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Birgit Weinberger
Immunosenescence contributes to increased incidence and severity of many infections in old age and is responsible for impaired immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines. Adjuvants are one strategy to enhance immunogenicity of vaccines. The oil-in-water emulsions MF59TM and AS03, as well as a virosomal vaccine have been licensed in seasonal or pandemic influenza vaccines and are/were used successfully in the elderly. AS01, a liposome-based adjuvant comprising two immunostimulants has recently been approved in a recombinant protein vaccine for older adults, which showed very high efficacy against herpes zoster in clinical trials...
April 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Giuseppe Colucci, Roberta D'Ambrosio, Enrico Galmozzi, Marco Maggioni, Stella De Nicola, Alessio Aghemo, Massimo Colombo
Total or partial inactivation of the chemokine 5 (CC5) pathway, as caused by the CC5 receptor Δ32 deletion (CCR5Δ32), may result in a profound manipulation of immune surveillance with significant consequences on the course and response to therapy of diverse human infections, including HIV. It has been postulated that in chronic hepatitis C (CHC), such a deregulation of CC5 pathway may compromise T cell-dependent antiviral immune responses, which in turn may favor viral persistence. To test this hypothesis, we investigated a cohort of 100 patients with CHC in whom 12 heterozygous and 1 homozygous CCR5Δ32 mutations were detected compared to 8 and none in 98 healthy controls (13% vs...
April 17, 2018: Viral Immunology
Patai Charoonnart, Saul Purton, Vanvimon Saksmerprome
Aquaculture industries, and in particular the farming of fish and crustaceans, are major contributors to the economy of many countries and an increasingly important component in global food supply. However, the severe impact of aquatic microbial diseases on production performance remains a challenge to these industries. This article considers the potential applications of microalgal technology in the control of such diseases. At the simplest level, microalgae offer health-promoting benefits as a nutritional supplement in feed meal because of their digestibility and high content of proteins, lipids and essential nutrients...
April 12, 2018: Biology
Rosa López Mongil, José Antonio López Trigo, Alberto Mariano Lázaro, Gloria Mato Chaín, Primitivo Ramos Cordero, Luis Salleras Sanmartí
Flu is a major public health problem, particularly for older people, and creates an important clinical and economic burden. A high mortality rate was reported in Spain during the period 2015 to 2016; 3,101 serious cases were hospitalised with a confirmed diagnosis of flu, of which 11% died (352 cases). Furthermore, financial and health costs are greatly increased by the complications of flu; people aged over 65 years represent approximately 64% of the total costs. Seasonal flu vaccination is the fundamental strategy, as demonstrated by cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness studies...
November 2017: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
Yawei Li, Wensen Liu, Chengbiao Sun, Min Zheng, Jianxu Zhang, Bin Liu, Yan Wang, Zhigang Xie, Na Xu
Although Ricin toxin binding subunit B (RTB) can promote the activation of macrophages and modulate the cell-mediated immunity, its applications are severely limited due to the intrinsic properties of proteins, like poor stability and low efficacy of cellular uptake. In this work, the stable nanoparticles were prepared by supramolecular assembling of carbon dots (CDs) and RTB. The formed CDs-RTB possesses robust stability and can protect RTB against enzymatic hydrolysis. More importantly, CDs-RTB can promote macrophages proliferation, improve the generation of NO, IL-6 and TNF-α in RAW264...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
T Finazzi, T Rordorf, K Ikenberg, G F Huber, M Guckenberger, H I Garcia Schueler
BACKGROUND: Treatment of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a challenging clinical problem. We report the case of a 46 year old male showing excellent response and signs of immunostimulation following re-re-irradiation for recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma under systemic treatment with pembrolizumab. CASE PRESENTATION: Patient was first diagnosed with locoregionally advanced, non-keratinizing nasopharyngeal carcinoma in 2010. After achieving complete remission following induction chemotherapy and concurrent curative chemoradiation, the patient subsequently developed distant and locoregionally recurrent disease...
April 6, 2018: BMC Cancer
Edyta Wąsowska, Kamila Puppel
BACKGROUND: Recent data indicate that almost 60 percent of colostrum samples do not have enough antibodies to provide adequate protection for the calf. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the influence of the level of production of cows on the content of immunostimulating components of protein fraction of colostrum. The observations were conducted on 2 farms that keep dairy cows. One of the farms was selected to represent typical performance level for the mass population of dairy cows in Poland, about 5500 kg of milk per cow per year (LI) and the second one was characterized by a higher level of production, about 8000 kg (HI)...
March 31, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Taku Maeda, Toshihiko Hayashi, Hiroshi Furukawa, Daisuke Iwasaki, Kosuke Ishikawa, Emi Funayama, Naoki Murao, Masayuki Osawa, Akihiko Oyama, Yuhei Yamamoto
Lymph node (LN) transplantation is a recognized method for reconstruction of the lymphatic system and is used in the clinical setting to treat lymphedema. However, it is unclear whether transplanted LNs contribute to immune surveillance. In this study, we investigated whether a single transplanted non-vascularized LN, defined as a tumor-draining transplanted lymph node (TDTLN), could exert an immune-mediated antitumor effect. LN and lung metastases and primary tumor enlargement were evaluated in mice that were inoculated with B16-F10-luc2 melanoma cells in a hindlimb footpad without (group 1) and with (group 2) popliteal lymph node (PLN) resection and in mice that underwent LN transplantation after PLN resection (group 3)...
March 31, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Bindhu Jayaprakash, Arunava Das
Traditional plant medicines are used for a range of cancer conditions. The chickpea is highly proteinaceous and consumed as a staple in many parts of the world. An evaluation of chemoprotective and immunomodulatory activities of Cicer arietinum (CE) in cisplatin-induced immunosuppressed mice was here performed. Cisplatin was given at 100mg/kg, intraperitoneally, and after induction of immunosuppression mice were treated with Cicer arietinum (0.5 mg/dose/animal/IP) for a period of 10-day. The influence of the extract on lymphoid organ weight, bone marrow cellularity, alpha esterase activity and on enzyme levels such as (SGOT,SGPT, Urea, Creatinine was assessed to identify any chemoprotective influence...
March 27, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Needa A Virani, Elangovan Thavathiru, Patrick McKernan, Kathleen Moore, Doris M Benbrook, Roger G Harrison
Approximately 75% of ovarian cancer is diagnosed once metastasis to the peritoneal cavity has occurred. A large proportion of patients eventually develop platinum-resistive tumors, which are considered terminal. In order to provide an alternative a novel fusion protein, mCTH-ANXA5, has been developed for the treatment of recurrent, metastatic ovarian cancer. The fusion protein combines annexin V (ANXA5), an ovarian tumor and tumor vasculature targeting protein, with mutated cystathionine gamma-lyase (mCTH), an enzyme that converts selenomethionine (SeMet) into toxic methylselenol, which generates reactive oxygen species and eventual tumor cell death...
March 21, 2018: Cancer Letters
María L Breser, Verónica Felipe, Luciana P Bohl, María S Orellano, Paula Isaac, Agustín Conesa, Virginia E Rivero, Silvia G Correa, Ismael D Bianco, Carina Porporatto
Bovine mastitis affects the health of dairy cows and the profitability of herds worldwide. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most frequently isolated pathogens in bovine intramammary infection. Based on the wide range of antimicrobial, mucoadhesive and immunostimulant properties demonstrated by chitosan, we have evaluated therapy efficiency of chitosan incorporation to cloxacillin antibiotic as well as its effect against different bacterial lifestyles of seven CNS isolates from chronic intramammary infections...
March 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mehdi Tabarsa, SangGuan You, Elham Hashem Dabaghian, Utoomporn Surayot
Water-soluble sulfated polysaccharides extracted from Ulva intestinalis and fractionated using DEAE Sepharose fast flow column to identify their molecular properties and macrophage cells stimulating activities. Crude and fractions (F1 and F2 ) were formed of neutral sugars (58.7-74.7%), sulfates (6.2-24.5%), uronic acids (4.9-5.9%) and proteins (3.2-10.4%). Different levels of sugar constituents including rhamnose (30.1-39.1%), glucose (39.0-48.4%), galactose (0.0-15.8%), xylose (8.5-11.3) and arabinose (0...
April 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Carlos Angulo, Erika Alamillo, Ikuo Hirono, Hidehiro Kondo, Walissara Jirapongpairoj, Juan Carlos Perez-Urbiola, Martha Reyes-Becerril
The purpose of this study was to characterize the TLR9 gene from yellowtail (Seriola lalandi) and evaluate its functional activity using the class B Cytosine-phosphate-guanine-oligodeoxynucleotide2006 (CpG-ODN2006) in an in vivo experiment after one-week immunostimulation. The gene expressions of TLR9, Immunoglobulin M (IgM), antimicrobial peptides and cytokines were evaluated by real time PCR, and humoral immune parameters were analyzed in serum. The TLR9 nucleotide sequence from yellowtail was obtained using the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method and bioinformatics tools...
March 19, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Nazmul Haque, Ryota Ouda, Chao Chen, Keiko Ozato, J Robert Hogg
Control of type I interferon production is crucial to combat infection while preventing deleterious inflammatory responses, but the extent of the contribution of post-transcriptional mechanisms to innate immune regulation is unclear. Here, we show that human zinc finger RNA-binding protein (ZFR) represses the interferon response by regulating alternative pre-mRNA splicing. ZFR expression is tightly controlled during macrophage development; monocytes express truncated ZFR isoforms, while macrophages induce full-length ZFR to modulate macrophage-specific alternative splicing...
March 20, 2018: Nature Communications
Anthony J Burt, Joseph D Hantho, Amy E Nielsen, Rock J Mancini
Drug efflux and enzymatic drug degradation are two cellular mechanisms that contribute to drug resistance in many cancers. Herein, we report the synthesis and in vitro activity of a pro-immunostimulant that exploits both processes in tandem to selectively confer cancer-mediated immunogenicity. We demonstrate that an imidazoquinoline pro-immunostimulant is inactive until it is selectively metabolized to active immunostimulant by endogenous α-mannosidase enzyme expressed within multidrug-resistant cancer cells...
March 19, 2018: Biochemistry
Neill J Liptrott, Marco Giardiello, Tom O McDonald, Steve P Rannard, Andrew Owen
BACKGROUND: Recent work has developed solid drug nanoparticles (SDNs) of efavirenz that have been demonstrated, preclinically, improved oral bioavailability and the potential to enable up to a 50% dose reduction, and is currently being studied in a healthy volunteer clinical trial. Other SDN formulations are being studied for parenteral administration, either as intramuscular long-acting formulations, or for direct administration intravenously. The interaction of nanoparticles with the immunological and haematological systems can be a major barrier to successful translation but has been understudied for SDN formulations...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Xingxing Yu, Lingling Xu, Yingjun Chang, Xiaojun Huang, Xiangyu Zhao
The balance between immunostimulation and immunoregulation in T cell immunity is achieved by maintaining specific ratios of Th1, Th2, Th3 and Tr1 cells. Here, we investigate levels of type 1 (IFN-gamma; NK1), type 2 (IL-13; NK2), type 3 (TGF-beta; NK3) and regulatory (IL-10; NKr) cytokines in peripheral blood to assess the cytokine profiles of natural killer (NK) cells following human allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). NK2 and NK3 cell expansion was observed after allo-HSCT; levels of NKr cells reached donor levels at day 15, though levels of NK1 cells were consistently lower than donor levels until day 60 after allo-HSCT...
March 9, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Yingying Li, Wenying Zhang, Yu Zuo, Ting Zhu, Yue Pang, Tiesong Li, Qingwei Li
Lamprey was considered to be one of the most basal jawless vertebrate representatives for studying vertebrate evolution, embryo development, and the origin of adaptive immunity. Here we investigated the effect of the gut-derived Aeromonas on the lamprey leukocytes proteome using the label-free liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for quantitative proteomics analysis. Significant difference was observed in the regulation of 34 out of 755 proteins in Aeromonas-immunized lamprey. 31 proteins were only identified in saline solution-immunized lamprey and 47 proteins were only identified in Aeromonas-immunized lamprey...
March 14, 2018: Current Microbiology
Hironori Yoshino, Miyu Iwabuchi, Yuka Kazama, Maho Furukawa, Ikuo Kashiwakura
Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) are pattern-recognition receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and induce antiviral immune responses. Recent studies have demonstrated that RLR activation induces antitumor immunity and cytotoxicity against different types of cancer, including lung cancer. However a previous report has demonstrated that ionizing radiation exerts a limited effect on RLR in human monocytic cell-derived macrophages, suggesting that RLR agonists may be used as effective immunostimulants during radiation therapy...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Maria Vono, Christiane Sigrid Eberhardt, Elodie Mohr, Floriane Auderset, Dennis Christensen, Mirco Schmolke, Rhea Coler, Andreas Meinke, Peter Andersen, Paul-Henri Lambert, Beatris Mastelic-Gavillet, Claire-Anne Siegrist
Neonates and infants are more vulnerable to infections and show reduced responses to vaccination. Consequently, repeated immunizations are required to induce protection and early life vaccines against major pathogens such as influenza are yet unavailable. Formulating antigens with potent adjuvants, including immunostimulators and delivery systems, is a demonstrated approach to enhance vaccine efficacy. Yet, adjuvants effective in adults may not meet the specific requirements for activating the early life immune system...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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