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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775628/-cost-effectiveness-of-interventions-to-improve-hand-hygiene-in-healthcare-workers-in-middle-income-hospital-settings-a-model-based-analysis
#1
Nantasit Luangasanatip, Maliwan Hongsuwan, Yoel Lubell, Direk Limmathurotsakul, Pramot Srisamang, Nicholas Pj Day, Nicholas Graves, Ben S Cooper
BACKGROUND: Multimodal interventions are effective in increasing hand hygiene (HH) compliance amongst healthcare workers, but it is not known whether such interventions are cost-effective outside high-income countries. AIM: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of multimodal hospital interventions to improve hand hygiene (HH) compliance in a middle-income country. METHOD: We adopted a conservative approach by developing a model to determine whether reductions in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections (MRSA-BSI) alone would make HH interventions cost-effective in intensive care units (ICUs)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774152/acquisition-of-double-mutation-in-gyra-caused-high-resistance-to-sitafloxacin-in-helicobacter-pylori-after-unsuccessful-eradication-with-sitafloxacin-containing-regimens
#2
Hideki Mori, Hidekazu Suzuki, Juntaro Matsuzaki, Tatsuhiro Masaoka, Takanori Kanai
Background and aim: Although sitafloxacin (STFX)-containing regimens are effective rescue treatments for Helicobacter pylori infection, prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance in H. pylori has increased rapidly worldwide. The change in resistance levels and gyrA mutations, a major cause of fluoroquinolone resistance, after unsuccessful STFX-containing treatment has not been investigated. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, non-randomized study to compare the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of STFX and the location of gyrA mutations in H...
April 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774093/distribution-of-virulence-associated-genes-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-in-clinical-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolates
#3
Chao Liu, Yaowen Chang, Ying Xu, Yun Luo, Linrong Wu, Zhanjun Mei, Shigang Li, Rui Wang, Xu Jia
Acinetobacter baumannii is undoubtedly one of the most clinically significant pathogens. The multidrug resistance and virulence potential of A. baumannii are responsible for hospital-acquired nosocomial infections. Unlike numerous investigations on the drug-resistant epidemiology of A. baumanni , virulence molecular epidemiology is less studied. Here, we collected 88 A. baumannii clinical isolates, tested their antimicrobial susceptibility to 10 commonly used antibiotics and analyzed the distribution of 9 selected virulence-associated genes, aims to investigate the primary characteristics of the virulence-associated genes that exist in clinically multidrug resistant (MDR) and non-MDR isolates of A...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772393/unexpected-mechanisms-of-resistance-in-dutch-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolates-collected-during-fourteen-years-of-surveillance
#4
P D Croughs, C H W Klaassen, J van Rosmalen, D M Maghdid, S A Boers, J P Hays, W H F Goessens
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most important causes of infection in the intensive care unit. It is intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics and easily acquires additional resistance genes via horizontal gene transfer of mobile genetic elements. In the present study, 1,528 P. aeruginosa isolates, obtained from a Dutch national surveillance program between the years 1998 and 2011, were analyzed for the presence of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL) genes blaCTX-M , blaSHV , blaTEM , blaBEL , blaPER , blaVEB , blaOXA-10 and metallo-β-Lactamase (MBL) genes blaIMP , blaVIM and blaNDM ...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771684/antibiotic-treatment-induced-secondary-iga-deficiency-enhances-susceptibility-to-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pneumonia
#5
Oliver H Robak, Markus M Heimesaat, Andrey A Kruglov, Sandra Prepens, Justus Ninnemann, Birgitt Gutbier, Katrin Reppe, Hubertus Hochrein, Mark Suter, Carsten J Kirschning, Veena Marathe, Jan Buer, Mathias W Hornef, Markus Schnare, Pascal Schneider, Martin Witzenrath, Stefan Bereswill, Ulrich Steinhoff, Norbert Suttorp, Leif E Sander, Catherine Chaput, Bastian Opitz
Broad-spectrum antibiotics are widely used in patients on intensive care units (ICU), many of which develop hospital-acquired infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Although preceding antimicrobial therapy is known as a major risk factor for P. aeruginosa-induced pneumonia, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate that depletion of the resident microbiota by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment inhibited TLR-dependent production of a proliferation inducing ligand (APRIL), resulting in a secondary IgA deficiency in the lung in mice and human ICU patients...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770546/risk-factors-for-nursing-and-healthcare-associated-urinary-tract-infection
#6
Keiji Sugishita, Toshiaki Saito, Takashi Iwamoto
AIM: In concordance with population aging, the number of patients living in long-term care facilities or who require nursing care has been increasing in Japan. However, little is known about the characteristics of urinary tract infection in these patients. The present study aimed to clarify the background or risk factors for multidrug-resistant urinary tract infection in this patient population. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out of patients aged ≥65 years who presented to Kesennuma City Municipal Motoyoshi Hospital from April 2014 to July 2017 with suspected urinary tract infection and a positive urine culture...
May 17, 2018: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770052/surveillance-of-laboratory-exposures-to-human-pathogens-and-toxins-canada-2016
#7
A Bienek, M Heisz, M Su
Background: Canada recently enacted legislation to authorize the collection of data on laboratory incidents involving a biological agent. This is done by the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) as part of a comprehensive national program that protects Canadians from the health and safety risks posed by human and terrestrial animal pathogens and toxins. Objective: To describe the first year of data on laboratory exposure incidents and/or laboratory-acquired infections in Canada since the Human Pathogens and Toxins Regulations came into effect...
November 2, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769838/selected-biomarkers-correlate-with-the-origin-and-severity-of-sepsis
#8
Michal Holub, Olga Džupová, Michaela Růžková, Alžběta Stráníková, Eva Bartáková, Jan Máca, Jiří Beneš, Heiko Herwald, Ondřej Beran
The microbial etiology and source of sepsis influence the inflammatory response. Therefore, the plasma levels of cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10), chemokines (CCL2/MCP-1, MIP-1 β ), heparin-binding protein (HBP), soluble CD14 (sCD14), and cortisol were analyzed in blood from septic patients obtained during the first 96 hours of intensive care unit hospitalization. The etiology was established in 56 out of a total of 62 patients enrolled in the study. Plasma concentrations of MCP-1, sCD14, IL-6, and IL-10 were significantly higher in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP; n = 10) and infective endocarditis (IE; n = 11) compared to those with bacterial meningitis (BM; n = 18)...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769499/toxoplasma-gondii-seropositivity-and-its-possible-associated-risk-factors-among-pregnant-women-attending-antenatal-clinic-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-dhaka-bangladesh
#9
C R Naheen, S Tarafder, S Khan
Toxoplasmosis is a well-documented cause of bad obstetric history (BOH) and a major reason of congenitally acquired infection. This observational study was conducted to detect the rate of seropositivity of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and observe their risk factors associated with disease transmission attending the antenatal clinic of the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2015 to August 2016. The study subjects included 150 pregnant women of different gestational ages...
April 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768720/bis-cyclic-guanidine-as-a-novel-class-of-compounds-potent-against-clostridium-difficile
#10
Chunhui Li, Peng Teng, Zhong Peng, Peng Sang, Xingmin Sun, Jianfeng Cai
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) symptoms range from diarrhea to severe toxic megacolon and even death. Due to its rapid acquisition of resistance, C. difficile is listed as an urgent antibiotic-resistant threat, and has surpassed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as the most common hospital-acquired infections in the USA. To combat the pathogen, the new structural class of pseudo peptides that exhibit antimicrobial activities could play an important role. Herein, we report that bis-cyclic guanidine compounds that exhibit potent antibacterial activity against C...
May 16, 2018: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764376/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-emergency-department-patients-in-the-united-arab-emirates
#11
Muna Al Jalaf, Hanan Fadali, Rasha Alanee, Firas Najjar, Zulfa Al Deesi, Rania M Seliem, Eric J Nilles
BACKGROUND: Since the 1990s, community-associated methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has emerged as an important global cause of skin and soft tissue infections. Little is known about the epidemiology of this pathogen in the Middle East. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study in a single large teaching hospital in Dubai to identify the incidence of community-acquired methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among ambulatory patients presenting with purulent skin and soft tissue infections...
May 15, 2018: BMC Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759925/metronidazole-in-the-prevention-of-antibiotic-associated-diarrhoea-and-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-high-risk-hospitalised-patients
#12
Marco Tobar-Marcillo, Maria Guerrero-Duran, Ariana Avecillas-Segovia, Lillana Pacchiano-Aleman, Roberto Basante-Díaz, Hiram Vela-Vizcaino, Eduardo Espinosa-Aznar, Pedro Castorena García, Ricardo Santiago-Ramírez, Ixel Rivas-Bucio
BACKGROUND: In-hospital diarrhoea has a high impact on morbidity and mortality rates among hospitalised patients. Chemoprophylaxis with antibiotics in selected patients could be a cost-effective tool for prevention. METHODS: A prospective randomised, open-label study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in Mexico City, selecting patients at high risk of acquiring in-hospital diarrhoea and assigning them to a group taking metronidazole 500mg orally every eight hours for seven days or an observation group...
May 11, 2018: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758310/chemical-synthesis-and-characterization-of-chitosan-silver-nanocomposites-films-and-their-potential-antibacterial-activity
#13
Aamna Shah, Izhar Hussain, Ghulam Murtaza
This study provides the optimum preparation parameters for functional chitosan silver nanocomposite (CSN) films with promising antibacterial efficacy though prepared with very low silver nitrate (AgNO3 ) concentration. Chitosan nano‑silver composites were fabricated by In-situ chemical method utilizing the reducing ability of sodium borohydride (NaBH4 ) and afterward casted into films. Utilization of response surface methodology, NCSS, and SigmaPlot for the optimization of CSN and their predicted antibacterial efficacy assessment of the selected bacterial strains (standard and clinical) was the essential part of the study...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758063/the-impact-of-antibiotic-use-on-transmission-of-resistant-bacteria-in-hospitals-insights-from-an-agent-based-model
#14
Jonatan Almagor, Elizabeth Temkin, Itzhak Benenson, Noga Fallach, Yehuda Carmeli
Extensive antibiotic use over the years has led to the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB). Antibiotic resistance poses a major threat to public health since for many infections antibiotic treatment is no longer effective. Hospitals are focal points for ARB spread. Antibiotic use in hospitals exerts selective pressure, accelerating the spread of ARB. We used an agent-based model to explore the impact of antibiotics on the transmission dynamics and to examine the potential of stewardship interventions in limiting ARB spread in a hospital...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754971/stenotrophomonas-maltophilia
#15
Shi-Qi An, Gabriele Berg
This infographic describes the key regulated traits of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, important for beneficial plant interactions, and also its increasing incidence as a nosocomial and community-acquired infection. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a cosmopolitan and ubiquitous bacterium found in a range of environmental habitats, including extreme ones, although in nature it is mainly associated with plants. S. maltophilia fulfils important ecosystem functions in the sulfur and nitrogen cycles, in degradation of complex compounds and pollutants, and in promoti on of plant growth and health...
May 10, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754581/the-clinical-characteristics-and-therapy-response-of-patients-with-acquired-pure-red-cell-aplasia
#16
Rong Fu, Tian Zhang, Bingnan Liu, Jia Song, Guojin Wang, Lijuan Li, Huaquan Wang, Limin Xing, Yuhong Wu, Jing Guan, Zonghong Shao
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the clinical characteristics of acquired pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) patients diagnosed in our hospital in the last 10 years. METHOD: The clinical features, immune state and treatment response of acquired PRCA patients diagnosed in our hospital from January 2007 to January 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: The results showed that thymoma (13.21%) and parvovirus B19 (11.32%) were the most common causes for secondary PRCA...
May 12, 2018: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754466/temporal-trends-in-paediatric-bacterial-meningitis-in-a-tropical-australian-region-1992-2014
#17
Stephanie White, Hala Katf, Rob Baird, Joshua Francis
AIM: The epidemiology of community-acquired bacterial meningitis has changed following the introduction of routine immunisation against common causative organisms. Indigenous children living in the Northern Territory, Australia, have high rates of bacterial infections. This study describes changes in the epidemiology of childhood bacterial meningitis and the distribution of the burden of disease in the Top End. METHODS: A retrospective review of cases derived from hospital medical records and laboratory data was performed...
May 13, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753621/analysis-of-hospital-infection-register-indicates-that-the-implementation-of-who-surgical-safety-checklist-has-an-impact-on-early-postoperative-neurosurgical-infections
#18
Marjut Westman, Harri Marttila, Melissa Rahi, Esa Rintala, Eliisa Löyttyniemi, Tuija Ikonen
WHO surgical safety checklist has been proven to reduce postoperative infections in several studies. The aim of our study was to focus on surgical site infections (SSIs) after neurosurgical operations, and to determine whether the checklist implementation would have an impact on the reported SSIs. We used hospital-acquired infection (HAI) register to evaluate the effects of WHO surgical safety checklist in neurosurgery. The HAI register was searched for superficial and deep SSIs, deep organ SSIs, infections following orthopaedic implantation, and other surgical infections of 4678 neurosurgical patients operated on between 2007 and 2011...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751127/temporal-trends-and-patterns-in-antimicrobial-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-implicated-in-intensive-care-unit-acquired-infections-a-cohort-based-surveillance-study-in-istanbul-turkey
#19
Bulent Durdu, Evangelos I Kritsotakis, Andrew C K Lee, Perihan Torun, Ismail N Hakyemez, Bilge Gultepe, Turan Aslan
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed trends and patterns in antimicrobial resistant intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in Istanbul, Turkey. METHODS: Bacterial culture and antibiotic susceptibility data were collected for all GNB causing nosocomial infections in five adult ICUs of a large university hospital during 2012-2015. Multi-resistance patterns were categorised as multidrug (MDR), extensively-drug (XDR) and pandrug (PDR)-resistance...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748840/clinical-patterns-epidemiology-and-risk-factors-of-community-acquired-urinary-tract-infection-caused-by-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producers-a-prospective-hospital-case-control-study
#20
Basima A Almomani, Wail A Hayajneh, Abeer M Ayoub, Mera A Ababneh, Miral A Al Momani
PURPOSE: To assess incidence rate, risk factors and susceptibility patterns associated with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae in community-acquired urinary tract infections (CA-UTIs). METHODS: A prospective, case-control study was conducted at a tertiary teaching hospital from Jan 2015 to Dec 2016. The results of microbiology cultures were initially screened to include only patients with positive E. coli or K...
May 10, 2018: Infection
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