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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232456/susceptibility-to-measles-in-migrant-population-implication-for-policy-makers
#1
Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Serena Vita, Elisabetta Riva, Eleonora Cella, Maurizio Lopalco, Francesca Antonelli, Marina De Cesaris, Marta Fogolari, Giordano Dicuonzo, Massimo Ciccozzi, Silvia Angeletti
Background: Despite a large measles outbreak is taking place in WHO European region, currently no data are available on measles immunization coverage in the asylum seeker and migrants hosted in this area. Methods: Two hundred and fifty-six migrants upon their arrival in Italy on March, April and May 2016 were screened for measles virus IgG antibodies by chemiluminescence immunoassay (Liaison XL analyzer, Diasorin, Italy). The virus susceptibility in this cohort, the differences between the official country reported and the observed measles immunization coverage and the impact of current measles outbreak on the asylum seekers hosted in the largest Asylum Seeker centres of Italy, were evaluated...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232423/a-case-of-leprosy-in-central-florida
#2
Kathryn L Anderson, John P Minni, Michael A Nowak, Laszlo J Karai, Eugene Sanik
Hansen disease, also known as leprosy, is a chronic granulomatous infectious disease that is caused by Mycobacterium leprae. We report an unusual case of a 65-year-old man who presented with multiple anesthetic, annular, erythematous, scaly plaques with a raised border without any known exposures to leprosy. Histologic examination revealed a perineural lymphohistiocytic infiltrate and rare bacilli demonstrated on Fite staining. After confirmation with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and consultation with the National Hansen's Disease Program (Baton Rouge, Louisiana), the patient was placed on a regimen of rifampicin 600 mg once monthly and dapsone 100 mg once daily for 6 months, which showed considerable improvement...
November 2017: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232248/endocarditis-in-the-setting-of-idu-multidisciplinary-management
#3
Bobby Yanagawa, Anees Bahji, Wiplove Lamba, Darrell H Tan, Asim Cheema, Ishba Syed, Subodh Verma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to provide a brief overview of the medical and surgical management of infective endocarditis secondary to IDU, with a focus on the underlying substance use disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with infective endocarditis secondary to IDU are often young with unique comorbidities including mental illness, chronic hepatitis C, HIV infection, which are often compounded by limited social and familial supports. The focus of management has been treatment of endocarditis using IV antibiotics alongside surgery...
December 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232157/bacterial-dissemination-to-the-brain-in-sepsis
#4
Benjamin H Singer, Robert P Dickson, Scott J Denstaedt, Michael W Newstead, Kwi Kim, Nicole R Falkowski, John R Erb-Downward, Thomas M Schmidt, Gary B Huffnagle, Theodore J Standiford
RATIONALE: Sepsis causes both brain dysfunction and neuroinflammation. It is unknown whether neuroinflammation in sepsis is initiated by dissemination of bacteria to the brain and sustained by persistent infection, or whether neuroinflammation is a sterile process resulting solely from circulating inflammatory mediators. OBJECTIVES: To determine if gut bacteria translocate to the brain during sepsis, and are associated with neuroinflammation. METHODS: Murine sepsis was induced using cecal ligation and puncture and sepsis survivor mice were compared to sham and unoperated controls...
December 12, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231866/the-consequences-of-being-in-an-infectious-biofilm-microenvironmental-conditions-governing-antibiotic-tolerance
#5
REVIEW
Majken Sønderholm, Thomas Bjarnsholt, Maria Alhede, Mette Kolpen, Peter Ø Jensen, Michael Kühl, Kasper N Kragh
The main driver behind biofilm research is the desire to understand the mechanisms governing the antibiotic tolerance of biofilm-growing bacteria found in chronic bacterial infections. Rather than genetic traits, several physical and chemical traits of the biofilm have been shown to be attributable to antibiotic tolerance. During infection, bacteria in biofilms exhibit slow growth and a low metabolic state due to O₂ limitation imposed by intense O₂ consumption of polymorphonuclear leukocytes or metabolically active bacteria in the biofilm periphery...
December 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231862/conserved-binding-regions-provide-the-clue-for-peptide-based-vaccine-development-a-chemical-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Hernando Curtidor, César Reyes, Adriana Bermúdez, Magnolia Vanegas, Yahson Varela, Manuel E Patarroyo
Synthetic peptides have become invaluable biomedical research and medicinal chemistry tools for studying functional roles, i.e., binding or proteolytic activity, naturally-occurring regions' immunogenicity in proteins and developing therapeutic agents and vaccines. Synthetic peptides can mimic protein sites; their structure and function can be easily modulated by specific amino acid replacement. They have major advantages, i.e., they are cheap, easily-produced and chemically stable, lack infectious and secondary adverse reactions and can induce immune responses via T- and B-cell epitopes...
December 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231258/retrospective-review-of-immunocompromised-children-undergoing-skin-biopsy-for-suspected-invasive-infection-analysis-of-factors-predictive-of-invasive-mold
#7
Robert J Smith, Sarah B Klieger, Salwa E Sulieman, Emily Berger, James R Treat, Brian T Fisher
OBJECTIVES: Cutaneous lesions are often the first marker of invasive mold infection, which can cause substantial morbidity in immunocompromised children. The purpose of this study was to describe the evaluation and outcomes of immunocompromised children who presented with findings requiring skin biopsy because of concern about invasive infection. In children who were biopsied, we sought to determine the factors predictive of invasive mold infection. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia...
December 12, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231172/cefazolin-and-coagulation-disorders-a-case-report
#8
Eugénie Gay, Anne Barthel, Nicolas Rouzic, Basile Henriot, Baptiste Quélennec, Aurélien Lorleac'h, Nathalie Prades, François Schmitt
We report the case of a 79-year-old patient, admitted to the department of infectious diseases at Bretagne Sud Hospital Center for a right calcaneal osteitis, complicated by a pacemaker leads infectious endocarditis. Meticillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus was documented by blood culture. Antibiotic treatment was established using intravenous cefazolin for an initial 6 weeks period. Prothrombin time (PT) decreased as well as vitamin K dependent factors, without anticoagulation therapy, at day 7 of cefazolin treatment...
December 12, 2017: Annales de Biologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231134/plant-made-antibodies-properties-and-therapeutic-applications
#9
Tatianamsu Ru V Komarova, Ekaterina V Sheshukova, Yuri L Dorokhov
A cost-effective plant platform for therapeutic monoclonal antibody production is both flexible and scalable. In addition, plant-made antibodies (PMAbs) could be advantageous compared to those produced in animal cells due to the absence of a risk of contamination from nucleic acids or proteins of animal origin. In this review, the various platforms of PMAbs production are described, and the widely used transient expression system based on Agrobacterium-mediated delivery of genetic material into plant cells is discussed in detail...
December 11, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230918/poor-continuity-of-care-for-tb-diagnosis-and-treatment-in-zambian-prisons-a-situation-analysis
#10
S Hatwiinda, S M Topp, M Siyambango, J B Harris, K R Maggard, C Chileshe, N Kapata, S E Reid, G Henostroza
OBJECTIVES: Prisons act as infectious disease reservoirs. We aimed to explore the challenges of TB control and continuity of care in prisons in Zambia. METHODS: We evaluated treatment outcomes for a cohort of inmates diagnosed with TB during a TB REACH funded screening program initiated by the Zambia Prisons Service and the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia. RESULTS: Between October 2010 and September 2011, 6,282 inmates from six prisons were screened for TB, of whom 374 (6...
December 12, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230613/impacts-of-pathogen-introduction-risk-on-importer-behavior-and-gains-from-trade-in-the-livestock-industry
#11
Katherine D Lee, David Finnoff, Peter Daszak
Trade eliminates geographic barriers, allowing for novel exchange of goods and services, but also creates pathways for the unintentional spread of infectious pathogens such as foot and mouth disease. In the absence of trade regulation, a producer's choice of import origin depends on relative prices and costs associated with trading partners. This paper develops a framework for exploring importer behavior in a non-regulated economy, allowing for price and risk heterogeneity among potential import sources. In the model, importers determine the risk of introducing foot and mouth disease to home soil and choose import volumes using risk and market data...
December 11, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230595/an-optimized-technique-of-endoscopic-third-ventriculocisternostomy-etv-for-children-with-occlusive-hydrocephalus
#12
Albert Akramovich Sufianov, Ekkehard M Kasper, Rinat Albertovich Sufianov
In this article, we present an optimized minimally invasive technique of ETV for children with occlusive hydrocephalus. The study comprises of 64 consecutive pediatric cases (34 boys and 30 girls aged from 1 month to 5 years) of occlusive hydrocephalus from various etiologies, which were treated with a modified technique of ETV. Mean clinical follow-up period after ETV was 24.2 ± 3.8 months. Application of the new technique made it possible to significantly reduce the length of the soft tissue incision for access, and the use of upgraded instruments allowed to perform a twist drill hole in the skull to less than half a usual size...
December 11, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230588/the-impact-of-advanced-age-on-short-term-outcomes-following-gastric-cancer-resection-an-acs-nsqip-analysis
#13
Trevor D Hamilton, Alyson L Mahar, Barbara Haas, Kaitlyn Beyfuss, Calvin H L Law, Paul J Karanicolas, Natalie G Coburn, Julie Hallet
BACKGROUND: Evidence on short-term outcomes for GC resection in elderly patients is limited by small samples from single-institutions. This study sought to examine the association between advanced age and short-term outcomes of gastrectomy for gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: Using ACS-NSQIP data, patients undergoing gastrectomy for GC (2007-2013) were identified. Primary outcome was 30-day major morbidity. Outcomes were compared across age categories (<65, 65-70, 71-75, 76-80, >80 years old)...
December 11, 2017: Gastric Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230523/adjuvant-therapies-in-critical-care-steroids-to-treat-infectious-diseases
#14
José Manuel Pereira, Thiago Lisboa, José-Artur Paiva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 11, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230484/-vaccination-in-advanced-age
#15
REVIEW
H J Heppner, A Leischker, P Wutzler, A Kwetkat
Infectious diseases are responsible for up to 5% of fatalities even in developed countries. In addition, there is an increasing susceptibility for infections in elderly people due to physiological aging of the immune system. The principles of vaccination are based on a targeted activation of the human immune system. Principally, a distinction is made between passive immunization, i.e. the application of specific antibodies against a pathogen and active immunization. In active immunization, i.e. vaccination, weakened (attenuated) or dead pathogens or components of pathogens (antigens) are administered...
December 11, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230405/variability-of-chemical-compositions-and-antimicrobial-and-antioxidant-activities-of-ruta-chalepensis-leaf-essential-oils-from-three-palestinian-regions
#16
Nidal Jaradat, Lina Adwan, Shadi K'aibni, Abdel Naser Zaid, Munqez J Y Shtaya, Naser Shraim, Mohyeddin Assali
Introduction: Interest in essential oils was recently revived with their popularity increasing in medicine, pharmacy, and aromatherapy. This study was performed to identify the chemical compositions of the essential oil of Ruta chalepensis growing wildly in three regions in Palestine and to assess and compare their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Methods: Identification of the essential oil was performed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230262/-cavernous-metastasis-from-blader-tumor
#17
Mohammed Alae Touzani, Othmane Yddoussalah
The incidence of cavernous metastases after radical treatment for bladder tumor is exceptional and is approximately 1%. The mean time between surgery and the occurrence of metastases is 8 months. In some cases they occur after 10 years. Diagnosis is confirmed by biopsy, which shows their urothelial origin. Here we report the case of 56-year old patient, with a history of smoking, having undergone total cystoprostatectomy in January 2017, who presented 2 months later with induratio penis plastica with no other sign associated...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230245/adaptation-and-molecular-characterization-of-two-malaysian-very-virulent-infectious-bursal-disease-virus-isolates-adapted-in-bgm-70-cell-line
#18
Nafi'u Lawal, Mohd Hair-Bejo, Siti Suri Arshad, Abdul Rahman Omar, Aini Ideris
Two Malaysian very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) strains UPM0081 and UPM190 (also known as UPMB00/81 and UPM04/190, respectively) isolated from local IBD outbreaks were serially passaged 12 times (EP12) in specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken embryonated eggs (CEE) by chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) route. The EP12 isolate was further adapted and serially propagated in BGM-70 cell line up to 20 passages (P20). Characteristic cytopathic effects (CPEs) were subtly observed at P1 in both isolates 72 hours postinoculation (pi)...
2017: Advances in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230219/functional-impairment-of-mononuclear-phagocyte-system-by-the-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#19
REVIEW
Karen Bohmwald, Janyra A Espinoza, Raúl A Pulgar, Evelyn L Jara, Alexis M Kalergis
The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) comprises of monocytes, macrophages (MΦ), and dendritic cells (DCs). MPS is part of the first line of immune defense against a wide range of pathogens, including viruses, such as the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). The hRSV is an enveloped virus that belongs to the Pneumoviridae family, Orthopneumovirus genus. This virus is the main etiological agent causing severe acute lower respiratory tract infection, especially in infants, children and the elderly. Human RSV can cause bronchiolitis and pneumonia and it has also been implicated in the development of recurrent wheezing and asthma...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230214/exome-sequencing-identifies-a-novel-map3k14-mutation-in-recessive-atypical-combined-immunodeficiency
#20
Nikola Schlechter, Brigitte Glanzmann, Eileen Garner Hoal, Mardelle Schoeman, Britt-Sabina Petersen, Andre Franke, Yu-Lung Lau, Michael Urban, Paul David van Helden, Monika Maria Esser, Marlo Möller, Craig Kinnear
Primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs) render patients vulnerable to infection with a wide range of microorganisms and thus provide good in vivo models for the assessment of immune responses during infectious challenges. Priming of the immune system, especially in infancy, depends on different environmental exposures and medical practices. This may determine the timing and phenotype of clinical appearance of immune deficits as exemplified with early exposure to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination and dissemination in combined immunodeficiencies...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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