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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775837/predator-based-psychosocial-stress-model-of-ptsd-differentially-influences-voluntary-ethanol-consumption-depending-on-methodology
#1
Phillip R Zoladz, Eric D Eisenmann, Robert M Rose, Brooke A Kohls, Brandon L Johnson, Kiera L Robinson, Megan E Heikkila, Kasey E Mucher, Madelaine R Huntley
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychological disorder typified by diagnostic symptom clusters including hyperarousal, avoidance, negative cognitions and mood, and intrusive re-experiencing of the traumatic event. Patients with PTSD have been reported to self-medicate with alcohol to ameliorate hyperarousal symptoms associated with the disorder. Research utilizing rodent models of PTSD to emulate this behavioral phenomenon has thus far yielded inconsistent results. In the present study, we examined the effects of a predator-based psychosocial stress model of PTSD on voluntary ethanol consumption...
January 8, 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773685/simulated-work-loops-predict-maximal-human-cycling-power
#2
James C Martin, Jennifer A Nichols
Fish, birds, and lizards sometimes perform locomotor activities with maximized muscle power. Whether humans maximize muscular power is unknown because current experimental techniques cannot be applied non-invasively. This study uses simulated muscle work loops to examine whether voluntary maximal cycling is characterized by maximized muscle power. The simulated work loops leverage experimentally measured joint angles, anatomically realistic muscle parameters (muscle-tendon lengths, velocities, and moment arms), and a published muscle model to calculate powers and forces for thirty-eight muscles...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771786/the-continuum-of-hiv-care-in-rural-mozambique-the-implications-of-hiv-testing-modality-on-linkage-and-retention
#3
Elisa Lopez-Varela, Laura Fuente-Soro, Orvalho Joaquim Augusto, Charfudin Sacoor, Ariel Nhacolo, Esmeralda Karajeanes, Paula Vaz, Denise Naniche
INTRODUCTION: Context-specific improvements in the continuum of HIV care are needed in order to achieve the UNAIDS target of 90-90-90. This study aimed to assess the linkage to and retention in HIV care according to different testing modalities in rural southern Mozambique. METHODS: Adults newly diagnosed with HIV from voluntary counseling and testing (VCT), provider-initiated (PICT) and home-based HIV testing (HBT) services were prospectively enrolled between 2014- 2015 at the Manhiça District...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771608/paced-breathing-and-phrenic-nerve-responses-evoked-by-epidural-stimulation-following-complete-high-cervical-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#4
Tatiana Bezdudnaya, Michael A Lane, Vitaliy Marchenko
Spinal cord injury (SCI) at the level of cervical segments often results in life-threatening respiratory complications and requires long-term mechanical ventilator assistance. Thus, restoring diaphragm activity and regaining voluntary control of breathing are the primary clinical goals for patients with respiratory dysfunction following cervical SCI. Epidural stimulation (EDS) is a promising strategy that has been explored extensively for non-respiratory functions, and to a limited extent within the respiratory system...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770980/what-can-we-learn-from-the-public-s-understanding-of-drug-information-and-safety-a-population-survey
#5
Esther Salgueiro, Cristina Gurruchaga, Francisco J Jimeno, Cristina Martínez-Múgica, Luis H Martín Arias, Gloria Manso
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to analyse the perceptions of the public on medicine information and safety and on consumer reporting of suspected adverse drug reactions (ADR). METHODS: A voluntary survey was conducted in a population ≥18 years of age in Asturias, a region in northern Spain. The survey was designed to be completed in a face-to-face street interview or completed independently by the public. The survey consisted of structured questions organised in four sections: (1) demographic data, (2) use of medicines, (3) reading and understanding of the patient information leaflet (PIL) and (4) awareness and perception about consumer reporting of ADR...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768648/-current-state-of-the-health-advisory-council-of-munich-a-survey
#6
Corinna K Sokoll, Susanne Winter
BACKGROUND: After over 27 years of existence, the executive board of the Health Advisory Council of the state capital Munich (HAC) decided to conduct an inventory. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The objective was to gather data on the perceptions of HAC participants regarding the structure of committees, issues addressed, their processing as well as the results of the projects, in addition to events organized, public relations activities and target achievement. The survey should be the basis for decisions regarding future directions or further developments of the HAC...
May 16, 2018: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766223/does-wildfire-open-a-policy-window-local-government-and-community-adaptation-after-fire-in-the-united-states
#7
Miranda H Mockrin, Hillary K Fishler, Susan I Stewart
Becoming a fire adapted community that can coexist with wildfire is envisioned as a continuous, iterative process of adaptation, but it is unclear how communities may pursue adaptation. Experience with wildfire and other natural hazards suggests that disasters may open a "window of opportunity" leading to local government policy changes. We examined how destructive wildfire affected progress toward becoming fire adapted in eight locations in the United States. We found that community-level adaptation following destructive fires is most common where destructive wildfire is novel and there is already government capacity and investment in wildfire regulation and land use planning...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765311/altered-sense-of-body-ownership-and-agency-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-its-dissociative-subtype-a-rubber-hand-illusion-study
#8
Daniela Rabellino, Dalila Burin, Sherain Harricharan, Chantelle Lloyd, Paul A Frewen, Margaret C McKinnon, Ruth A Lanius
Traumatic experiences have been linked to the development of altered states of consciousness affecting bodily perception, including alterations in body ownership and in sense of agency, the conscious experience of the body as one's own and under voluntary control. Severe psychological trauma and prolonged distress may lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Together, symptoms of derealization and, related specifically to the sense of body ownership and agency, of depersonalization (where parts of the body or the entire body itself is perceived as detached and out of control), constitute the dissociative subtype (PTSD+DS)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764380/osteoporosis-diabetes-and-hypertension-are-major-risk-factors-for-mortality-in-older-adults-an-intermediate-report-on-a-prospective-survey-of-1467-community-dwelling-elderly-healthy-pensioners-in-switzerland
#9
Jean-Pierre Gutzwiller, Jean-Pierre Richterich, Zeno Stanga, Urs E Nydegger, Lorenz Risch, Martin Risch
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is an important morbidity factor for ageing populations in developed countries. However, compared to the amount of information available on diabetes and cardiovascular disease, little is known about the direct impact of osteoporosis on general mortality in older age. METHODS: We obtained data from a prospective population-based cohort of pensioners from the SENIORLAB study who were subjectively healthy. The inclusion criteria were an age of at least 60 years and Swiss residence...
May 15, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757703/hepatitis-b-virus-infection-among-asymptomatic-residents-of-low-income-community-in-ibadan-southwest-nigeria
#10
Adeleye Solomon Bakarey, Oluwaseun Deborah Olaniyan
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is one of the most infectious diseases worldwide and a major public health concern. In spite of efforts at controlling the scourge globally, HBV continues to thrive in developing countries, such as Nigeria due to ignorance on its mode of transmission and its asymptomatic nature in the populace. Therefore, this community-based study was carried out in Yemetu community in Ibadan, Nigeria to determine the burden of HBV infection among asymptomatic residents of this community...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756559/help-seeking-behaviors-for-intimate-partner-violence-perpetration-by-men-receiving-substance-use-treatment-a-mixed-methods-secondary-analysis
#11
Nozomu Hashimoto, Polly Radcliffe, Gail Gilchrist
Despite the high prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration by men receiving substance use treatment, little is known about their help-seeking behaviors for IPV. A secondary analysis of a mixed-methods study of men receiving substance use treatment who perpetrated IPV examined the prevalence, characteristics, and barriers associated with IPV perpetration disclosure and help-seeking. In total, 170 men were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, and a subsample of 20 were interviewed in-depth about their experiences...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753876/electromyographic-study-of-hip-muscles-involved-in-total-hip-arthroplasty-surprising-results-using-the-direct-anterior-minimally-invasive-approach
#12
Jules Bernard, Fredson Razanabola, Julien Beldame, Stéphane Van Driessche, Helena Brunel, Thomas Poirier, Jean Matsoukis, Fabien Billuart
BACKGROUND: The functional and clinical benefit of minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty (THA) is well-known, but the literature reports impaired gait and posture parameters as compared to the general population, especially following use of the anterior minimally invasive approach, which has more severe impact on posture than the posterior approach. The reasons for this impairment, however, remain unexplained. We therefore conducted a surface electromyography (sEMG) study of the hip muscles liable to be affected by arthroplasty surgery: gluteus maximus (GMax), gluteus medius (GMed, tensor fasciae latae (TFL), and sartorius (S)...
May 10, 2018: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750674/evaluating-plutonium-intake-and-radiation-dose-following-extensive-chelation-treatment
#13
Sara Dumit, Maia Avtandilashvili, Sergei Y Tolmachev
A voluntary partial-body donor (U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries Case 0785) was accidentally exposed to Pu via inhalation and wounds. This individual underwent medical treatment including wound excision and extensive chelation treatment with calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and calcium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. Approximately 2.2 kBq of Pu was measured in the wound site 44 y after the accident. Major soft tissues and selected bones were collected at autopsy and radiochemically analyzed for Pu, Pu, and Am...
May 4, 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748480/practice-trends-of-fibrinogen-monitoring-in-thrombolysis
#14
Claire Kaufman, Thomas Kinney, Keith Quencer
There is a lack of evidence or societal guidelines regarding the utility of fibrinogen monitoring during thrombolysis. The purpose of our study was to investigate the current use of monitoring fibrinogen levels during thrombolysis. A voluntary, anonymous online survey was sent to all physician members of the Society of Interventional Radiology, consisting of 23 questions related to practitioner demographics, thrombolysis protocol, and fibrinogen monitoring. There were 455 physician responses; 82% of respondents monitored fibrinogen levels during thrombolysis, of which 97% decreased or stopped tissue plasminogen activator based on the level...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740303/long-range-temporal-correlations-in-alpha-oscillations-stabilize-perception-of-ambiguous-visual-stimuli
#15
Francesca Sangiuliano Intra, Arthur-Ervin Avramiea, Mona Irrmischer, Simon-Shlomo Poil, Huibert D Mansvelder, Klaus Linkenkaer-Hansen
Ongoing brain dynamics have been proposed as a type of "neuronal noise" that can trigger perceptual switches when viewing an ambiguous, bistable stimulus. However, no prior study has directly quantified how such neuronal noise relates to the rate of percept reversals. Specifically, it has remained unknown whether individual differences in complexity of resting-state oscillations-as reflected in long-range temporal correlations (LRTC)-are associated with perceptual stability. We hypothesized that participants with stronger resting-state LRTC in the alpha band experience more stable percepts, and thereby fewer perceptual switches...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738768/differential-effects-of-voluntary-wheel-running-and-toy-rotation-on-the-mrna-expression-of-neurotrophic-factors-and-fkbp5-in-a-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-rat-model-with-the-shuttle-box-task
#16
Masaaki Tanichi, Hiroyuki Toda, Kunio Shimizu, Minori Koga, Taku Saito, Shingo Enomoto, Shuken Boku, Fumiho Asai, Yumi Mitsui, Masanori Nagamine, Masanori Fujita, Aihide Yoshino
Life-threatening experiences can result in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. We have developed an animal model for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using a shuttle box in rats. In this paradigm, the rats were exposed to inescapable foot-shock stress (IS) in a shuttle box, and then an avoidance/escape task was performed in the same box 2 weeks after IS. A previous study using this paradigm revealed that environmental enrichment (EE) ameliorated avoidance/numbing-like behaviors, but not hyperarousal-like behaviors, and EE also elevated hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression...
May 5, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733431/adverse-drug-reactions-reported-by-healthcare-professionals-reaction-characteristics-and-time-to-reporting
#17
Ar Kar Aung, Mei Jie Tang, Nikki Rae Adler, Sara Lee de Menezes, Michelle Sue Yen Goh, Hui Wen Tee, Jason Anthony Trubiano, Robert Puy, Celia Mary Zubrinich, Linda Velta Graudins
We describe adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting characteristics and factors contributing to length of time to report by healthcare professionals. This is a retrospective study of voluntary reports to an Australian healthcare ADR Review Committee over a 2-year period (2015-2016). Descriptive and univariate models were used for outcomes, employing standardized ADR definitions. Hospital pharmacists reported 84.8% of the 555 ADRs: 70.3% were hospital onset reactions, and 71.7% were at least of moderate severity...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731310/trends-in-dietary-sodium-from-food-sources-in-australian-children-and-adolescents-from-2007-to-2011-12
#18
Carley A Grimes, Ewa A Szymlek-Gay, Caryl A Nowson
BACKGROUND: In western countries, most children eat more sodium than is recommended. In Australia in 2009, voluntary sodium reformulation targets were adopted for nine categories of processed foods, but the impact of this initiative on children's sodium intake has not been assessed. OBJECTIVE: To compare sodium consumption of Australian children aged 2 to 16 years from 2007 to 2011/12. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2007 Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (n=4,487) and the 2011/12 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (n=2,548)...
May 1, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729906/health-insurance-reforms-in-singapore-and-hong-kong-how-the-two-ageing-asian-tigers-respond-to-health-financing-challenges
#19
Jason Dean-Chen Yin, Alex Jingwei He
Singapore and Hong Kong, two high-income "Tiger economies" in Asia, were ranked as the top two most efficient health systems in the world. Despite remarkable similarities in history and socioeconomic development, both economies embraced rather different paths in health care reforms in the past decades, which reflect their respective sociopolitical dynamics. Rapidly ageing populations and the anxiety about future funding of health care have prompted them to embark on major health financing reforms in the recent three years...
April 30, 2018: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726629/high-precision-voluntary-movements-are-largely-independent-from-preceding-vertex-potentials-elicited-by-sudden-sensory-events
#20
M Kilintari, R J Bufacchi, G Novembre, Y Guo, P Haggard, G D Iannetti
Salient and sudden sensory events generate a remarkably large response in the human brain, the vertex wave (VW) The VW is coupled with a modulation of a voluntarily-applied isometric force Here, we tested whether the VW is also related to executing high-precision movements The execution of a voluntary high-precision movement remains relatively independent of the brain activity reflected by the preceding VW The apparent relationship between the positive VW and the movement onset time is explained by goal-related but stimulus-independent neural activities These results highlight the need of considering such goal-related but stimulus-independent neural activities when attempting to relate ERP amplitude with perceptual and behavioural performance ABSTRACT: Salient and fast-rising sensory events generate a large biphasic vertex wave (VW) in the human electroencephalogram (EEG)...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Physiology
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