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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935196/epidemiology-of-an-upsurge-of-invasive-group-a-streptococcal-infections-in-ireland-2012-2015
#1
Mary Meehan, Stephen Murchan, Patrick Gavin, Richard J Drew, Robert Cunney
OBJECTIVES: Group A streptococcus (GAS) is responsible for mild to very severe disease. The epidemiology of an upsurge in invasive GAS (iGAS) infections in Ireland, 2012-2015 was investigated. METHODS: Epidemiological typing of iGAS (n=473) isolates was performed and compared to non-invasive (n=517) isolates. Clinical data of notified iGAS was obtained from the national infectious disease information system. RESULTS: Annual incidences of iGAS cases (n=561) were 2...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934924/infectious-diseases-the-10-common-truths-i-never-believed
#2
Jordi Rello, Emine Alp, Kalwaje Eshwara Vandana
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934588/atlantic-salmon-skin-barrier-functions-gradually-enhance-after-seawater-transfer
#3
Christian Karlsen, Elisabeth Ytteborg, Gerrit Timmerhaus, Vibeke Høst, Sigurd Handeland, Sven Martin Jørgensen, Aleksei Krasnov
Atlantic salmon farming operates with high production intensities where skin integrity is recognized as a central factor and indicator for animal health and welfare. In the described trial, the skin development and its immune status in healthy Atlantic salmon reared in two different systems, a traditional open net-pen system and a semi-closed containment system, were investigated. Freshwater smolts were compared to post-smolts after 1 and 4 months in seawater. Growth performance, when adjusted for temperature, was equal between the systems...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934454/equine-influenza-evolution-of-a-highly-infectious-virus
#4
(no author information available yet)
Fleur Whitlock , Adam Rash and Debra Elton of the equine influenza group at the Animal Health Trust provide a timely reminder of risk of equine influenza and the importance of vaccination.
June 23, 2018: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934437/human-gut-microbiome-hopes-threats-and-promises
#5
REVIEW
Patrice D Cani
The microbiome has received increasing attention over the last 15 years. Although gut microbes have been explored for several decades, investigations of the role of microorganisms that reside in the human gut has attracted much attention beyond classical infectious diseases. For example, numerous studies have reported changes in the gut microbiota during not only obesity, diabetes, and liver diseases but also cancer and even neurodegenerative diseases. The human gut microbiota is viewed as a potential source of novel therapeutics...
June 22, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934234/measles-control-in-australia-threats-opportunities-and-future-needs
#6
C Raina MacIntyre, Elizabeth Kpozehouen, Mohana Kunasekaran, Kathleen Harriman, Stephen Conaty, Alexander Rosewell, Julian Druce, Nicolee Martin, Anita E Heywood, Heather F Gidding, James Wood, Sonya Nicholl
Control of measles was the focus of a national workshop held in 2015 in Sydney, Australia, bringing together stakeholders in disease control and immunisation to discuss maintaining Australia's measles elimination status in the context of regional and global measles control. The global epidemiology of measles was reviewed, including outbreaks in countries that have achieved elimination, such as the Disneyland outbreak in the United States and large outbreaks in Sydney, Australia. Transmission of measles between Australia and New Zealand occurs, but has not been a focus of control measures...
June 19, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933925/yellow-fever-virus-knowledge-gaps-impeding-the-fight-against-an-old-foe
#7
REVIEW
Florian Douam, Alexander Ploss
Yellow fever (YF) was one of the most dangerous infectious diseases of the 18th and 19th centuries, resulting in mass casualties in Africa and the Americas. The etiologic agent is yellow fever virus (YFV), and its live-attenuated form, YFV-17D, remains one of the most potent vaccines ever developed. During the first half of the 20th century, vaccination combined with mosquito control eradicated YFV transmission in urban areas. However, the recent 2016-2018 outbreaks in areas with historically low or no YFV activity have raised serious concerns for an estimated 400-500 million unvaccinated people who now live in at-risk areas...
June 19, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933738/-determination-of-imported-malaria-cases-in-hatay-by-the-use-of-molecular-methods
#8
Gülnaz Çulha, Fadile Yıldız Zeyrek, Yusuf Önlen, Nebiye Yentür Doni
Malaria, being among the most important diseases throughout history, is still an important public health problem among parasitic diseases due to increasing population movements with various reasons such as migration, war and travel. According to WHO data each year 300-350 million people get exposed to malaria, each year 1.5-2.7 million people die from malaria and also 40% of the world's population is still at risk for this disease. According to World Health Organisation (WHO) data, imported cases were not reported since 2013 in our country...
April 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933736/-various-antibiotic-combinations-against-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-infections-and-in-vitro-synergy-test-results-2002-2016
#9
Pınar Zarakolu, Çağlayan Merve Ayaz, Gökhan Metan
Carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is a bacterium that causes various hospital acquired infections, primarily ventilator-associated pneumonia and bloodstream infections. The multidrug resistance problem of the bacteria all over the world, is also a problem in our center. As the treatment options are decreasing combination therapies become a current issue. It is believed that in vitro synergy tests may guide to the selection of antibiotic combinations. The aim of this study was to present the antibiotic combinations used in the treatment of carbapenem resistant A...
April 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933717/molecular-and-point-of-care-diagnostics-for-ebola-and-new-threats-national-poct-policy-and-guidelines-will-stop-epidemics
#10
Gerald J Kost
U.S. hospitals that admitted Ebola virus disease (EVD) patients mitigated risk by using point-or-care testing (POCT) for critical support in isolation units. Success proved unequivocally the need for POCT. Additionally, molecular diagnostics have been used to help stop new outbreaks, and even handheld diagnostic solutions are emerging. Areas covered: This update of "Molecular detection and point-of-care testing in Ebola virus disease and other threats" [Expert Reviews 2015;15(10):1249-1255], assesses the impact of EVD epidemics, documents insights from recent reviews, summarizes evolving POC molecular technologies, presents General Accountability Office (GAO) recommendations, identifies the role of POC Coordinators, and casts a vision for national POCT policies and guidelines...
June 22, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933627/new-chromane-based-derivatives-as-inhibitors-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-salicylate-synthase-mbti-preliminary-biological-evaluation-and-molecular-modeling-studies
#11
Elena Pini, Giulio Poli, Tiziano Tuccinardi, Laurent Roberto Chiarelli, Matteo Mori, Arianna Gelain, Luca Costantino, Stefania Villa, Fiorella Meneghetti, Daniela Barlocco
Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent worldwide; therefore, the need for new antitubercular drugs is desperate. The recently validated target salicylate synthase MbtI is the first enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of mycobactins, compounds able to chelate iron, an essential cofactor for the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the host. Here, we report on the synthesis and biological evaluation of chromane-based compounds as new potential inhibitors of MbtI. Our approach successfully allowed the identification of a novel lead compound ( 1 ), endowed with a promising activity against this enzyme (IC50 = 55 μM)...
June 21, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933547/impact-of-vegetative-treatment-systems-on-multiple-measures-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-agricultural-wastewater
#12
Lisa M Durso, Daniel N Miller, Christopher G Henry
Wastewater is an important vector of antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARB/G). While there is broad agreement that ARB/G from agricultural (ag) wastewaters can be transported through the environment and may contribute to untreatable infectious disease in humans and animals, there remain large knowledge gaps surrounding applied details on the types and amounts of ARB/G associated with different agricultural wastewater treatment options and different ag production systems. This study evaluates a vegetative treatment system (VTS) built to treat the wastewater from a beef cattle feedlot...
June 21, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933369/meditation-or-exercise-for-preventing-acute-respiratory-infection-mepari-2-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Bruce Barrett, Mary S Hayney, Daniel Muller, David Rakel, Roger Brown, Aleksandra E Zgierska, Shari Barlow, Supriya Hayer, Jodi H Barnet, Elisa R Torres, Christopher L Coe
BACKGROUND: Practice of meditation or exercise may enhance health to protect against acute infectious illness. OBJECTIVE: To assess preventive effects of meditation and exercise on acute respiratory infection (ARI) illness. DESIGN: Randomized controlled prevention trial with three parallel groups. SETTING: Madison, Wisconsin, USA. PARTICIPANTS: Community-recruited adults who did not regularly exercise or meditate...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933063/release-characteristics-of-cellulose-sulphate-capsules-and-production-of-cytokines-from-encapsulated-cells
#14
Brian Salmons, Walter H Gunzburg
The size and speed of release of proteins of different sizes from standard cellulose sulphate capsules (Cell-in-a-Box®) was investigated. Proteins with molecular weights of up to around 70kD can be released. The conformation, charge and concentration of the protein being released play a role in the release kinetics. Small proteins such as cytokines can be easily released. The ability to produce cytokines at a sustained and predefined level from encapsulated cells genetically engineered to overexpress such cytokines and implanted into patients may aid immunotherapies of cancer as well as infectious and other diseases...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933016/potential-therapeutic-applications-of-the-genus-annona-local-and-traditional-uses-and-pharmacology
#15
REVIEW
A M Quílez, M A Fernández-Arche, M D García-Giménez, R De la Puerta
ETHNO-PHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Annona species (Annonaceae) have long been used as traditional herbal medicines by native peoples in tropical areas. In different countries they are used against a large variety of illnesses, such as parasitic and infectious diseases, cancer, diabetes, peptic ulcers, and mental disorders. AIM OF THE STUDY: This review aims to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the research conducted so far on the local and traditional uses, pharmacological activities, mechanism of actions of active compounds, toxicity, and possible interactions with other drugs of the Annona species...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932850/public-health-responses-during-measles-outbreaks-in-elimination-settings-strategies-and-challenges
#16
Paul A Gastañaduy, Emily Banerjee, Chas DeBolt, Pamela Bravo-Alcántara, Samia A Samad, Desiree Pastor, Paul A Rota, Manisha Patel, Natasha S Crowcroft, David N Durrheim
In late September 2016, the Americas became the first region in the world to have eliminated endemic transmission of measles virus. Several other countries have also verified measles elimination, and countries in all six World Health Organization regions have adopted measles elimination goals. The public health strategies used to respond to measles outbreaks in elimination settings are thus becoming relevant to more countries. This review highlights the strategies used to limit measles spread in elimination settings: (1) assembly of an outbreak control committee; (2) isolation of measles cases while infectious; (3) exclusion and quarantining of individuals without evidence of immunity; (4) vaccination of susceptible individuals; (5) use of immunoglobulin to prevent measles in exposed susceptible high-risk persons; (6) and maintaining laboratory proficiency for confirmation of measles...
June 22, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932828/perceptions-of-physical-sexual-health-among-young-men-who-have-sex-with-men-with-a-previous-history-of-childhood-sexual-abuse
#17
Roberta E Emetu
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been reported to be disproportionately higher among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) than among heterosexual men. Most research and public health programs among YMSM CSA survivors have been mainly infectious disease-based, and research on the physical sexual health among this group is limited. This study sought to further understand components of physical sexual health among YMSM with CSA histories. Sixteen participants were recruited, and through a phenomenological approach, semi-structured interviews were conducted...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932335/engineering-dendritic-cells-based-vaccines-and-pd-1-blockade-in-self-assembled-peptide-nanofibrous-hydrogel-to-amplify-antitumor-t-cell-immunity
#18
Pengxiang Yang, Huijuan Song, Yibo Qin, Pingsheng Huang, Chuangnian Zhang, Deling Kong, Weiwei Wang
Dendritic cells (DCs) are increasingly used in cancer vaccines due to their ability to regulate T-cell immunity. Major limitations associated with the present DCs adoptive transfer immunotherapy are low cell viability and transient duration of transplanted DCs at the vaccination site, and the lack of recruitment of host DCs, leading to unsatisfactory T-cell immune response. Here, we developed a novel vaccine nodule comprising a simple physical mixture of the peptide nanofibrous hydrogel, DCs and tumor antigens...
June 22, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932303/quantitative-crotonylome-analysis-expands-the-roles-of-p300-in-the-regulation-of-lysine-crotonylation-pathway
#19
He Huang, Dan-Li Wang, Yingming Zhao
Lysine crotonylation (Kcr) is a recently identified PTM that is regulated by an acetyltransferase, p300. The p300-catalyzed histone Kcr is able to stimulate transcription to a greater degree than the well-studied histone lysine acetylation (Kac). Despite these progresses, the global Kcr substrates regulated by p300 remain largely unknown, hindering efforts to establish mechanistic links between Kcr and p300-mediated phenotypes. Here, we used quantitative proteomics to characterize the p300-regulated lysine crotonylome in wild type (WT) and p300 knockout (KO) cells...
June 22, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932228/the-atp-binding-protein-fgarb1-is-essential-for-penetration-infectious-and-normal-growth-of-fusarium-graminearum
#20
Yanni Yin, Zhihui Wang, Danni Cheng, Xiang Chen, Yun Chen, Zhonghua Ma
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters act mainly to transport compounds across cellular membranes and are important for diverse biological processes. However, their roles in pathogenesis have not been well-characterized in Fusarium graminearum. Sixty F. graminearum ABC protein genes were functionally characterized. Among them, FgArb1 regulates normal growth and importantly is essential for pathogenicity. Thus, the regulatory mechanisms of FgArb1 in pathogenicity were analyzed in this study. FgArb1 interacts with the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) FgSte7, and partially modulates plant penetration by regulating the phosphorylation of FgGpmk1 (the downstream kinase of FgSte7)...
June 22, 2018: New Phytologist
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