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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079830/geographic-coverage-of-male-circumcision-in-western-kenya
#1
Adam Akullian, Mathews Onyango, Daniel Klein, Jacob Odhiambo, Anna Bershteyn
Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention has scaled up rapidly among young men in western Kenya since 2008. Whether the program has successfully reached uncircumcised men evenly across the region is largely unknown. Using data from two cluster randomized surveys from the 2008 and 2014 Kenyan Demographic Health Survey (KDHS), we mapped the continuous spatial distribution of circumcised men by age group across former Nyanza Province to identify geographic areas where local circumcision prevalence is lower than the overall, regional prevalence...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079352/the-way-forward-in-italy-for-iodine
#2
Antonella Olivieri, Caterina DI Cosmo, Simona DE Angelis, Roberto DA Cas, Paolo Stacchini, Augusto Pastorelli, Paolo Vitti
Italy is dealing with iodine deficiency since ancient times. Indeed, iodine deficiency disorders, specifically goiter and cretinism, have been reported in some regions of Northern Italy already in the first century AD. However, a clear relationship between endemic goiter and endemic cretinism was recognized only in 1848 by an "ad hoc" committee appointed by the king of Sardinia, which identified extensive areas afflicted by these disorders in Piedmont, Liguria and Sardinia. With the identification in the early 20th century of iodine deficiency as the cause of endemic goiter1 many epidemiological studies were conducted in Italy...
January 12, 2017: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077756/developing-a-risk-based-trading-scheme-for-cattle-in-england-farmer-perspectives-on-managing-trading-risk-for-bovine-tuberculosis
#3
R Little, K Wheeler, S Edge
This paper examines farmer attitudes towards the development of a voluntary risk-based trading scheme for cattle in England as a risk mitigation measure for bovine tuberculosis (bTB). The research reported here was commissioned to gather evidence on the type of scheme that would have a good chance of success in improving the information farmers receive about the bTB risk of cattle they buy. Telephone interviews were conducted with a stratified random sample of 203 cattle farmers in England, splitting the interviews equally between respondents in the high-risk area and low-risk area for bTB...
January 11, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077490/improving-uniformity-in-brain-death-determination-policies-over-time
#4
Hilary H Wang, Panayiotis N Varelas, Galen V Henderson, Eelco F M Wijdicks, David M Greer
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that progress has been made in unifying brain death determination guidelines in the last decade by directly comparing the policies of the US News and World Report's top 50 ranked neurologic institutions from 2006 and 2015. METHODS: We solicited official hospital guidelines in 2015 from these top 50 institutions, generated summary statistics of their criteria as benchmarked against the American Academy of Neurology Practice Parameters (AANPP) and the comparison 2006 cohort in 5 key categories, and statistically compared the 2 cohorts' compliance with the AANPP...
January 11, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077147/the-political-and-scientific-challenges-in-evaluating-compulsory-drug-treatment-centers-in-southeast-asia
#5
Thu Vuong, Nhu Nguyen, Giang Le, Marian Shanahan, Robert Ali, Alison Ritter
BACKGROUND: In Vietnam, like many countries in Southeast Asia, the commonly used approach of center-based compulsory drug treatment (CCT) has been criticized on human rights ground. Meanwhile, community-based voluntary methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been implemented for nearly a decade with promising results. Reform-minded leaders have been seeking empirical evidence of the costs and effectiveness associated with these two main treatment modalities. Conducting evaluations of these treatments, especially where randomization is not ethical, presents challenges...
January 11, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074423/effectiveness-of-risk-evaluation-and-mitigation-strategies-rems-for-lenalidomide-and-thalidomide-patient-comprehension-and-knowledge-retention
#6
Nancy A Brandenburg, Robert Bwire, John Freeman, Florence Houn, Paul Sheehan, Jerome B Zeldis
INTRODUCTION: The effectiveness of patient education activities conducted within the lenalidomide and thalidomide risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) programs was evaluated by measuring understanding of serious risk and safe-use messages. METHODS: Results from mandatory knowledge, attitude, and behavior surveys and voluntary patient surveys completed between June 2012 and June 2013 were analyzed, and responses to questions relating to compliance with birth control measures and understanding of safe-use messages are presented by patient risk category...
January 10, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069356/radiology-reports-what-you-think-you-re-saying-and-what-they-think-you-re-saying
#7
Bonmyong Lee, Matthew T Whitehead
BACKGROUND: Image interpretation and translation into written language is an imperfect process. Yet, the radiology report represents the link between radiologist's opinion and patient's images. Increased access to images through remote viewing stations has made direct communication between radiologists and clinicians less commonplace. We are interested in how accurately the descriptive contents within radiology reports convey the feelings of the radiologist to the referring clinician...
November 16, 2016: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069002/unpacking-early-infant-male-circumcision-decision-making-using-qualitative-findings-from-zimbabwe
#8
Webster Mavhu, Karin Hatzold, Getrude Ncube, Shamiso Fernando, Collin Mangenah, Kumbirai Chatora, Roy Dhlamini, Owen Mugurungi, Ismail Ticklay, Frances M Cowan
BACKGROUND: Early infant male circumcision (EIMC) has been identified as a key HIV prevention intervention. Exploring the decision-making process for adoption of EIMC for HIV prevention among parents and other key stakeholders is critical for designing effective demand creation interventions to maximize uptake, roll out and impact in preventing HIV. This paper describes key players, decisions and actions involved in the EIMC decision-making process. METHODS: Two complementary qualitative studies explored hypothetical and actual acceptability of EIMC in Zimbabwe...
January 9, 2017: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067943/gamma-aminobutyric-acid-gaba-modulators-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-motor-neuron-disease
#9
REVIEW
Andrea Diana, Rita Pillai, Paolo Bongioanni, Aidan G O'Keeffe, Robert G Miller, Dan H Moore
BACKGROUND: Imbalance of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and related modulators has been implicated as an important factor in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which is also known as motor neuron disease (MND). In this context, the role and mechanism of action of gabapentin and baclofen have been extensively investigated, although with conflicting results. This is the first systematic review to assess clinical trials of GABA modulators for the treatment of ALS. OBJECTIVES: To examine the efficacy of gabapentin, baclofen, or other GABA modulators in delaying the progression of ALS, and to evaluate adverse effects of these interventions...
January 9, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064025/plantar-flexor-muscle-weakness-and-fatigue-in-spastic-cerebral-palsy-patients
#10
Daria Neyroud, Stéphane Armand, Geraldo De Coulon, Sarah R Dias Da Silva, Nicola A Maffiuletti, Bengt Kayser, Nicolas Place
BACKGROUND: Patients with cerebral palsy develop an important muscle weakness which might affect the aetiology and extent of exercise-induced neuromuscular fatigue. AIM: This study evaluated the aetiology and extent of plantar flexor neuromuscular fatigue in patients with cerebral palsy. METHODS: Ten patients with cerebral palsy and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals (∼20 years old, 6 females) performed four 30-s maximal isometric plantar flexions interspaced by a resting period of 2-3s to elicit a resting twitch...
January 5, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060035/etiology-and-recovery-of-neuromuscular-fatigue-following-simulated-soccer-match-play
#11
Kevin Thomas, Jack Dent, Glyn Howatson, Stuart Goodall
PURPOSE: We profiled the etiology and recovery of neuromuscular fatigue post-simulated-soccer-match-play. METHODS: Fifteen semi-professional players completed a 90 min simulated soccer match. Pre-, immediately-post and at 24, 48 and 72 h participants completed a battery of neuromuscular, physical and perceptual tests. Perceived fatigue and muscle soreness were assessed via visual analogue scales. Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and twitch responses to electrical (femoral nerve) and magnetic (motor cortex) stimulation during isometric knee-extensor contractions and at rest were measured to assess central (voluntary activation, VA) and peripheral (quadriceps potentiated twitch force, Qtw,pot) fatigue, and responses to single and paired-magnetic stimuli were assessed to quantify corticospinal excitability and short-intracortical inhibition (SICI), respectively...
January 3, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052986/can-voluntary-pooled-procurement-reduce-the-price-of-antiretroviral-drugs-a-case-study-of-efavirenz
#12
Sung Wook Kim, Jolene Skordis-Worrall
PURPOSE: A number of strategies have aimed to assist countries in procuring antiretroviral therapy (ARV) at lower prices. In 2009, as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) commenced a voluntary pooled procurement scheme, however, the impact of the scheme on ARV prices remains uncertain. This study aims to estimate the effect of VPP on drug prices using Efavirenz as a case study. METHODS: This analysis uses WHO Global price report mechanism (GPRM) data from 2004 to 2013...
January 4, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050816/-knuckle-cracking-can-blinded-observers-detect-changes-with-physical-examination-and-sonography
#13
Robert D Boutin, Anuj P Netto, David Nakamura, Cyrus Bateni, Robert M Szabo, Michael Cronan, Brent Foster, William R Barfield, J Anthony Seibert, Abhijit J Chaudhari
BACKGROUND: Voluntary knuckle cracking is a common habit, with a reported prevalence of 25% to 45%. Habitual knuckle cracking also is a frequent source of questions for physicians, and the largest study to date reported an association with functional hand impairments. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) When compared with subjects who are not habitual knuckle crackers, do habitual knuckle crackers have greater QuickDASH scores, swelling, weakness, joint laxity, or ROM? (2) In subjects who crack their knuckles, does cracking immediately increase ROM? (3) What are the characteristic sonographic findings in joints that crack? METHODS: A prospective, institutional review board-approved study was performed on 400 metacarpophalangeal joints (MPJs) in 40 asymptomatic adult subjects...
January 3, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050257/health-related-behaviour-in-relation-to-transition-into-age-retirement-an-observational-study-based-on-hunt3
#14
Jens C Skogen, Simon Øverland, Ann K Knudsen
OBJECTIVES: In western countries, more years are being spent in age retirement. The transition phase into age retirement may be important for physical and mental health in the years following retirement. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether age retirement is associated with changes in the level of physical activity, smoking habits and alcohol habits. DESIGN: Using data on self-reported health-related behaviour from a population-based study (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3)) linked to registry data on age retirement, participants who retired within two years prior to and two years after participating in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (N = 2,197) were compared...
July 2016: JRSM Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048831/su-g-jep4-01-an-assessment-of-a-microsoft-kinect-v2-sensor-for-voluntary-breath-hold-monitoring-in-radiotherapy
#15
D Edmunds, E Donovan
PURPOSE: To determine whether the Microsoft Kinect Version 2 (Kinect v2), a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) depth sensors designed for entertainment purposes, were robust to the radiotherapy treatment environment and could be suitable for monitoring of voluntary breath-hold compliance. This could complement current visual monitoring techniques, and be useful for heart sparing left breast radiotherapy. METHODS: In-house software to control Kinect v2 sensors, and capture output information, was developed using the free Microsoft software development kit, and the Cinder creative coding C++ library...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048814/su-f-j-123-ct-based-determination-of-dibh-variability-and-its-dosimetric-impact-on-post-mastectomy-plus-regional-nodal-radiation-therapy
#16
M Malin, H Kang, K Tatebe, Y Hasan, S Chmura, H Al-Hallaq
PURPOSE: Breast cancer radiotherapy delivered using voluntary deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) requires reproducible breath holds, particularly when matching supraclavicular fields to tangential fields. We studied the impact of variation in DIBHs on CTV and OAR dose metrics by comparing the dose distribution computed on two DIBH CT scans taken at the time of simulation. METHODS: Ten patients receiving 50Gy in 25 fractions to the left chestwall and regional lymph nodes were studied...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047744/we-a-201-01-memorial-introduction
#17
C Marshall
: Chris Marshall: Memorial Introduction Donald Edmonds Herbert Jr., or Don to his colleagues and friends, exemplified the "big tent" vision of medical physics, specializing in Applied Statistics and Dynamical Systems theory. He saw, more clearly than most, that "Making models is the difference between doing science and just fooling around [ref Woodworth, 2004]". Don developed an interest in chemistry at school by "reading a book" - a recurring theme in his story. He was awarded a Westinghouse Science scholarship and attended the Carnegie Institute of Technology (later Carnegie Mellon University) where his interest turned to physics and led to a BS in Physics after transfer to Northwestern University...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047091/we-a-201-02-modern-statistical-modeling
#18
A Niemierko
: Chris Marshall: Memorial Introduction Donald Edmonds Herbert Jr., or Don to his colleagues and friends, exemplified the "big tent" vision of medical physics, specializing in Applied Statistics and Dynamical Systems theory. He saw, more clearly than most, that "Making models is the difference between doing science and just fooling around [ref Woodworth, 2004]". Don developed an interest in chemistry at school by "reading a book" - a recurring theme in his story. He was awarded a Westinghouse Science scholarship and attended the Carnegie Institute of Technology (later Carnegie Mellon University) where his interest turned to physics and led to a BS in Physics after transfer to Northwestern University...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046561/we-a-201-00-anne-and-donald-herbert-distinguished-lectureship-on-modern-statistical-modeling
#19
Joseph Deasy
: Chris Marshall: Memorial Introduction Donald Edmonds Herbert Jr., or Don to his colleagues and friends, exemplified the "big tent" vision of medical physics, specializing in Applied Statistics and Dynamical Systems theory. He saw, more clearly than most, that "Making models is the difference between doing science and just fooling around [ref Woodworth, 2004]". Don developed an interest in chemistry at school by "reading a book" - a recurring theme in his story. He was awarded a Westinghouse Science scholarship and attended the Carnegie Institute of Technology (later Carnegie Mellon University) where his interest turned to physics and led to a BS in Physics after transfer to Northwestern University...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030960/why-female-sex-workers-participate-in-hiv-research-the-illusion-of-voluntariness
#20
Elizabeth Reed, Celia B Fisher, Kim M Blankenship, Brooke S West, Kaveh Khoshnood
The purpose of this study was to examine factors influencing the motivation for and perceived voluntariness of participation in non-intervention HIV research among female sex workers (FSW) in India. FSW (n = 30) who participated in non-intervention HIV studies in the previous three years were recruited from a local community-based organization. Semi-structured qualitative interviews focused on women's personal and economic motivations for participation and their perceptions of the informed consent process...
December 28, 2016: AIDS Care
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