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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092932/burden-assessment-of-infectious-and-cardio-vascular-diseases-in-india-for-the-decade-2004-2014
#1
Kajori Banerjee, Laxmi Kant Dwivedi
Purpose: In India, diseases, communicable or non-communicable, are argued to be biased in affecting a certain socio-economic strata of the population. Using 60th (2004) and 71st (2014) National Sample Survey rounds, this study assesses the pressure of infectious diseases against cardio-vascular diseases (CVD) and alteration of disease burden over various socio-economic, demographic sub-population for 2004-2014. Methods: To assess the burden of diseases over the two time points separated by a decade prevalence rates, hospitalization rates, case fatality rates, mortality burden is estimated...
December 14, 2016: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092721/use-of-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry-in-the-battle-against-bacterial-infectious-diseases-recent-achievements-and-future-perspectives
#2
Vassilios Sandalakis, Ioannis Goniotakis, Iosif Vranakis, Dimosthenis Chochlakis, Anna Psaroulaki
Advancements in microbial identification occur increasingly faster as more laboratories explore, refine and extend the use of mass spectrometry in the field of microbiology. Areas covered: This review covers the latest knowledge found in the literature for quick identification of various classes of bacterial pathogens known to cause human infection by the use of MALDI-TOF MS technology. Except for identification of bacterial strains, more researchers try to "battle time" in favor of the patient. These novel approaches to identify bacteria directly from clinical samples and even determine antibiotic resistance are extensively revised and discussed...
January 16, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092664/expression-of-specific-inflammasome-gene-modules-stratifies-older-individuals-into-two-extreme-clinical-and-immunological-states
#3
David Furman, Junlei Chang, Lydia Lartigue, Christopher R Bolen, François Haddad, Brice Gaudilliere, Edward A Ganio, Gabriela K Fragiadakis, Matthew H Spitzer, Isabelle Douchet, Sophie Daburon, Jean-François Moreau, Garry P Nolan, Patrick Blanco, Julie Déchanet-Merville, Cornelia L Dekker, Vladimir Jojic, Calvin J Kuo, Mark M Davis, Benjamin Faustin
Low-grade, chronic inflammation has been associated with many diseases of aging, but the mechanisms responsible for producing this inflammation remain unclear. Inflammasomes can drive chronic inflammation in the context of an infectious disease or cellular stress, and they trigger the maturation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Here we find that the expression of specific inflammasome gene modules stratifies older individuals into two extremes: those with constitutive expression of IL-1β, nucleotide metabolism dysfunction, elevated oxidative stress, high rates of hypertension and arterial stiffness; and those without constitutive expression of IL-1β, who lack these characteristics...
January 16, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092397/update-on-orthokeratology-in-managing-progressive-myopia-in-children-efficacy-mechanisms-and-concerns
#4
Xintong Li, Ilana B Friedman, Norman B Medow, Cheng Zhang
Myopia is an important public health issue, and high myopia may lead to severe complications if left untreated. Orthokeratology lenses, worn overnight to reshape the cornea, are one of many recent modalities used to slow down the progression of myopia in children. This treatment has been proven successful, as evidenced by decreased spherical refractive error and axial length relative to the control at interval follow-up ranging from 6 months to 5 years. In this systematic review, the authors collected published controlled studies that analyzed the efficacy of orthokeratology lens wear and calculated longitudinal relative changes in axial length, revealing a weighted average of -45...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092376/infectious-immunity-in-the-central-nervous-system-and-brain-function
#5
REVIEW
Robyn S Klein, Charise Garber, Nicole Howard
Inflammation is emerging as a critical mechanism underlying neurological disorders of various etiologies, yet its role in altering brain function as a consequence of neuroinfectious disease remains unclear. Although acute alterations in mental status due to inflammation are a hallmark of central nervous system (CNS) infections with neurotropic pathogens, post-infectious neurologic dysfunction has traditionally been attributed to irreversible damage caused by the pathogens themselves. More recently, studies indicate that pathogen eradication within the CNS may require immune responses that interfere with neural cell function and communication without affecting their survival...
January 16, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091971/mate-limitation-in-fungal-plant-parasites-can-lead-to-cyclic-epidemics-in-perennial-host-populations
#6
Virginie Ravigné, Valérie Lemesle, Alicia Walter, Ludovic Mailleret, Frédéric M Hamelin
Fungal plant parasites represent a growing concern for biodiversity and food security. Most ascomycete species are capable of producing different types of infectious spores both asexually and sexually. Yet the contributions of both types of spores to epidemiological dynamics have still to been fully researched. Here we studied the effect of mate limitation in parasites which perform both sexual and asexual reproduction in the same host. Since mate limitation implies positive density dependence at low population density, we modeled the dynamics of such species with both density-dependent (sexual) and density-independent (asexual) transmission rates...
January 13, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091959/genetic-variation-in-mitochondrial-genes-of-the-tick-haemaphysalis-flava-collected-from-wild-hedgehogs-in-china
#7
Zhong-Bo Li, Tian-Yin Cheng, Xing-Li Xu, Lu-Lin Song, Guo-Hua Liu
The tick Haemaphysalis flava (Acari: Ixodidae) is an important ectoparasite, which causes direct damage to their hosts and also acts as a vector of various infectious disease agents in China. Despite its significance, the epidemiology, genetics and biology of H. flava has not been studied in detail. In the present study, the genetic variation in three mitochondrial (mt) DNA regions, namely cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and 4 (nad1 and nad4), was examined in H. flava ticks collected from wild hedgehogs in China...
January 16, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091824/exercise-capacity-physical-activity-and-morbidity
#8
Danielle L Brunjes, Peter J Kennel, P Christian Schulze
Muscle weakness and atrophy are key characteristics of the aging adult but can also be found in chronically ill patients with heart failure, cancer, renal failure, and chronic infectious diseases all associated with an accelerated level of muscle dysfunction. Reduced physical activity levels and exercise intolerance increase muscle loss and decrease quality of life in both the aging and heart failure populations. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the effects of aging and heart failure on skeletal muscle function and how exercise training can improve long-term outcomes associated with skeletal muscle dysfunction...
January 16, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091791/a-novel-scalable-robust-downstream-process-for-oncolytic-rat-parvovirus-isoelectric-point-based-elimination-of-empty-particles
#9
Barbara Leuchs, Veronika Frehtman, Markus Riese, Marcus Müller, Jean Rommelaere
The rodent protoparvovirus H-1PV, with its oncolytic and oncosuppressive properties, is a promising anticancer agent currently under testing in clinical trials. This explains the current demand for a scalable, good manufacturing practice-compatible virus purification process yielding high-grade pure infectious particles and overcoming the limitations of the current system based on density gradient centrifugation. We describe here a scalable process offering high purity and recovery. Taking advantage of the isoelectric point difference between full and empty particles, it eliminates most empty particles...
January 14, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091779/early-and-late-outcomes-after-surgical-management-of-congenital-vascular-rings
#10
Katrien François, Joseph Panzer, Katya De Groote, Kristof Vandekerckhove, Daniel De Wolf, Hans De Wilde, Fabienne Marchau, Wim De Caluwe, Abraham Benatar, Thierry Bové
: Persistent respiratory or feeding problems in children may be associated with a congenital vascular ring. Surgical management is fairly standardized, but long-term outcomes are not well described. This study aims to investigate clinical presentation, surgical treatment, and risk factors for early mortality and late outcome. Our database revealed 62 surgically treated vascular ring patients between 1993 and 2014. Double aortic arch was the most common diagnosis (53%). Median age at operation was 1 year...
January 13, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091766/pre-operative-intra-articular-deep-tissue-sampling-with-novel-retrograde-forceps-improves-the-diagnostics-in-periprosthetic-joint-infection
#11
Matthias D Wimmer, Milena M Ploeger, Max J Friedrich, Thomas Hügle, Sascha Gravius, Thomas M Randau
BACKGROUND: Histopathological tissue analysis is a key parameter within the diagnostic algorithm for suspected periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs), conventionally acquired in open surgery. In 2014, Hügle and co-workers introduced novel retrograde forceps for retrograde synovial biopsy with simultaneous fluid aspiration of the knee joint. We hypothesised that tissue samples acquired by retrograde synovial biopsy are equal to intra-operatively acquired deep representative tissue samples regarding bacterial detection and differentiation of periprosthetic infectious membranes...
January 14, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091735/comprehensive-assessment-of-peripheral-blood-tcr%C3%AE-repertoire-in-infectious-mononucleosis-and-chronic-active-ebv-infection-patients
#12
Shenglin Liu, Qian Zhang, Dongli Huang, Wenli Zhang, Fengluan Zhong, Jia Feng, Xueru Chen, Qingxiang Meng, Xiaofan Chen, Wei Zhang, Hongyu Zhang
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) primary infection is usually asymptomatic, but it sometimes progresses to infectious mononucleosis (IM). Occasionally, some people develop chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) with underlying immunodeficiency, which belongs to a continuous spectrum of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders (EBV(+) LPD) with heterogeneous clinical presentations and high mortality. It has been well established that T cell-mediated immune response plays a critical role in the disease evolution of EBV infection...
January 14, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091706/microclimates-might-limit-indirect-spillover-of-the-bat-borne-zoonotic-hendra-virus
#13
Gerardo Martin, Rebecca J Webb, Carla Chen, Raina K Plowright, Lee F Skerratt
Infectious diseases are transmitted when susceptible hosts are exposed to pathogen particles that can replicate within them. Among factors that limit transmission, the environment is particularly important for indirectly transmitted parasites. To try and assess a pathogens' ability to be transmitted through the environment and mitigate risk, we need to quantify its decay where transmission occurs in space such as the microclimate harbouring the pathogen. Hendra virus, a Henipavirus from Australian Pteropid bats, spills-over to horses and humans, causing high mortality...
January 14, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091705/bacteria-of-the-family-candidatus-midichloriaceae-in-sympatric-zones-of-ixodes-ticks-genetic-evidence-for-vertical-transmission
#14
Tatyana A Mukhacheva, Sergey Y Kovalev
Ixodes ticks transmit infectious agents and also harbor their own parasites and symbionts. The presumptive endosymbiont of Ixodes ricinus, 'Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii', has a unique ability to invade mitochondria within tick ovarian cells and is transovarially transmitted with 100% efficiency. A closely related bacterium, provisionally named Montezuma (now 'Candidatus Lariskella arthropodarum'), was isolated from the Ixodes persulcatus ticks and human blood in 2004 as well as from Ixodes pavlovskyi in 2015...
January 14, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091625/mplex-a-method-for-simultaneous-pathogen-inactivation-and-extraction-of-samples-for-multi-omics-profiling
#15
Kristin E Burnum-Johnson, Jennifer E Kyle, Amie J Eisfeld, Cameron P Casey, Kelly G Stratton, Juan F Gonzalez, Fabien Habyarimana, Nicholas M Negretti, Amy C Sims, Sadhana Chauhan, Larissa B Thackray, Peter J Halfmann, Kevin B Walters, Young-Mo Kim, Erika M Zink, Carrie D Nicora, Karl K Weitz, Bobbie-Jo M Webb-Robertson, Ernesto S Nakayasu, Brian Ahmer, Michael E Konkel, Vladimir Motin, Ralph S Baric, Michael S Diamond, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Katrina M Waters, Richard D Smith, Thomas O Metz
The continued emergence and spread of infectious agents is of great concern, and systems biology approaches to infectious disease research can advance our understanding of host-pathogen relationships and facilitate the development of new therapies and vaccines. Molecular characterization of infectious samples outside of appropriate biosafety containment can take place only subsequent to pathogen inactivation. Herein, we describe a modified Folch extraction using chloroform/methanol that facilitates the molecular characterization of infectious samples by enabling simultaneous pathogen inactivation and extraction of proteins, metabolites, and lipids for subsequent mass spectrometry-based multi-omics measurements...
January 16, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091390/demodex-spp-infestation-associated-with-treatment-resistant-chalazia-and-folliculitis
#16
Ulviye Güvendi Akçınar, Emine Ünal, Metin Akpınar
Demodecidosis is an ectoparasitosis of pilosebaceous unit caused by demodex mites. The disease may be a primary skin disease or a secondary disease to inflammatory dermatoses such as folliculitis and rosacea. Demodex spp. blepharitis is an infectious ocular disease that is common but always neglected. These mites contain lipase enzymes that help carry bacteria on the surface. The infestation of Demodex spp. has increasingly become a public health concern. A 29-year-old male patient was admitted to our dermatology clinic with a complaint of papules and pustules on his face, which started 4 years ago...
December 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091389/trali-syndrome-during-the-treatment-of-a-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-case
#17
Hülya Çaşkurlu, Rahman Nurmuhammedov, Zarni Htway
Malaria, which is one of the three most important infectious diseases globally, is endemic in many areas of the world. Plasmodium falciparum is not endemic to Turkey but can be seen after travel to epidemic countries. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) syndrome is a rare disease, which may develop following the transfusion of all types of blood products, including plasma. Here we describe a case of TRALI syndrome in a 29-year-old male, who presented with fever after 15 days of returning from a business trip to Burkina Faso...
December 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091341/correlation-between-infectious-disease-and-soil-radiation-in-japan-an-exploratory-study-using-national-sentinel-surveillance-data
#18
S Inaida, T Tsuda, S Matsuno
We investigated the relationship between epidemics and soil radiation through an exploratory study using sentinel surveillance data (individuals aged <20 years) during the last three epidemic seasons of influenza and norovirus in Japan. We used a spatial analysis method of a geographical information system (GIS). We mapped the epidemic spreading patterns from sentinel incidence rates. We calculated the average soil radiation [dm (μGy/h)] for each sentinel site using data on uranium, thorium, and potassium oxide in the soil and examined the incidence rate in units of 0·01 μGy/h...
January 16, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090783/probing-the-druggability-of-membrane-bound-rab5-by-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#19
Eileen Edler, Matthias Stein
Rab5 is a small GTPase and a key regulator in early endosomal trafficking. Rab5 and its effectors are involved in a large number of infectious diseases and certain types of cancer. We performed µs atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of inactive and active full-length Rab5 anchored to a complex model bilayer with composition of the early endosome membrane. Direct interactions between the Rab5 G domain and the bilayer were observed. We found two dominant nucleotide-dependent orientations characterised by a different accessibility of the switch regions...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090568/pathophysiology-of-intestinal-na-h-exchange
#20
Michael A Gurney, Daniel Laubitz, Fayez K Ghishan, Pawel R Kiela
Several members of the SLC9A family of Na(+)/H(+) exchangers are expressed in the gut, with varying expression patterns and cellular localization. Not only do they participate in the regulation of basic epithelial cell functions, including control of transepithelial Na(+) absorption, intracellular pH (pH i ), cell volume, and nutrient absorption, but also in cellular proliferation, migration, and apoptosis. Additionally, they modulate the extracellular milieu in order to facilitate other nutrient absorption and to regulate the intestinal microbial microenvironment...
January 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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