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voluntary reporting

Suzanne Ramírez, Fernando Mejía, Marlene Rojas, Carlos Seas, Patrick Van der Stuyft, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Larissa Otero
BACKGROUND: Since 2006, the Peruvian National TB program (NTP) recommends voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) for all tuberculosis (TB) patients. Responding to the differential burden of both diseases in Peru, TB is managed in peripheral health facilities while HIV is managed in referral centers. This study aims to determine the coverage of HIV screening among TB patients and the characteristics of persons not screened. METHODS: From March 2010 to December 2011 we enrolled new smear-positive pulmonary TB adults in 34 health facilities in a district in Lima...
March 20, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Zaher Nazzal, Hisham Sholi, Suha B Sholi, Mohammad B Sholi, Rawya Lahaseh
BACKGROUND: Mammography screening is an effective tool for early detection and management of breast cancer. Female health-care workers' awareness of breast cancer screening is important because their beliefs and behaviours could influence other women. The aim of this study was to assess mammography screening uptake by female health-care workers at primary health-care centres and to identify the primary motivators and barriers that affect uptake. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included all governmental primary health-care centres in the West Bank...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Trudy Mooren, Yoke Rabaia, Suzan Mitwalli, Relinde Reiffers, Rosemarijn Koenen, Marguerithe de Man
BACKGROUND: Families with a child who has a disability have extra difficulties, particularly when services are hard to reach or less available. In a collaborative project, the Institute of Community and Public Health, the Palestinian community-based rehabilitation programme, and international non-governmental organisations cooperated to share and develop expertise and knowledge on increasing families' resilience through establishing family groups. This contribution focuses on the use of the Multi-Family Approach (MFA) in a Palestinian context...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Farah Averill, Thomas G Brown, Robyn D Robertson, Angeline Tchomgang, Djamal Berbiche, Louise Nadeau, Marie Claude Ouimet
OBJECTIVES: In a pilot randomised controlled trial of contingency management (CM) and transdermal alcohol monitoring (TAM) with driving while impaired by alcohol (DWI) offenders, perceptions regarding the acceptability of a TAM device, recruitment issues, and the impact of CM and TAM on alcohol use over a six-week period were evaluated. The results aimed to inform the design of future trials and programs involving CM and TAM for DWI remediation. METHODS: TAM devices were affixed to 37 voluntary, community-recruited male DWI offenders with problem alcohol use...
March 15, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Renata C Gallagher, Laura Pollard, Anna I Scott, Suzette Huguenin, Stephen Goodman, Qin Sun
Disclaimer: These ACMG Standards are intended as an educational resource for clinical laboratory geneticists to help them provide quality clinical laboratory genetic services. Adherence to these Standards is voluntary and does not necessarily assure a successful medical outcome. These Standards should not be considered inclusive of all proper procedures and tests, or exclusive of others that are reasonably directed to obtaining the same results. In determining the propriety of any specific procedure or test, clinical laboratory geneticists should apply their professional judgment to the specific circumstances presented by the patient or specimen...
March 15, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
T Brusa, D Abler, R Tutuian, C Gingert, J T Heverhagen, M Adamina, L E Brügger, P Büchler
BACKGROUND: A large proportion of age-related fecal incontinence is attributed to weakness or degeneration of the muscles composing the anal continence organ. However, the individual role of these muscles and their functional interplay remain poorly understood. METHODS: This study employs a novel technique based on the combination of MR imaging and FLIP measurements (MR-FLIP) to obtain anatomical and mechanical information simultaneously. Unlike previous methods used to assess the mechanics of the continence organ, MR-FLIP allows inter-individual comparisons and statistical analysis of the sphincter morpho-mechanical parameters...
March 15, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Mohammad Nauzef Mahmood, Laura H C Peeters, Micha Paalman, Gijsbertus J Verkerke, Idsart Kingma, Jaap H van Dieën
BACKGROUND: Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy gradually lose the ability to use different muscles of their body. Consequently, they lose the ability to stabilize their trunk against gravity. This hinders them to effectively perform different daily activities. In this paper, we describe the design, realization and evaluation of a trunk orthosis for these patients that should allow them to move their trunk and maintain stability. METHOD: This study aimed to primarily assess the effectiveness of the trunk support system in terms of unloading of trunk muscles, so only healthy participants were recruited for this phase of the study...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Antoine Haddad, Tarek Bou Assi, Olivier Garraud
Unlike their Western counterparts, some of the Eastern/Southern Mediterranean countries lack centralized coordinated blood transfusion services leading to an unequal blood safety level. This was recently highlighted by a recent World Health Organization (WHO) regional committee report in which WHO urges these countries to establish and implement a national blood system with well-coordinated blood transfusion activities and to make attempts to reach 100% voluntary non-remunerated blood donation. The objective is thus to meet the same levels or standards as Western countries in term of self-sufficiency and blood safety...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Danika Johnson, Robert Mead, Korey Kennelty, David Hahn
BACKGROUND: Over-the-counter (OTC) cough remedies are lightly regulated and their potential side effects may go unrecognized. During 2015, over 282 million cough drops were sold in the United States. A Wisconsin community clinician (RM) made clinical observations suggesting that excessive use of OTC cough drops may exacerbate rather than benefit coughs. The goal of this project was to assess whether menthol in cough drops is related to worse cough symptoms. METHODS: From April 2016 through May 2017, 5 Wisconsin primary care clinics invited adolescent and adult outpatients seeking medical care for an acute or subacute cough to take a voluntary, anonymous, 10-question cough drop use survey that included age, sex, smoking status, cough severity, cough duration, and cough drop use (including type and amount)...
March 2018: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
Damian Jacob Sendler
INTRODUCTION: Erotic asphyxiation is a sexual phenomenon in which one partner reduces the other person's brain oxygen level through strangulation. This study analyzes deaths caused by sexually-motivated strangulation to cases of homicidal choking - summarizing criminal penalties for defendants, depending on the presence of drugs, or alcohol intoxication. METHODS: The mode of analysis involves three sources of data. First, a retrospective chart review of our clinics' two recent cases...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Patrick Grüneberg, Hideki Kadone, Naomi Kuramoto, Tomoyuki Ueno, Yasushi Hada, Masashi Yamazaki, Yoshiyuki Sankai, Kenji Suzuki
Humans employ various control strategies to initiate and maintain bodily movement. In case that the normal gait function is impaired, exoskeleton robots provide motor assistance during therapy. While the robotic control system builds on kinematic gait functions, the patient's voluntary efforts to initiate motion also contribute to the effectiveness of the therapy process. However, it is currently not well understood how voluntary initiation as a subjective capacity affects the physiological level of motor control...
2018: PloS One
Paul W Wanlass, David M Sikorski, Anupama Kizhakkeveettil, Gene S Tobias
OBJECTIVE: To assess students' opinions of the potential influence of taking elective courses in chiropractic techniques and their future practice preferences. METHODS: An anonymous, voluntary survey was conducted among graduating students from a doctor of chiropractic program. The survey included questions regarding the chiropractic technique elective courses they had completed and the potential influence of these courses on their chiropractic technique choices in future practice...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Chiropractic Education
Ryan J Colquhoun, Mitchel A Magrini, Cody T Haun, Tyler W D Muddle, Patrick M Tomko, Micheal J Luera, Cameron S Mackey, Christopher G Vann, Jeffrey S Martin, Kaelin C Young, Jason M DeFreitas, Michael D Roberts, Nathaniel D M Jenkins
Previous investigations have reported a relationship between skeletal muscle phenotype and motor unit (MU) firing parameters during submaximal contractions. The purpose of the current investigation, however, was to examine the relationships between motor unit firing behavior during a maximal voluntary contraction, Myosin Heavy Chain (MHC) isoform content, and various molecular neuromuscular targets of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle in resistance-trained men. Ten resistance-trained males completed a trapezoidal ramp contraction up to 100% of their maximal voluntary isometric strength (MVIC)...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Katrina J Allen, Steve L Taylor
Precautionary allergen labeling (PAL) also known as "may contain" labeling has been applied to many packaged food products around the world. PAL is a voluntary form of labeling whose original intent was to help ensure that packaged foods were as safe as possible for allergic consumers by alerting them to the possible presence of allergen residues resulting from the use of shared processing equipment, shared processing facilities, or other industry practices. However, the proliferation of PAL and the myriad of various phrasing used as PAL statements are confusing to consumers and serve to diminish their quality of life...
March 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Masaki Mogi, Katsuhiko Kohara, Yasuharu Tabara, Kana Tsukuda, Michiya Igase, Masatsugu Horiuchi
Our previous report indicated that sarcopenia is associated with arterial stiffness and cardiovascular death. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in cardiovascular disease and its activation may be correlated with sarcopenia according to basic research. However, few clinical studies have assessed the correlation between skeletal muscle loss and RAS component concentrations in healthy subjects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the excretion of angiotensinogen (AGT) and aldosterone (Ald) in 24-h urine samples and clinical and sarcopenic indices...
March 9, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Jeong-Min Kim, Myoung-Hee Kim, Young-Su Ju, Seung-Sik Hwang, Mina Ha, Bong-Kyu Kim, Kyung Ehi Zoh, Domyung Paek
Background : A 20-year follow-up study on cancer incidence among people living near nuclear power plants in South Korea ended in 2011 with a finding of significantly, but inconsistently, elevated thyroid cancer risk for females. Reanalysis of the original study was carried out to examine the dose-response relationship further, and to investigate any evidence of detection bias. Methods : In addition to replicating the original Cox proportional hazards models, nested case-control analysis was carried out for all subjects and for four different birth cohorts to examine the effects of excluding participants with pre-existing cancer history at enrollment...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Kelly J Gambino-Shirley, Adiam Tesfai, Colin A Schwensohn, Cindy Burnett, Lori Smith, Jennifer M Wagner, Dana Eikmeier, Kirk Smith, Jolianne P Stone, Dawn Updike, Jonas Hines, Lauren N Shade, Beth Tolar, Tong-Jen Fu, Stelios Viazis, Sharon L Seelman, Kathryn Blackshear, Matthew E Wise, Karen P Neil
Background: Nontyphoidal Salmonella is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States. Meal replacement products containing raw and 'superfood' ingredients have gained increasing popularity among consumers in recent years. In January 2016, we investigated a multistate outbreak of infections with a novel strain of Salmonella Virchow. Methods: Cases were defined using molecular subtyping procedures. Commonly reported exposures were compared with responses from healthy people interviewed in the 2006-2007 FoodNet Population Survey...
March 7, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Katarzyna Naylor, Anna Torres, Robert Gałązkowski, Kamil Torres
INTRODUCTION: Paramedics are at risk of occupational exposure, increased by the immediacy of provided treatment. However, the issue has not been acknowledged by any research in Europe up to date. METHODS: The research aimed at assessing the occupational blood exposure among paramedics in Poland. Respondents represented 21 Polish medical institutions. Their participation was voluntary and anonymous. Paramedics were provided with a self-directed job specific questionnaire adapted to Polish conditions from an original North American version...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
Noora Al-Hammadi, Palmira Caparrotti, Carole Naim, Jillian Hayes, Katherine Rebecca Benson, Ana Vasic, Hissa Al-Abdulla, Rabih Hammoud, Saju Divakar, Primoz Petric
Background: During radiotherapy of left-sided breast cancer, parts of the heart are irradiated, which may lead to late toxicity. We report on the experience of single institution with cardiac-sparing radiotherapy using voluntary deep inspiration breath hold (V-DIBH) and compare its dosimetric outcome with free breathing (FB) technique. Patients and methods: Left-sided breast cancer patients, treated at our department with postoperative radiotherapy of breast/chest wall +/- regional lymph nodes between May 2015 and January 2017, were considered for inclusion...
March 2018: Radiology and Oncology
Christopher J Udell, Julie L Ruddy, Philip M Procento
Introduction: US Navy recruits who have injuries preventing them from participating in intense physical conditioning are pulled out of boot camp training and receive treatment that includes daily physical therapy, pain medications, and psychoeducational groups. Graduation from boot camp for these recruits requires not only recovering from their injuries but also passing a required Physical Fitness Assessment consisting of a timed 1.5-mile run, curl-ups, and push-ups. About 50-60% of these recruits will eventually be separated out and sent home...
March 6, 2018: Military Medicine
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