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Kaja Plucińska, Steven W Barger
This editorial highlights an article by McKee and colleagues in the current issue of Journal of Neurochemistry, in which the authors report epigenetic changes linked to one-carbon metabolism in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of murine offspring from dams fed high-fat diet to mimic maternal obesity. The group found that high-fat diet feeding in utero increases weight gain in offspring and dynamically alters DNA methylation in the PFC of male but not female brains. These epigenetic marks were associated with a shift in brain one-carbon metabolism (folate and methionine) intermediates and were normalized by early-life methyl-donor supplementation in a sex-specific manner...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Wannes Swinnen, Shalaya Kipp, Rodger Kram
PURPOSE: Exercise economy is one of the main physiological factors determining performance in endurance sports. Running economy (RE) can be improved with running-specific training, while the improvement of cycling economy (CE) with cycling-specific training is controversial. We investigated whether exercise economy reflects sport-specific skills/adaptations or is determined by overall physiological factors. METHODS: We compared RE and CE in 10 runners, 9 cyclists and 9 triathletes for running at 12 km/h and cycling at 200 W...
April 16, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Laszlo Ujj
We report the construction and characterization of a coherent Raman tabletop system utilizing a novel astigmatic optical focusing geometry, a broadband nanosecond optical parametric oscillator and volumetric Bragg filters assisting 3CBCRS measuring system for the first time. In order to illustrate the versatility of the measurements and reveal the molecular information obtainable, two well-characterized chemicals were selected. Polarization sensitive epi-detected 3CBCRS spectra of liquid CCl4 and calcite crystal were recorded and analyzed...
March 14, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Stan Boutin
In Focus: Blecha, K. A., Boone, R. B., & Alldredge, M. W. (2018). Hunger mediates apex predator's risk avoidance response in wildland-urban interface. Journal of Animal Ecology, 87, 609-622. Puma (Puma concolor), an apex predator, can live at the edge of cities where pockets of low-density human dwellings form residential patches in the wildland-urban interface. Blecha, Boone, and Alldredge () tracked puma via global positioning system (GPS) telemetry collars to determine when and where they hunted and made kills...
May 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Roy F Oman, Kristen Clements-Nolle, Minggen Lu, Taylor Lensch
PURPOSE: Substantial research has demonstrated that assets (eg, family communication, school connectedness) protect youth from participation in numerous risk behaviors. However, very few studies have explored the relationship between assets and positive health behaviors. This study investigated prospective associations among assets and physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI). DESIGN: Longitudinal design with 5 waves of data collected annually over a 4-year period...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
Yangyun Han, Feng Ye, Xiaodong Long, Aiguo Li, Hong Xu, Linbo Zou, Yumin Yang, Md Chao You
OBJECTIVE: It remains unknown if ultra-early (within 24 hours after SAH onset) treatment could improve prognosis in poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). We aimed to evaluate the effect of ultra-early treatment on the functional outcome and mortality in poor-grade aSAH patients via systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We performed a literature search in PubMed, MEDLINE and Web of Science databases. Primary outcomes were death and functional outcome assessed at any time period...
April 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Jade A Z Haycraft, Stephanie Kovalchik, David B Pyne, Paul Larkin, Sam Robertson
OBJECTIVES: To identify the influence of age-policy changes on the relative age effect (RAE) across the Australian Football League (AFL) talent pathway. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional analysis of junior AFL players attending the National Draft (National), State, and State Under 16s (U16) combines between 1999-2016. METHODS: Birth-date data was obtained for players attending the AFL State U16 (n=663, age: 15.9±0.4years), State (n=803, age: 19...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Carin Meltzer, Jenny Vikgren, Bengt Bergman, David Molnar, Rauni Rossi Norrlund, Asmaa Hassoun, Bengt Gottfridsson, Magnus Båth, Åse A Johnsson
Purpose To investigate the performance of digital tomosynthesis (DTS) for detection and characterization of incidental solid lung nodules. Materials and Methods This prospective study was based on a population study with 1111 randomly selected participants (age range, 50-64 years) who underwent a medical evaluation that included chest computed tomography (CT). Among these, 125 participants with incidental nodules 5 mm or larger were included in this study, which added DTS in conjunction with the follow-up CT and was performed between March 2012 and October 2014...
April 3, 2018: Radiology
J J McFerran
We use integrated circuit-based frequency-to-voltage conversion of a frequency comb beat signal as the means for laser frequency stabilization that is suitable for narrow-line laser cooling. The method is compared to an atomic beam lock where the laser frequency instability for the new scheme shows an improvement of 2 orders of magnitude at sub-1 s and grants a lock-capture range that is approximately 30 times greater. We employ the locking method on a 1111.6 nm laser that is frequency doubled and used in a dual-wavelength magneto-optical trap for Yb171 atoms, producing atomic cloud temperatures of ∼20  μK...
April 1, 2018: Optics Letters
Ya'nan Deng, Qin Gao, Juan Ma, Chaozhan Wang, Yinmao Wei
Poly(3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid) (PAAPBA) was grafted onto polydopamine-coated magnetic graphene oxide via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization to obtain a new kind of boronate affinity material (BAM). The BAM possesses good water dispersity and adsorption capacities as high as 154, 357, 588 and 1111 μmol·g-1 for adenosine, salbutamol, dopamine and catechol, respectively. For the molecules without nitrogen atoms, the BAM can selectively capture the cis-diols under the interference of non-cis-diols...
February 20, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Thomas Albrecht, Matthias Waliszewski, Catherine Roca, Ulf Redlich, Jörg Tautenhahn, Maciej Pech, Zuhir Halloul, Özlem Gögebakan, Dirk-Roelfs Meyer, Ines Gemeinhardt, Thomas Zeller, Stefan Müller-Hülsbeck, Ilka Ott, Gunnar Tepe
PURPOSE: The previously reported 6-month angiographic and 12-month clinical outcomes of the CONSEQUENT trial demonstrated the safety and efficacy of a novel paclitaxel-resveratrol-coated balloon for the treatment of lesions in the femoropopliteal segment. The purpose of this report is to present the 2-year results including a cost-benefit analysis for Germany. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with symptomatic peripheral artery occlusive disease in femoropopliteal lesions were randomized either to drug-coated balloon (DCB, n = 78) or plain old balloon angioplasty (POBA, n = 75)...
March 27, 2018: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
Xin Wang, Yu Huang, Yong Ji
This article is part of a themed section on Spotlight on Small Molecules in Cardiovascular Diseases. To view the other articles in this section visit
April 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Cassandra L Pattinson, Simon S Smith, Sally L Staton, Stewart G Trost, Karen J Thorpe
OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations between sleep parameters and weight status in a large sample of preschool children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey data from the Effective Early Educational Experiences for children (E4Kids) study were analyzed. PARTICIPANTS: 1111 children aged 3 to 6 years from Queensland and Victoria, Australia. MEASUREMENTS: General linear modeling, with adjustment for significant control variables, assessed the impact of night sleep duration, total sleep duration, napping frequency, sleep timing (onset, offset and midpoint), and severity of sleep problems on standardized body mass index (BMI z score)...
April 2018: Sleep Health
Dina Vojinovic, Sven J van der Lee, Cornelia M van Duijn, Meike W Vernooij, Maryam Kavousi, Najaf Amin, Ayşe Demirkan, M Arfan Ikram, Aad van der Lugt, Daniel Bos
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Increasing evidence shows that intracranial carotid artery atherosclerosis may develop under the influence of a differential metabolic risk factor profile than atherosclerosis in the extracranial part of the carotid artery. To further elucidate these differences, we investigated associations of a wide range of circulating metabolites with intracranial and extracranial carotid artery atherosclerosis. METHODS: From the population-based Rotterdam Study, blood samples from 1111 participants were used to determine a wide range of metabolites by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)...
March 8, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Nicholette D Palmer, Hayrettin Okut, Fang-Chi Hsu, Maggie C Y Ng, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Mark O Goodarzi, Kent D Taylor, Jill M Norris, Carlos Lorenzo, Jerome I Rotter, Richard N Bergman, Carl D Langefeld, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Donald W Bowden
Context: Metabolomics provides a biochemical fingerprint which, when coupled with clinical phenotypes, can provide insight into physiological processes and disease. Objective: Survey metabolites associated with dynamic and basal measures of glucose homeostasis. Design: Analysis of 733 serum metabolites from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study. Setting: Community-based. Participants: 1111 Mexican Americans...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
A Charnukha, D Pröpper, N D Zhigadlo, M Naito, M Schmidt, Zhe Wang, J Deisenhofer, A Loidl, B Keimer, A V Boris, D N Basov
We report the first determination of the in-plane complex optical conductivity of 1111 high-T_{c} superconducting iron oxypnictide single crystals PrFeAs(O,F) and thin films SmFeAs(O,F) by means of conventional and microfocused infrared spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and time-domain THz transmission spectroscopy. A strong itinerant contribution is found to exhibit a dramatic difference in coherence between the crystal and the film. Using extensive temperature-dependent measurements of THz transmission, we identify a previously undetected 2...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Vincent Boulanger, Jean-Luc Dupouey, Frédéric Archaux, Vincent Badeau, Christophe Baltzinger, Richard Chevalier, Emmanuel Corcket, Yann Dumas, Françoise Forgeard, Anders Mårell, Pierre Montpied, Yoan Paillet, Sonia Saïd, Erwin Ulrich
In Boulanger et al. (2018), we assessed the role of ungulates' presence on short-term understory plant dynamics, using a nationwide network composed of paired exclosure-control plots. We demonstrated that ungulates are key drivers of understory vegetation in managed forests since they alter the richness and abundance of the shrub layer, increase the richness of the herb layer and favour open habitat plant species. Our results show that local scale mechanisms, here involving indirect facilitation, lead to global dynamics in forest-ungulate systems...
March 11, 2018: Global Change Biology
Benjamin Ammon, Princess Iroh, Yordanos Tiruneh, Xilong Li, Brian T Montague, Josiah D Rich, Ank E Nijhawan
The criminal justice system is a critical area of focus to improve HIV outcomes and reduce health disparities. We analyzed demographic, incarceration, socioeconomic, and clinical data for HIV-positive persons released to the community from the Dallas County Jail (1450 incarcerations, 1111 unique individuals) between January 2011 and November 2013. The study population was 68% black and 14% Hispanic; overall linkage to care within 90 days of release was 34%. In adjusted analyses, Hispanics were more likely to link than whites (aOR 2...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Paulo Camargos, Alessandra Affonso, Geralda Calazans, Lidiana Ramalho, Marisa L Ribeiro, Nulma Jentzsch, Simone Senna, Renato T Stein
Background: Daily inhaled corticosteroids are widely recommended for mild persistent asthma. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of the intermittent use of beclomethasone as an alternative treatment for mild persistent asthma. Methods: In this 16-week trial, children aged 6-18 years were evaluated. Subjects in the continuous treatment arm of the study received 500 μg/day of beclomethasone, whereas the intermittent ones were given 1000 μg/day (250 μg every 6 h) in combination with albuterol for 7 days upon exacerbations or worsening of symptoms...
2018: Clinical and Translational Allergy
Pietro Francia, Matteo Ziacchi, Paolo De Filippo, Stefano Viani, Antonio D'Onofrio, Vincenzo Russo, Carmen Adduci, Mauro Biffi, Paola Ferrari, Valter Bianchi, Ernesto Ammendola, Francesca Palano, Jessica Frisoni, Sergio Valsecchi, Mariolina Lovecchio, Maria Grazia Bongiorni
PURPOSE: Since subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (S-ICD) introduction, the pre-implant screening based on a dedicated manual ECG tool (MST) was required to assure adequate sensing by the S-ICD. A novel automated screening tool (AST) has been recently developed. We assessed and compared the pass rate with AST and MST, and we measured the agreement between screening tools. METHODS: Three electrodes were positioned at locations mimicking the placement of the S-ICD, and ECG recordings were collected in the supine and standing postures at rest...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
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