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Magdalena Paolino, Josef M Penninger
The TAM receptor protein tyrosine kinases-Tyro3, Axl, and Mer-are essential regulators of immune homeostasis. Guided by their cognate ligands Growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6) and Protein S (Pros1), these receptors ensure the resolution of inflammation by dampening the activation of innate cells as well as by restoring tissue function through promotion of tissue repair and clearance of apoptotic cells. Their central role as negative immune regulators is highlighted by the fact that deregulation of TAM signaling has been linked to the pathogenesis of autoimmune, inflammatory, and infectious diseases...
October 21, 2016: Cancers
Annika Brinkmann, Andreas Nitsche, Claudia Kohl
Surveillance and monitoring of viral pathogens circulating in humans and wildlife, together with the identification of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), are critical for the prediction of future disease outbreaks and epidemics at an early stage. It is advisable to sample a broad range of vertebrates and invertebrates at different temporospatial levels on a regular basis to detect possible candidate viruses at their natural source. However, virus surveillance systems can be expensive, costly in terms of finances and resources and inadequate for sampling sufficient numbers of different host species over space and time...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Audrey-Elodie Mercier, Emmanuel Ribeiro, Jean-François Korobelnik, Marie-Noëlle Delyfer, Marie-Bénédicte Rougier
PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of anti-TNF alpha (TNF-α) therapy in patients with non-infectious uveitis. METHODS: This was a monocentric observational study of 21 patients with non-infectious uveitis treated with anti-TNF-alpha. The primary endpoint was the control of ocular inflammation. The secondary endpoints included the study of macular thickness and visual acuity, changes in other treatments, and adverse effects. RESULTS: The etiologies of uveitis were Behçet disease (33...
October 24, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Oscar Patterson-Lomba, Muntaser Safan, Sherry Towers, Jay Taylor
Urban areas, with large and dense populations, offer conditions that favor the emergence and spread of certain infectious diseases. One common feature of urban populations is the existence of large socioeconomic inequalities which are often mirrored by disparities in access to healthcare. Recent empirical evidence suggests that higher levels of socioeconomic inequalities are associated with worsened public health outcomes, including higher rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STD's) and lower life expectancy...
October 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Martin Luther Mann Manyombe, Joseph Mbang, Jean Lubuma, Berge Tsanou
In this paper, an epidemic model is investigated for infectious diseases that can be transmitted through both the infectious individuals and the asymptomatic carriers (i.e., infected individuals who are contagious but do not show any disease symptoms). We propose a dose-structured vaccination model with multiple transmission pathways. Based on the range of the explicitly computed basic reproduction number, we prove the global stability of the disease-free when this threshold number is less or equal to the unity...
August 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
M Fanjul, L Pérez, J Cerdá, M Zornoza, R Rojo, I Simal, M A García-Casillas, C Corona, D Peláez, E Molina, A Parente, S Rivas, J M Angulo, E De Tomás
BACKGROUND: Multiple approaches to the treatment of simple and complicated (gangrenous or perforated) appendicitis in children have been promoted. Our goal is to develop a new protocol for these patients that allows shorter hospital stays without increasing complications rates. METHODS: Prospective collected data of patients undergoing appendicitis treated according to the new protocol for a period of 7 months were reviewed. This protocol consists on antibiotic prophylaxis in all cases continued with triple antibiotic regimen in complicated appendicitis...
October 10, 2016: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
Victor Virlogeux, Vicky J Fang, Minah Park, Joseph T Wu, Benjamin J Cowling
The incubation period is an important epidemiologic distribution, it is often incorporated in case definitions, used to determine appropriate quarantine periods, and is an input to mathematical modeling studies. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS) is an emerging infectious disease in the Arabian Peninsula. There was a large outbreak of MERS in South Korea in 2015. We examined the incubation period distribution of MERS coronavirus infection for cases in South Korea and in Saudi Arabia. Using parametric and nonparametric methods, we estimated a mean incubation period of 6...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Bonnie J Oliphant, Heidi L Barnes Heller, Jennifer M White
Difficulty has been encountered when trying to identify ante mortem prognostic indicators for dogs with meningoencephalitis of unknown etiology (MUE). Identifying MRI imaging parameters associated with prognosis may impact treatment decision-making for clinician and owner. Our hypotheses for this retrospective cohort study are that dogs diagnosed with MUE that had midline shift on brain MRI would have a poorer survival compared to dogs without midline shift; and that younger age, lower weight, and low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell count would be correlated with improved survival...
October 23, 2016: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Ashwani Sharma, Sebastien Delile, Mohamed Jabri, Carlo Adamo, Claire Fave, Damien Marchal, Aurélie Perrier
In the course of developing ultrasensitive and quantitative electrochemical point-of-care analytical tools for genetic detection of infectious diseases, osmium(ii) metallointercalators were revealed to be suitable and efficient redox probes to monitor the in vitro DNA amplification [Defever etal, Anal. Chem., 2011, 83, 1815-1821]. In this work, we thus propose a complete computational protocol in order to evaluate the affinity between Os(ii) complexes with double-stranded DNA. This protocol is based on molecular dynamics, with the parametrization of the GAFF force field for the Os(ii) complexes presenting an octahedral environment with polypyridine ligands, and QM/QM' calculations to evaluate the binding energy...
October 24, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
François Vromman, Stéphanie Perrinet, Lena Gehre, Agathe Subtil
Chlamydiae are Gram negative bacteria that develop exclusively inside eukaryotic host cells, within a membrane-bounded compartment. Members of the family Chlamydiaceae, such as Chlamydia trachomatis, are pathogenic species infecting vertebrates. They have a very reduced genome and exploit the capacities of their host for their own development, mainly through the secretion of proteins tailored to interfere with eukaryotic processes, called effector proteins. All Chlamydiaceae possess genes coding for four to five effectors that share a domain of unknown function (DUF582)...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Pierre Santucci, Feriel Bouzid, Nabil Smichi, Isabelle Poncin, Laurent Kremer, Chantal De Chastellier, Michel Drancourt, Stéphane Canaan
Despite a slight decline since 2014, tuberculosis (TB) remains the major deadly infectious disease worldwide with about 1.5 million deaths each year and with about one-third of the population being latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiologic agent of TB. During primo-infection, the recruitment of immune cells leads to the formation of highly organized granulomas. Among the different cells, one outstanding subpopulation is the foamy macrophage (FM), characterized by the abundance of triacylglycerol-rich lipid bodies (LB)...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Aiko Tanaka, Mie Nishimura, Yuji Sato, Hiroki Sato, Jun Nishihira
Pleurotus cornucopiae (Oyster mushroom, Tamogitake) has long been eaten as a functional food for enhancement of the immune system, but its effectiveness has not been well confirmed in humans. To this end, we set up a double-blind placebo-controlled human clinical trial to investigate the potential of Oyster mushrooms with respect to the up-regulation of the immune system. The subjects ingested Oyster mushroom extract for 8 weeks. We measured the serum cytokine levels involved in regulation of the immune system, including interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, and tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-α...
October 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Truc T Pham, Shengli Meng, Yan Sun, Wenli Lv, Justin Bahl
A comprehensive monitoring strategy is vital for tracking the spread of mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. Virus detection consists of passive surveillance of primarily humans and swine, and/or active surveillance in mosquitoes, which may be a valuable proxy in providing insights into ecological processes underlying the spread and persistence of JEV. However, it has not been well characterized whether passive surveillance alone can capture the circulating genetic diversity to make reasonable inferences...
January 2016: Virus Evolution
Rachel Breyta, Doug McKenney, Tarin Tesfaye, Kotaro Ono, Gael Kurath
Surveillance and genetic typing of field isolates of a fish rhabdovirus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), has identified four dominant viral genotypes that were involved in serial viral emergence and displacement events in steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in western North America. To investigate drivers of these landscape-scale events, IHNV isolates designated 007, 111, 110, and 139, representing the four relevant genotypes, were compared for virulence and infectivity in controlled laboratory challenge studies in five relevant steelhead trout populations...
January 2016: Virus Evolution
J González-Nava, K Sánchez-Herrera, N Ramírez-Durán, H Sandoval
Nocardia species are aerobic, Gram-positive bacteria with branched filaments reported as opportunistic microorganisms associated with infectious diseases of the skin. We report the isolation of N. wallacei in Mexico from a 43-year-old man, an HIV-positive construction worker who sought care for difficulty breathing and abundant sputum.
November 2016: New Microbes and New Infections
Paul Elkington, Marc Tebruegge, Salah Mansour
Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and provided original proof that an infectious agent can cause human disease. However, key steps in TB pathogenesis remain poorly understood. We propose that autoimmunity is a critical and overlooked process driving pathology in TB, and present clinical and experimental observations supporting this hypothesis.
October 19, 2016: Trends in Immunology
Ken M Kunisaki, Dennis E Niewoehner, Gary Collins, Bitten Aagaard, Nafisah B Atako, Elzbieta Bakowska, Amanda Clarke, Giulio Maria Corbelli, Ernest Ekong, Sean Emery, Elizabeth B Finley, Eric Florence, Rosa M Infante, Cissy M Kityo, Juan Sierra Madero, Daniel E Nixon, Ellen Tedaldi, Jørgen Vestbo, Robin Wood, John E Connett
BACKGROUND: Observational data have been conflicted regarding the potential role of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) as a causative factor for, or protective factor against, COPD. We therefore aimed to investigate the effect of immediate versus deferred ART on decline in lung function in HIV-positive individuals. METHODS: We did a nested substudy within the randomised, controlled Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment (START) trial at 80 sites in multiple settings in 20 high-income and low-to-middle-income countries...
October 20, 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Arash Khamooshian, Feroze Mahmood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 10, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Nandan S Gokhale, Alexa B R McIntyre, Michael J McFadden, Allison E Roder, Edward M Kennedy, Jorge A Gandara, Sharon E Hopcraft, Kendra M Quicke, Christine Vazquez, Jason Willer, Olga R Ilkayeva, Brittany A Law, Christopher L Holley, Mariano A Garcia-Blanco, Matthew J Evans, Mehul S Suthar, Shelton S Bradrick, Christopher E Mason, Stacy M Horner
The RNA modification N6-methyladenosine (m(6)A) post-transcriptionally regulates RNA function. The cellular machinery that controls m(6)A includes methyltransferases and demethylases that add or remove this modification, as well as m(6)A-binding YTHDF proteins that promote the translation or degradation of m(6)A-modified mRNA. We demonstrate that m(6)A modulates infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV). Depletion of m(6)A methyltransferases or an m(6)A demethylase, respectively, increases or decreases infectious HCV particle production...
October 18, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
Varish Ahmad, Mohd Sajid Khan, Qazi Mohammad Sajid Jamal, Mohammad A Alzohairy, Mohammad A Al Karaawi, Mughees Uddin Siddiqui
Due to the appearance of antibiotic resistance and the toxicity associated with currently used antibiotics, peptide antibiotics are the need of the hour. Thus, demand for new antimicrobial agents has brought great interest in new technologies to enhance safety. One such antimicrobial molecule is bacteriocin, synthesised by various micro-organisms. Bacteriocins are widely used in agriculture, veterinary medicine as a therapeutic, and as a food preservative agent to control various infectious and food-borne pathogens...
September 29, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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