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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164228/emg-driven-forward-dynamics-simulation-to-estimate-in-vivo-joint-contact-forces-during-normal-smooth-and-bouncy-gait
#1
Swithin Razu, Trent M Guess
This study leveraged data from the "Sixth Grand Challenge Competition to Predict in Vivo Knee Loads" to create a full-body musculoskeletal model that incorporates subject specific geometries of the right leg in order to concurrently predict knee contact forces, ligament forces, muscle forces, and ground contact forces. The objectives of this paper are twofold: First, to describe an electromyography (EMG)-driven modeling methodology to predict knee contact forces, and second to validate model predictions by evaluating the model predictions against known values for a patient with an instrumented total knee replacement (TKR) for three distinctly different gait styles (normal, smooth, and bouncy gait)...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162658/hand-and-wrist-injuries-among-us-high-school-athletes-2005-06-2015-16
#2
Bernadette K Johnson, Lina Brou, Sarah K Fields, Alexandria N Erkenbeck, R Dawn Comstock
BACKGROUND: The risk of hand/wrist injuries is present across various sports. Little is known about the epidemiology of such injuries. The objective of this study was to calculate the rates of hand/wrist injuries and investigate injury patterns among high school athletes. METHODS: Athlete exposure (AE) and hand/wrist injury data were collected during 11 academic years, 2005/06 through 2015/16, from a large sample of US high schools as part of the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance Study...
November 21, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161829/sex-biased-prevalence-in-infections-with-heterosexual-direct-and-vector-mediated-transmission-a-theoretical-analysis
#3
Andrea Pugliese, Abba B Gumel, Fabio A Milner, Jorge X Velasco-Hernandez
Three deterministic Kermack-McKendrick-type models for studying the transmission dynamics of an infection in a two-sex closed population are analyzed here. In each model it is assumed that infection can be transmitted through heterosexual contacts, and that there is a higher probability of transmission from one sex to the other than vice versa. The study is focused on understanding whether and how this bias in transmission reflects in sex differences in final attack ratios (i.e. the fraction of individuals of each sex that eventually gets infected)...
February 1, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161826/modeling-ebola-virus-disease-transmissions-with-reservoir-in-a-complex-virus-life-ecology
#4
Tsanou Berge, Samuel Bowong, Jean Lubuma, Martin Luther Mann Manyombe
We propose a new deterministic mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in a complex Ebola virus life ecology. Our model captures as much as possible the features and patterns of the disease evolution as a three cycle transmission process in the two ways below. Firstly it involves the synergy between the epizootic phase (during which the disease circulates periodically amongst non-human primates populations and decimates them), the enzootic phase (during which the disease always remains in fruit bats population) and the epidemic phase (during which the EVD threatens and decimates human populations)...
February 1, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160710/evaporation-dynamics-of-mixed-nanocolloidal-sessile-droplets
#5
Binita Pathak, Sandeep Hatte, Saptarshi Basu
Evaporation dynamics of a particle laden droplet has been a topic of interest in recent times due to its widespread applications, ranging from surface patterning to drug delivery systems. The interplay of evaporation induced internal flow dynamics, contact line dynamics and nanoparticle self-assembly govern the morphologies of the residual structures. Fine tuning of these residual structures is thus possible by controlling the governing parameters. A nanoparticle laden sessile droplet placed on a hydrophobic substrate undergoes buckling phenomenon which results in a dome-like structure with cavity on the surface...
November 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158444/hnf1b-controls-epithelial-organization-and-cell-polarity-during-ureteric-bud-branching-and-collecting-duct-morphogenesis
#6
Audrey Desgrange, Claire Heliot, Ilya Skovorodkin, Saad U Akram, Janne Heikkilä, Veli-Pekka Ronkainen, Ilkka Miinalainen, Seppo J Vainio, Silvia Cereghini
Kidney development depends critically on proper ureteric bud branching giving rise to the entire collecting duct system. The transcription factor HNF1B is required for the early steps of ureteric bud branching. Yet, the molecular and cellular events regulated by HNF1B are poorly understood. We report that specific removal of Hnf1b from the ureteric bud leads to defective cell-cell contacts and apico-basal polarity during the early branching events. High resolution ex vivo imaging combined with a membranous fluorescent reporter strategy show decreased mutant cell-rearrangements during mitosis-associated cell dispersal and severe epithelial disorganisation...
November 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158378/kinship-structures-create-persistent-channels-for-language-transmission
#7
J Stephen Lansing, Cheryl Abundo, Guy S Jacobs, Elsa G Guillot, Stefan Thurner, Sean S Downey, Lock Yue Chew, Tanmoy Bhattacharya, Ning Ning Chung, Herawati Sudoyo, Murray P Cox
Languages are transmitted through channels created by kinship systems. Given sufficient time, these kinship channels can change the genetic and linguistic structure of populations. In traditional societies of eastern Indonesia, finely resolved cophylogenies of languages and genes reveal persistent movements between stable speech communities facilitated by kinship rules. When multiple languages are present in a region and postmarital residence rules encourage sustained directional movement between speech communities, then languages should be channeled along uniparental lines...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158224/a-novel-fluorescent-reporter-detects-plastic-remodeling-of-mitochondria-er-contact-sites
#8
Zhaoying Yang, Xiaocui Zhao, Jiashen Xu, Weina Shang, Chao Tong
Mitochondria-ER contact sites (MERCs) enable communication between ER and mitochondria and serve as platforms for many cellular events, including autophagy. Nonetheless, the molecular organization of MERCs is not known, and there is no bona fide marker of these contact sites in mammalian cells. In this study, we designed a genetically encoded reporter using split super-folder GFP protein for labeling MERCs. We subsequently analyzed its distribution and dynamics during the cell cycle and under normal or stressful cellular conditions such as starvation, apoptosis, and ER stress...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155593/dynamical-density-functional-theory-for-the-evaporation-of-droplets-of-nanoparticle-suspension
#9
Christopher Chalmers, Roger Smith, Andrew J Archer
We develop a lattice gas model for the drying of droplets of a nanoparticle suspension on a planar surface, using dynamical density functional theory (DDFT) to describe the time evolution of the solvent and nanoparticle density profiles. The DDFT assumes a diffusive dynamics but does not include the advective hydrodynamics of the solvent, so the model is relevant to highly viscous or near to equilibrium systems. Nonetheless, we see an equivalent of the coffee-ring stain effect, but in the present model it occurs for thermodynamic rather the fluid-mechanical reasons...
November 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152194/seasonal-variation-in-daily-patterns-of-social-contacts-in-the-european-badger-meles-meles
#10
Matthew J Silk, Nicola Weber, Lucy C Steward, Richard J Delahay, Darren P Croft, David J Hodgson, Mike Boots, Robbie A McDonald
Social interactions among hosts influence the persistence and spread of infectious pathogens. Daily and seasonal variation in the frequency and type of social interactions will play an important role in disease epidemiology and, alongside other factors, may have an influence on wider disease dynamics by causing seasonal forcing of infection, especially if the seasonal variation experienced by a population is considerable. We explored temporal variation in within-group contacts in a high-density population of European badgers Meles meles naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis)...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152017/manipulating-mammalian-cell-morphologies-using-chemical-mechanical-polished-integrated-circuit-chips
#11
Hassan I Moussa, Megan Logan, Geoffrey C Siow, Darron L Phann, Zheng Rao, Marc G Aucoin, Ting Y Tsui
Tungsten chemical-mechanical polished integrated circuits were used to study the alignment and immobilization of mammalian (Vero) cells. These devices consist of blanket silicon oxide thin films embedded with micro- and nano-meter scale tungsten metal line structures on the surface. The final surfaces are extremely flat and smooth across the entire substrate, with a roughness in the order of nanometers. Vero cells were deposited on the surface and allowed to adhere. Microscopy examinations revealed that cells have a strong preference to adhere to tungsten over silicon oxide surfaces with up to 99% of cells adhering to the tungsten portion of the surface...
2017: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151999/mid-term-outcomes-after-open-reduction-internal-fixation-of-proximal-interphalangeal-joint-dorsal-fracture-dislocations-through-a-volar-shotgun-approach-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#12
REVIEW
Juan Marcelo Giugale, Juntian Wang, Robert A Kaufmann, John R Fowler
Background: Proximal interphalangeal (PIP) fracture dislocations remain a complex injury pattern to treat. There are several treatment methods available aimed to restore stability, preserve range of motion, and reconstitute the articular surface. This study looked at the mid-term clinical and radiographic results of open reduction internal fixation through a shotgun approach of comminuted PIP fracture dislocations. Methods: A retrospective review was conducted of all PIP fracture dislocations treated through a volar, shotgun approach at a single institution over a 15-year period...
2017: Open Orthopaedics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150270/m-biceps-femoris-a-wolf-in-sheep-s-clothing-the-downside-of-a-lower-limb-injury-prevention-training
#13
Thomas Ertelt, Thomas Gronwald
Both, hamstring and ACL injuries are among the most typical injuries, particularly in change of direction and high speed running sports. They're also difficult to treat. Therefore, in the past few years, sports medicine practitioners and exercise scientists have mainly been focusing on the development and implementation of preventive programs in order to reduce the number of lower limb injuries, mainly by improving knee alignment. A number of studies have been able to prove the success of these training interventions, which are mainly addressing sensorimotor abilities and plyometric activities...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148057/clinical-patterns-of-compositae-dermatitis-in-danish-monosensitized-patients
#14
Evy Paulsen, Klaus E Andersen
BACKGROUND: Compositae dermatitis was originally described as airborne contact dermatitis. More recent studies have reported a wider clinical spectrum, but often in polysensitized patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical features of patients sensitized to Compositae only. PATIENTS/METHODS: Consecutive Compositae-sensitive eczema patients, tested between 1990 and 2015, who, at the patch testing session diagnosing their Compositae allergy, were found to be sensitized only to the plant family, were included...
November 17, 2017: Contact Dermatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147568/environmental-influences-on-the-skin-microbiome-of-humans-and-cattle-in-rural-madagascar
#15
Melissa B Manus, James J Yu, Lawrence P Park, Olaf Mueller, Sarah C Windsor, Julie E Horvath, Charles L Nunn
Background and objectives: The skin harbors a dynamic community of microorganisms, where contact with humans, other animals and the environment can alter microbial communities. Most research on the human skin microbiome features Western populations living in hygienic conditions, yet these populations have vastly different patterns of environmental contact than the majority of people on Earth, including those living in developing countries. Methodology: We studied skin microbial communities of humans and cattle (zebu) in rural Madagascar to investigate how zebu ownership affects microbial composition of the human skin, and to characterize non-Western human and zebu skin communities more generally...
2017: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144996/new-roles-and-controls-of-mast-cells
#16
REVIEW
Eric Espinosa, Salvatore Valitutti
Mast cells are innate immune cells implicated in immune surveillance and defense. They are filled with secretory granules where a vast array of molecules endowed with multiple biological activities are stored. The process of granule secretion, named degranulation, is a tightly controlled biological phenomenon that allows mast cells to rapidly and efficiently release bioactive mediators in response to extracellular stimuli. MC degranulation allows fighting pathogens, limiting envenomation and contributes to tissue homeostasis...
November 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144568/kinematic-analysis-of-pressing-situations-in-female-collegiate-football-games-new-insight-into-acl-injury-causation
#17
Shogo Sasaki, Hideyuki Koga, Tron Krosshaug, Satoshi Kaneko, Toru Fukubayashi
The most common events during which anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries occur in football are pressing situations. This study aimed to describe the knee and hip joint kinematics during pressing situations in football games in order to identify kinematic patterns in actions with a high risk for ACL injuries. We filmed 5 female collegiate football matches and identified 66 pressing situations. Five situations with a large distance between the trunk and foot placements in the sagittal plane were analysed using a model-based image-matching technique...
November 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144214/circadian-rhythms-of-trematode-parasites-applying-mixed-models-to-test-underlying-patterns
#18
Emily R Hannon, Dana M Calhoun, Sindhu Chadalawada, Pieter T J Johnson
Circadian rhythms of parasites and their hosts can influence processes such as transmission, pathology and life cycle evolution. For trematode parasites that depend on free-living infectious stages (i.e. cercariae) to move among host species, the timing of parasite release is hypothesized to increase the likelihood of contacting a host. Yet, a persistent challenge in studying such biorhythms involves selection of appropriate analytical techniques. Here, we extend a generalized linear mixed modelling (GLMM) framework to cosinor analyses, thereby allowing flexibility in the statistical distribution of the response variable, incorporation of multiple covariates and inclusion of hierarchical grouping effects...
November 16, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141765/bionomics-and-spatial-distribution-of-triatomine-vectors-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-in-texas-and-other-southern-states-usa
#19
Rachel Curtis-Robles, Sarah A Hamer, Sage Lane, Michael Z Levy, Gabriel L Hamer
Defining spatial and temporal occurrences of triatomine vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease, in the US is critical for public health protection. Through a citizen science program and field collections from 2012 to 2016, we collected 3,215 triatomines, mainly from Texas. Using morphological and molecular approaches, we identified seven Triatoma species and report sex, length, and blood engorgement status. Many citizen-collected triatomines (92.9%) were encountered indoors, in peridomestic settings, or in dog kennels and represent spillover transmission risk of T...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141506/triathlon-transition-study-quantifying-differences-in-running-movement-pattern-and-precision-after-bike-run-transition
#20
Christian Weich, Randall L Jensen, Manfred Vieten
Various publications discuss the discrepancies of running in triathlons and stand-alone runs. However, those methods, such as analysing step-characteristics or ground-contact time, lack the ability to quantitatively discriminate between subtle running differences. The attractor method can be applied to overcome those shortcomings. The purpose was to detect differences in athletes' running patterns (δM) and movement precision (δD) by comparing a 5,000 m run after a prior cycling session (TRun) with an isolated run over the same distance (IRun)...
November 15, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
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