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obesity genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474345/opioid-related-genetic-polymorphisms-do-not-influence-postoperative-opioid-requirement-a-prospective-observational-study
#1
Frédéric Aubrun, Noël Zahr, Olivier Langeron, Nicolas Boccheciampe, Nathalie Cozic, Lisa Belin, Jean-Sebastien Hulot, Frederic Khiami, Bruno Riou
BACKGROUND: Among the various factors that may influence the pharmacological response to opioids, genetic polymorphisms [single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)] have generated some interest. OBJECTIVES: To examine the influence on morphine dose requirements and adverse events in the postoperative period of four SNP [opioid receptor mu1 (OPRM1), ATP-binding cassette subfamily B, member 1 (ABCB1) ex-21 and ex-26, catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT)] in candidate genes involved in morphine pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics...
February 22, 2018: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473039/surfactant-protein-d-in-respiratory-and-non-respiratory-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Grith L Sorensen
Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a multimeric collectin that is involved in innate immune defense and expressed in pulmonary, as well as non-pulmonary, epithelia. SP-D exerts antimicrobial effects and dampens inflammation through direct microbial interactions and modulation of host cell responses via a series of cellular receptors. However, low protein concentrations, genetic variation, biochemical modification, and proteolytic breakdown can induce decomposition of multimeric SP-D into low-molecular weight forms, which may induce pro-inflammatory SP-D signaling...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471561/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children
#3
Jake P Mann, Luca Valenti, Eleonora Scorletti, Christopher D Byrne, Valerio Nobili
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, a progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is one of the most common hepatic diseases in children who present with particular risk factors including obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and/or a predisposing genetic background. The worldwide prevalence of NAFLD in children is a worrying phenomenon because this disease is closely associated with the development of both cirrhosis and cardiometabolic syndrome in adulthood. To date, the etiopathogenesis of primary NAFLD in children is unknown...
February 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471012/pediatric-fatty-liver-disease-pefld-all-is-not-nafld-pathophysiological-insights-and-approach-to-management
#4
REVIEW
Robert Hegarty, Maesha Deheragoda, Emer Fitzpatrick, Anil Dhawan
The recognition of a pattern of steatotic liver injury where histology mimicked alcoholic liver disease but alcohol consumption was denied, led to the identification of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has since become the most common chronic liver disease in adults owing to the global epidemic of obesity. However, in pediatrics, the term NAFLD seems incongruous: alcohol consumption is largely not a factor and inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) can mimic or co-exist with a diagnosis of NAFLD...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470286/genetic-variants-associated-with-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-in-hispanic-boys-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#5
John C Rausch, Joel E Lavine, Naga Chalasani, Xiuqing Guo, Soonil Kwon, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Jean P Molleston, Rohit Loomba, Elizabeth M Brunt, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Mark O Goodarzi, Kent D Taylor, Katherine P Yates, Jerome I Rotter
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) disproportionately affects Hispanic boys. Further, obesity and insulin resistance are major risk factors for NAFLD. No gene localization studies had been performed on children with biopsy-proven NAFLD. This study aims to identify genomic variants associated with increased adiposity and insulin resistance in a population of children with varying histologic severity of NAFLD. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association scan (GWAS) including 624,297 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed among all 22 autosomal chromosomes in 234 Hispanic boys (up to 18 years of age) who were consecutively recruited in a prospective cohort study in the Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network Studies...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469042/more-evidence-for-the-genetic-susceptibility-of-mexican-population-to-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-through-pnpla3
#6
Paulina Chinchilla-López, Oscar Ramírez-Pérez, Vania Cruz-Ramón, Samuel Canizales-Quinteros, Aarón Domínguez-López, Guadalupe Ponciano-Rodríguez, Fausto Sánchez-Muñoz, Nahum Méndez-Sánchez
BACKGROUND: The gene for patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3) is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development. We previously found that Mexican indigenous population had the highest frequency reported of the PNPLA3 148M risk allele. Further, we observed a relationship between M148M genotype with elevated ALT levels in individuals with normal weight, overweight and obese. We sought to investigate whether PNPLA3 polymorphism is associated with NAFLD development in Mexicans...
March 1, 2018: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468452/leptin-regulates-the-pro-inflammatory-response-in-human-epidermal-keratinocytes
#7
Moonyoung Lee, Eunyoung Lee, Sun Hee Jin, Sungjin Ahn, Sae On Kim, Jungmin Kim, Dalwoong Choi, Kyung-Min Lim, Seung-Taek Lee, Minsoo Noh
The role of leptin in cutaneous wound healing process has been suggested in genetically obese mouse studies. However, the molecular and cellular effects of leptin on human epidermal keratinocytes are still unclear. In this study, the whole-genome-scale microarray analysis was performed to elucidate the effect of leptin on epidermal keratinocyte functions. In the leptin-treated normal human keratinocytes (NHKs), we identified the 151 upregulated and 53 downregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis with the leptin-induced DEGs suggests that leptin regulates NHKs to promote pro-inflammatory responses, extracellular matrix organization, and angiogenesis...
February 21, 2018: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467283/activation-of-hypothalamic-rip-cre-neurons-promotes-beiging-of-wat-via-sympathetic-nervous-system
#8
Baile Wang, Ang Li, Xiaomu Li, Philip Wl Ho, Donghai Wu, Xiaoqi Wang, Zhuohao Liu, Kelvin Kl Wu, Sonata Sy Yau, Aimin Xu, Kenneth Ky Cheng
Activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and beige fat by cold increases energy expenditure. Although their activation is known to be differentially regulated in part by hypothalamus, the underlying neural pathways and populations remain poorly characterized. Here, we show that activation of rat-insulin-promoter-Cre (RIP-Cre) neurons in ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) preferentially promotes recruitment of beige fat via a selective control of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) outflow to subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT), but has no effect on BAT Genetic ablation of APPL2 in RIP-Cre neurons diminishes beiging in sWAT without affecting BAT, leading to cold intolerance and obesity in mice...
February 21, 2018: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466739/genetic-ablation-of-mir-33-increases-food-intake-enhances-adipose-tissue-expansion-and-promotes-obesity-and-insulin-resistance
#9
Nathan L Price, Abhishek K Singh, Noemi Rotllan, Leigh Goedeke, Allison Wing, Alberto Canfrán-Duque, Alberto Diaz-Ruiz, Elisa Araldi, Ángel Baldán, Joao-Paulo Camporez, Yajaira Suárez, Matthew S Rodeheffer, Gerald I Shulman, Rafael de Cabo, Carlos Fernández-Hernando
While therapeutic modulation of miRNAs provides a promising approach for numerous diseases, the promiscuous nature of miRNAs raises concern over detrimental off-target effects. miR-33 has emerged as a likely target for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, the deleterious effects of long-term anti-miR-33 therapies and predisposition of miR-33-/- mice to obesity and metabolic dysfunction exemplify the possible pitfalls of miRNA-based therapies. Our work provides an in-depth characterization of miR-33-/- mice and explores the mechanisms by which loss of miR-33 promotes insulin resistance in key metabolic tissues...
February 20, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466054/the-role-of-rpgrip1l-a-component-of-the-primary-cilium-in-adipocyte-development-and-function
#10
Jayne F Martin Carli, Charles A LeDuc, Yiying Zhang, George Stratigopoulos, Rudolph L Leibel
Genetic variants within the FTO (α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase) gene have been strongly associated with a modest increase in adiposity as a result of increased food intake. These risk alleles are associated with decreased expression of both FTO and neighboring RPGRIP1L (retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator-interacting protein 1 like). RPGRIP1L encodes a protein that is critical to the function of the primary cilium, which conveys extracellular information to the cell. Rpgrip1l+/- mice exhibit increased adiposity, in part, as a result of hyperphagia...
February 21, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466028/analysis-of-the-impact-of-common-polymorphisms-of-the-fto-and-mc4r-genes-with-the-risk-of-severe-obesity-in-saudi-arabian-population
#11
Cyril Cyrus, Mona H Ismail, Shahanas Chathoth, Chittibabu Vatte, Majd Hasen, Amein Al Ali
BACKGROUND: Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide resulting in a serious public health problem. In Saudi Arabia, 28.7% of the population is obese due largely to the adoption of western dietary patterns over the last decade. The Fat-mass and obesity associated (FTO) and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) genes are ubiquitously expressed in the brain and pancreatic islets, and are the main link between the central nervous system and energy homeostasis based on food intake and energy expenditure...
February 21, 2018: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464908/beauty-and-the-body-of-the-beholder-raters-bmi-has-only-limited-association-with-ratings-of-attractiveness-of-the-opposite-sex
#12
Guanlin Wang, Chima A Ekeleme-Egedigwe, Asmaa El Hamdouchi, Justina Sauciuvenaite, Ruth Bissland, Kurosh Djafarian, Robert Ojiambo, Harris Ramuth, Sandra Holasek, Sonja Lackner, Adama Diouf, Catherine Hambly, Lobke M Vaanholt, Minxuan Cao, Megan Hacker, Herculina S Kruger, Tumelo Seru, Mark D Faries, John R Speakman
OBJECTIVE: Assortative mating for adiposity increases the genetic burden on offspring, but its causes remain unclear. One hypothesis is that people who have high adiposity find other people with obesity more physically attractive than lean people. METHODS: The attractiveness of sets of images of males and females who varied in adiposity were rated by opposite sex subjects (559 males and 340 females) across 12 countries. RESULTS: There was tremendous individual variability in attractiveness ratings...
March 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464904/genetics-of-obesity-in-consanguineous-populations-toward-precision-medicine-and-the-discovery-of-novel-obesity-genes
#13
REVIEW
Sadia Saeed, Muhammad Arslan, Philippe Froguel
OBJECTIVE: Consanguinity has been instrumental in the elucidation of many Mendelian genetic diseases. Here, the unique advantage of consanguineous populations was considered in the quest for genes causing obesity. METHODS: PubMed was searched for articles relevant to consanguinity and obesity published between 1995 and 2016. Some earlier articles of interest were also consulted. RESULTS: Although obesity is the most heritable disorder, even in outbred populations, only 2% to 5% of severe obesity cases have so far been proven to be caused by single gene mutations...
March 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464546/gene-diet-related-factors-of-hyperglycaemia-in-postmenopausal-women
#14
Bogna Grygiel-Górniak, Elżbieta Kaczmarek, Maria Mosor, Juliusz Przysławski, Jerzy Nowak
As ageing and increased body fat are the signs of insulin resistance, we have studied whether the presence of Pro12Ala and C1431T of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 gene and Trp64Arg of beta 3-adrenergic receptor gene may predispose to the hyperglycaemia development in postmenopausal women, who have never undergone hypoglycaemic treatment. The distributions of selected allele and genotype frequencies were determined by the PCR-RFLP method in normo- and hyperglycaemic, who have never been diagnosed and treated for diabetes mellitus were measured...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Applied Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462242/gonadotropins-and-their-receptors-co-evolution-genetic-variants-receptor-imaging-and-functional-antagonists
#15
Aaron J Hsueh, Jiahuan He
Gonadotropins belong to the family of dimeric glycoprotein hormones and regulate gonadal physiology mediated by G protein-coupled, seven-transmembrane receptors. These glycoprotein hormones are widely used in the clinic to promote ovarian follicle development and for treating some cases of male infertility. We traced the co-evolution of dimeric gonadotropin hormones and their receptors, together with thyrotropin and its receptor. We updated recent findings on human genetic variants of these genes and their association with dizygotic twining, polycystic ovarian syndrome, primary ovarian insufficiency, male-limited precocious puberty and infertility...
February 15, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462191/higher-serum-choline-and-betaine-levels-are-associated-with-better-body-composition-in-male-but-not-female-population
#16
Xiang Gao, Edward Randell, Haicheng Zhou, Guang Sun
BACKGROUND: Animal studies proved that choline and betaine have beneficial effect on reducing body fat. However, evidence in humans is scarce. We aim to investigate the association between serum choline and betaine levels with body composition in general population. METHODS: This is an observational cross-sectional study performed in 1081 subjects from the CODING (Complex Disease in Newfoundland population: Environment and Genetics) study. Serum choline and betaine levels were measured based on liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry technology...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462177/improving-stability-of-prediction-models-based-on-correlated-omics-data-by-using-network-approaches
#17
Renaud Tissier, Jeanine Houwing-Duistermaat, Mar Rodríguez-Girondo
Building prediction models based on complex omics datasets such as transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics remains a challenge in bioinformatics and biostatistics. Regularized regression techniques are typically used to deal with the high dimensionality of these datasets. However, due to the presence of correlation in the datasets, it is difficult to select the best model and application of these methods yields unstable results. We propose a novel strategy for model selection where the obtained models also perform well in terms of overall predictability...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461227/-the-differentiated-approach-to-prevention-of-neural-tube-defects-in-children
#18
N Kotova, V Maichuk, O Fedorenko
Neural tube defects occupy second place in frequency after the defects of the cardiovascular system. The folate metabolism violation and hyperhomocysteinemia in women are proved to be the leading risk factors for the NTD of the fetus. Polymorphism of the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) is a genetic determinant of folate metabolism violation. Admission of folic acid in a standard dose of 0.4 mg and / or the use of fortified foods does not allow reaching the protective level of folic acid if there is a mutation of the MTHFR gene or when several risk factors combine, which requires a higher dose of folic acid...
January 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459739/localization-of-adaptive-variants-in-human-genomes-using-averaged-one-dependence-estimation
#19
Lauren Alpert Sugden, Elizabeth G Atkinson, Annie P Fischer, Stephen Rong, Brenna M Henn, Sohini Ramachandran
Statistical methods for identifying adaptive mutations from population genetic data face several obstacles: assessing the significance of genomic outliers, integrating correlated measures of selection into one analytic framework, and distinguishing adaptive variants from hitchhiking neutral variants. Here, we introduce SWIF(r), a probabilistic method that detects selective sweeps by learning the distributions of multiple selection statistics under different evolutionary scenarios and calculating the posterior probability of a sweep at each genomic site...
February 19, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457329/the-companion-dog-as-a-model-for-human-aging-and-mortality
#20
Jessica M Hoffman, Kate E Creevy, Alexander Franks, Dan G O'Neill, Daniel E L Promislow
Around the world, human populations have experienced large increases in average lifespan over the last 150 years, and while individuals are living longer, they are spending more years of life with multiple chronic morbidities. Researchers have used numerous laboratory animal models to understand the biological and environmental factors that influence aging, morbidity, and longevity. However, the most commonly studied animal species, laboratory mice and rats, do not experience environmental conditions similar to those to which humans are exposed, nor do we often diagnose them with many of the naturally occurring pathologies seen in humans...
February 19, 2018: Aging Cell
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