently bind to endogenous proteins. Thus, it has been suggested that AGs would contribute to IDT caused by carboxylic acid-containing drugs. Glucuronidation of a carboxylate residue is catalyzed by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A and 2B isoforms...
November 23, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013001/mitochondrial-functions-of-thp-1-monocytes-following-the-exposure-to-selected-natural-compounds
#7
Nadin Schultze, Heike Wanka, Paula Zwicker, Ulrike Lindequist, Beate Haertel
The immune system is an important target of various xenobiotics, which may lead to severe adverse effects including immunosuppression or inappropriate immunostimulation. Mitochondrial toxicity is one possibility by which xenobiotics exert their toxic effects in cells or organs. In this study, we investigated the impact of three natural compounds, cyclosporine A (CsA), deoxynivalenol (DON) and cannabidiol (CBD) on mitochondrial functions in the THP-1 monocytic cell line. The cells were exposed for 24h to two different concentrations (IC10 and IC50 determined by MTT) of each compound...
December 21, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009461/multistaged-nanovaccines-based-on-porous-silicon-acetalated-dextran-cancer-cell-membrane-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#8
Flavia Fontana, Mohammad-Ali Shahbazi, Dongfei Liu, Hongbo Zhang, Ermei Mäkilä, Jarno Salonen, Jouni T Hirvonen, Hélder A Santos
Immunoadjuvant porous silicon (PSi)-based nanovaccines are prepared by nanoprecipitation in a glass capillary microfluidics device. Vesicles, derived from cancer cell membranes encapsulating thermally oxidized PSi nanoparticles or PSi-polymer nanosystems binding a model antigen, are biocompatible over a wide range of concentrations, and show immunostimulant properties in human cells, promoting the expression of co-stimulatory signals and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
December 23, 2016: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004420/the-lipid%C3%A2-a-from-rhodopseudomonas-palustris-strain-bisa53-lps-possesses-a-unique-structure-and-low-immunostimulant-properties
#9
Flaviana Di Lorenzo, Angelo Palmigiano, Sami Al Bitar-Nehme, Luisa Sturiale, Katarzyna A Duda, Djamel Gully, Rosa Lanzetta, Eric Giraud, Domenico Garozzo, Maria Lina Bernardini, Antonio Molinaro, Alba Silipo
The search for novel lipid A analogues from any biological source that can act as antagonists, displaying inhibitory activity towards the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, or as immunomodulators in mammals, is a very topical issue. To this aim, the structure and immunological properties of the lipopolysaccharide lipid A from the purple nonsulfur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain BisA53 have been determined. This lipid A displays a unique structural feature, with a non-phosphorylated skeleton made up of the tetrasaccharide Manp-α-(1→4)-GlcpN3N-β-1→6-GlcpN3N-α-(1→1)-α-GalpA, and four primary amide-linked 14:0(3-OH) and, as secondary O-acyl substituents, a 16:0 and the very long-chain fatty acid 26:0(25-OAc), appended on the GlcpN3N units...
December 22, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987993/structural-elucidation-and-immunostimulatory-activity-of-polysaccharide-isolated-by-subcritical-water-extraction-from-cordyceps-militaris
#10
Xiaoping Luo, Yuqing Duan, Wenya Yang, Haihui Zhang, Changzheng Li, Jixian Zhang
Water-soluble polysaccharides were obtained from Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) (CMP) by subcritical water extraction (SWE). Two polysaccharides fractions, CMP-W1 and CMP-S1, were isolated from CMP using DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-150 column chromatography. The structural characteristics of CMP-W1 and CMP-S1 were investigated. The results showed that the molecular weight of CMP-W1 and CMP-S1 are 3.66×105Da and 4.60×105Da, respectively, and both of them were heteropolysaccharides composed of d-mannose, d-glucose, d-galactose with the molar ratios of 2...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987929/structure-elucidation-of-an-immunostimulatory-arabinoxylan-type-polysaccharide-prepared-from-young-barley-leaves-hordeum-vulgare-l
#11
Hoon Kim, Hee-Do Hong, Kwang-Soon Shin
We recently isolated an immunostimulating polysaccharide (BLE-P-I), which possesses a large proportion of arabinoxylan, from young barley leaves. In the present study, to elucidate the structural details of BLE-P-I, it was fractionated into enzyme-resistant fraction (BLE-P-I-X1) and arabinoxylan-rich oligosaccharide fraction (BLE-P-I-X2) after endo-xylanase hydrolysis. Commercial wheat arabinoxylan was also fractionated into WAX-XI and WAX-X2 after the same treatment. BLE-P-I-X2 consisted of arabinose and xylose, including 11 types of neutral glycosidic linkages, whereas WAX-X2 had less, with 6 types of linkages...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987880/structural-elucidation-and-immunostimulating-property-of-a-novel-polysaccharide-extracted-from-an-edible-mushroom-lentinus-fusipes
#12
Dilip K Manna, Prasenjit Maity, Ashis K Nandi, Manabendra Pattanayak, Bibhash C Panda, Amit K Mandal, Satyajit Tripathy, Krishnendu Acharya, Atish K Sahoo, Nibha Gupta, Somnath Roy, Syed S Islam
A water soluble heteroglycan (PS-II) with an average molecular weight∼60kDa was isolated from the hot aqueous extract of an edible mushroom Lentinus fusipes. The structural characterization of PS-II was carried out using total acid hydrolysis, methylation analyses, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation and 1D/2D NMR experiments. Total acid hydrolysis indicated the presence of D-galactose and D-glucose in a molar ratio of approximately 1:1. The chemical and NMR analyses revealed that the proposed repeating unit of the PS-II had a backbone chain consisting of three (1→6)-linked α-d-galactopyranosyl residue and two (1→6)-linked β-d-glucopyranosyl residues, one of the β-d-glucopyranosyl residue was branched at O-3 position with a terminal β-d-glucopyranosyl...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987189/immunomodulatory-properties-of-filamentous-fungi-cultivated-through-solid-state-fermentation-on-rapeseed-meal
#13
Stéphanie Sutter, France Thevenieau, Anne Bourdillon, Joëlle De Coninck
Water extracts from solid-state fermentation (SSF) on rapeseed meal using filamentous fungi exhibit interesting immunomodulatory activities in vitro. Immunomodulation was determined by the capacity of the compounds to activate blood neutrophils and to influence cytokine production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM). Among the strains tested, Aspergillus sojae mycelium and SSF extracts were the most promising in terms of enhancing the immune response...
December 16, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987148/generation-of-immunostimulating-130-nm-protamine-rna-nanoparticles
#14
Marina Tusup, Steve Pascolo
Nanoparticles of defined size can be easily obtained by simply mixing Protamine, a pharmaceutical drug that is used to neutralize heparin after surgery, and RNA in the form of oligonucleotides or messenger RNA. Depending on the concentrations of the two reagents and their salt contents, homogenous nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 50 to more than 1000 nm can spontaneously be generated. RNA is a danger signal because it is an agonist of for example TLR-3, -7, and -8; therefore, Protamine-RNA nanoparticles are immunostimulating...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980779/distinct-immunological-activation-profiles-of-dslim%C3%A2-and-promune%C3%A2-depend-on-their-different-structural-context
#15
Kerstin Kapp, Jacqueline Schneider, Lisa Schneider, Nadine Gollinge, Stefanie Jänsch, Matthias Schroff, Burghardt Wittig, Christiane Kleuss
INTRODUCTION: DNA-based TLR9 agonists are potent activators of the immune system. ProMune® and dSLIM® belong to different families of TLR9 agonists and both have been established as cancer immunotherapeutics in clinical proof-of-concept studies. Unfortunately, ProMune® failed in pivotal oncological trials. dSLIM®, the active ingredient of Lefitolimod (MGN1703), successfully finished a double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase II study in patients with advanced colorectal cancer, exhibiting improved progression-free survival and durable disease control...
December 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956190/nacl-strongly-modifies-the-physicochemical-properties-of-aluminum-hydroxide-vaccine-adjuvants
#16
Jean-François Art, Aurélien Vander Straeten, Christine C Dupont-Gillain
The immunostimulation capacity of most vaccines is enhanced through antigen adsorption on aluminum hydroxide (AH) adjuvants. Varying the adsorption conditions, i.e. pH and ionic strength (I), changes the antigen adsorbed amount and therefore the ability of the vaccine to stimulate the immune system. Vaccine formulations are thus resulting from an empirical screening of the adsorption conditions. This work aims at studying the physicochemical effects of adjusting the ionic strength of commercial AH adjuvant particles suspensions with sodium chloride (NaCl)...
December 9, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941940/kefir-peptides-prevent-high-fructose-corn-syrup-induced-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-a-murine-model-by-modulation-of-inflammation-and-the-jak2-signaling-pathway
#17
H L Chen, T C Tsai, Y C Tsai, J W Liao, C C Yen, C M Chen
OBJECTIVE: In recent years, people have changed their eating habits, and high-fructose-containing bubble tea has become very popular. High-fructose intake has been suggested to be a key factor that induces non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Kefir, a fermented milk product composed of microbial symbionts, has demonstrated numerous biological activities, including antibacterial, antioxidant and immunostimulating effects. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of kefir peptides on high-fructose-induced hepatic steatosis and the possible molecular mechanism...
December 12, 2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935986/quantifying-adaptive-and-innate-immune-responses-in-hiv-infected-participants-using-a-novel-high-throughput-assay
#18
Michelle K Yong, Paul U Cameron, Tim Spelman, Julian H Elliott, Christopher K Fairley, Jeffrey Boyle, Misato Miyamasu, Sharon R Lewin
OBJECTIVES: HIV infection is characterised by persistent immune dysfunction of both the adaptive and innate immune responses. The aim of this study was to evaluate these responses using a novel high throughput assay in healthy controls and HIV-infected individuals prior to and following anti-retroviral treatment (ART). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Whole blood was assessed using the QuantiFERON Monitor® (QFM) assay containing adaptive and innate immunostimulants...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932249/toxicologic-effects-of-28-day-dietary-exposure-to-the-flame-retardant-1-2-dibromo-4-1-2-dibromoethyl-cyclohexane-tbech-in-f344-rats
#19
Ivan H A Curran, Virginia Liston, Andrée Nunnikhoven, Don Caldwell, Matthew J S Scuby, Peter Pantazopoulos, Dorothea F K Rawn, Laurie Coady, Cheryl Armstrong, David E Lefebvre, Genevieve S Bondy
The brominated flame retardant TBECH is used as an additive to delay ignition and inhibit fires in construction materials and consumer goods. Trends in human exposure are not clear, although humans may be exposed to TBECH via indoor dust and air. In birds and fish there is some evidence of disruption in endocrine and reproductive parameters due to TBECH. In vitro studies indicate that TBECH is an androgen receptor agonist. In this study rats were exposed to 0, 10, 50, 250, 1250 or 5000mg/kg technical TBECH for 28days in diet, corresponding to 0, 0...
December 5, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929534/extracellular-histones-cell-free-dna-or-nucleosomes-differences-in-immunostimulation
#20
REVIEW
Gerben Marsman, Sacha Zeerleder, Brenda M Luken
In inflammation, extensive cell death may occur, which results in the release of chromatin components into the extracellular environment. Individually, the purified chromatin components double stranded (ds)DNA and histones have been demonstrated, both in vitro and in vivo, to display various immunostimulatory effects, for example, histones induce cytotoxicity and proinflammatory signaling through toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and 4, while DNA induces signaling through TLR9 and intracellular nucleic acid sensing mechanisms...
December 8, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
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