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clinical features of Alzheimer

D P Devanand
Several recently developed biomarkers of Alzheimer disease (AD) are invasive, expensive, and difficult to obtain in most clinical settings. Olfactory identification test performance represents a noninvasive, inexpensive biomarker of AD that may have predictive accuracy comparable with neuroimaging measures and biomarkers assessed in cerebrospinal fluid. Neurofibrillary tangles in the olfactory bulb are among the earliest pathologic features of AD and are also seen in the projection pathways from the olfactory bulb to secondary olfactory brain regions, including the piriform and medial temporal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and other limbic regions...
August 17, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Laura Borrello, Chiara Cupidi, Valentina Laganà, Maria Anfossi, Maria Elena Conidi, Nicoletta Smirne, Maria Taverniti, Roberto Guarasci, Amalia Cecilia Bruni
The rebuilding of the N family, a large Italian kindred affected by early-onset autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease (AD), provided an important contribution to the discovery of Presenilin 1 (PSEN1), the main gene responsible for familial AD. This pedigree was identified with the help of medical records from the archives of the Psychiatric Hospital of Girifalco, Italy. The clinical record of Angela R., an ancestor of the N family, dating back to 1904, showed a clinical picture of Angela R., consistent with a diagnosis of non-amnestic probable AD, matching the "dysexecutive" phenotype described in her descendants...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Neurology
Mary M Machulda, Clint E Hagen, Heather J Wiste, Michelle M Mielke, David S Knopman, Rosebud O Roberts, Prashanthi Vemuri, Val J Lowe, Clifford R Jack, Ronald C Petersen
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine practice effects and longitudinal cognitive change in 190 clinically normal elderly classified according to a two-feature biomarker model for Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: All participants completed neuropsychological testing, MRI, FDG-PET, and PiB-PET at their baseline evaluation. We divided participants into four groups based on neuroimaging measures of amyloid (A+ or A-) and neurodegeneration (N+ or N-) and reexamined cognition at 15- and 30-month intervals...
October 11, 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
N A Trusova, O S Levin, A V Arablinsky
AIM: To study clinical/neuropsychological and neuroimaging characteristics of Alzheimer's disease in the combination with cerebrovascular disease (CVD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety patients with dementia, including 35 patients with AD, 35 patients with mixed dementia (MD) and 20 patients with vascular dementia, were examined. The character of dementia was established according to NINCDS-ADRDA and NINDS-AIREN criteria. The neuropsychological battery included Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R), Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale (MoCA), fluency test and the visual memory test (SCT)...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
T A Polyakova, O S Levin
AIM: To study a role of cerebral microbleeds (CMB) in the diagnosis of main cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative diseases with cognitive impairment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: CMB were studied in 120 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and vascular dementia using 1.5T MRI in T2 * gradient echo. An impact of CMB on cognitive functions and the relationship with signs of vascular and neurodegenerative lesions of the brain were studied as well...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Ryan C Turner, Brandon P Lucke-Wold, Matthew J Robson, John M Lee, Julian E Bailes
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) have long been recognized as sharing some similar neuropathological features, mainly the presence of neurofibrilary tangles and hyperphosphorylated tau, but have generally been described as distinct entities. Evidence indicates that neurotrauma increases the risk of developing dementia and accelerates the progression of disease. Findings are emerging that CTE and AD may be present in the same patients. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: This study presents a series of previously unpublished cases, with one case demonstrating possible neurotrauma-related AD, one pure CTE, and an example of a case exhibiting features of both AD and CTE...
August 11, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Petroula Proitsi, Min Kim, Luke Whiley, Andrew Simmons, Martina Sattlecker, Latha Velayudhan, Michelle K Lupton, Hillka Soininen, Iwona Kloszewska, Patrizia Mecocci, Magda Tsolaki, Bruno Vellas, Simon Lovestone, John F Powell, Richard J B Dobson, Cristina Legido-Quigley
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to (1) replicate previous associations between six blood lipids and Alzheimer's disease (AD) (Proitsi et al 2015) and (2) identify novel associations between lipids, clinical AD diagnosis, disease progression and brain atrophy (left/right hippocampus/entorhinal cortex). METHODS: We performed untargeted lipidomic analysis on 148 AD and 152 elderly control plasma samples and used univariate and multivariate analysis methods...
September 28, 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Simona Scarano, Samuele Lisi, Corinne Ravelet, Eric Peyrin, Maria Minunni
The failure of therapeutic treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients can be related to the late onset of symptoms and, consequently, to a delayed pharmacological aid to counteract neurodegenerative progression. This is coupled to the fact that the diagnosis based on clinical criteria alone introduces high misdiagnosis rate. The availability of assessed biomarkers is therefore of crucial importance not only to counteract late diagnosis, but also to manage patients at high risk of AD development eligible for novel therapies...
October 12, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Laura Serra, Matteo Mancini, Mara Cercignani, Carlotta Di Domenico, Barbara Spanò, Giovanni Giulietti, Giacomo Koch, Camillo Marra, Marco Bozzali
Cognitive reserve (CR) is known to modulate the clinical features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This concept may be critical for the development of non-pharmacological interventions able to slow down patients' cognitive decline in the absence of disease-modifying treatments. We aimed at identifying the neurobiological substrates of CR (i.e., neural reserve) over the transition between normal aging and AD, by assessing the underlying brain networks and their topological properties. A cohort of 154 participants (n = 68 with AD, n = 61 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and 25 healthy subjects) underwent resting-state functional MRI and neuropsychological testing...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Clark A Briggs, Shreaya Chakroborty, Grace E Stutzmann
The current state of the AD research field is highly dynamic is some respects, while seemingly stagnant in others. Regarding the former, our current lack of understanding of initiating disease mechanisms, the absence of effective treatment options, and the looming escalation of AD patients is energizing new research directions including a much-needed re-focusing on early pathogenic mechanisms, validating novel targets, and investigating relevant biomarkers, among other exciting new efforts to curb disease progression and foremost, preserve memory function...
September 20, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Gabor G Kovacs
Recent studies on iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) raised concerns that one of the hallmark lesions of Alzheimer disease (AD), amyloid-β (Aβ), may be transmitted from human-to-human. The neuropathology of AD-related lesions is complex. Therefore, many aspects need to be considered in deciding on this issue. Observations of recent studies can be summarized as follows: 1) The frequency of iatrogenic CJD cases with parencyhmal and vascular Aβ deposits is statistically higher than expected; 2) The morphology and distribution of Aβ deposition may show distinct features; 3) The pituitary and the dura mater themselves may serve as potential sources of Aβ seeds; 4) Cadaveric dura mater from two examined cases shows Aβ deposition; and 5) There is a lack of evidence that the clinical phenotype of AD appears following the application of cadaveric pituitary hormone or dura mater transplantation...
September 20, 2016: Prion
Na-Yeon Jung, Sang Won Seo, Heejin Yoo, Jin-Ju Yang, Seongbeom Park, Yeo Jin Kim, Juyoun Lee, Jin San Lee, Young Kyoung Jang, Jong Min Lee, Sung Tae Kim, Seonwoo Kim, Eun-Joo Kim, Duk L Na, Hee Jin Kim
We aimed to categorize subjective memory impairment (SMI) individuals based on their patterns of cortical thickness and to propose simple models that can classify each subtype. We recruited 613 SMI individuals and 613 age- and gender-matched normal controls. Using hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis, SMI individuals were divided into 3 subtypes: temporal atrophy (12.9%), minimal atrophy (52.4%), and diffuse atrophy (34.6%). Individuals in the temporal atrophy (Alzheimer's disease-like atrophy) subtype were older, had more vascular risk factors, and scored the lowest on neuropsychological tests...
August 20, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
A Shepherd, S Tyebji, A J Hannan, E L Burrows
Cognitive dysfunction appears as a core feature of dementia, which includes its most prevalent form, Alzheimer's disease (AD), as well as vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and other brain disorders. AD alone affects more than 45 million people worldwide, with growing prevalence in aging populations. There is no cure, and therapeutic options remain limited. Gene-edited and transgenic animal models, expressing disease-specific gene mutations, illuminate pathogenic mechanisms leading to cognitive decline in AD and other forms of dementia...
November 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Yongming Li, Xueru Zhu, Pin Wang, Jie Wang, Shujun Liu, Fan Li, Mingguo Qiu
BACKGROUND: Amyloid β-protein (Aβ) plaque deposition is an important prevention and treatment target for Alzheimer's disease (AD). As a noninvasive, nonradioactive and highly cost-effective clinical imaging method, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the perfect imaging technology for the clinical diagnosis of AD, but it cannot display the plaque deposition directly. This paper resolves this problem based on pixel feature selection algorithms at the image level. METHODS AND RESULTS: Firstly, the brain region was segmented from mouse model brain MR images...
2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
Michal Schwartz, Aleksandra Deczkowska
Neuroinflammation is common to various diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), but its imprecise definition has led to many misconceptions in research and clinical approaches. It is now recognized that neuroinflammation in chronic neurodegenerative conditions, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-related dementia, is distinct from the inflammation that accompanies relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), and its experimental animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here, we discuss the discrete features of inflammation in different CNS pathologies, given the current understanding of the CNS-immune crosstalk; the roles of the immune cells that are involved, their phenotypes, and their location and route of entry to the CNS...
October 2016: Trends in Immunology
José A Ribeiro, Paula M V Fernandes, Carlos M Pereira, F Silva
This work describes the state of the art of electrochemical devices for the detection of an important class of neurotransmitters: the catecholamines. This class of biogenic amines includes dopamine, noradrenaline (also called norepinephrine) and adrenaline (also called epinephrine). Researchers have focused on the role of catecholamine molecules within the human body because they are involved in many important biological functions and are commonly associated with several diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson...
November 1, 2016: Talanta
Arnaldo Parra-Damas, Meng Chen, Lilian Enriquez-Barreto, Laura Ortega, Sara Acosta, Judith Camats Perna, M Neus Fullana, José Aguilera, José Rodríguez-Alvarez, Carlos A Saura
BACKGROUND: Associative memory impairment is an early clinical feature of dementia patients, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying these deficits are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the functional regulation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB)-regulated transcription coactivator 1 (CRTC1) by associative learning in physiological and neurodegenerative conditions. METHODS: We evaluated the activation of CRTC1 in the hippocampus of control mice and mice lacking the Alzheimer's disease-linked presenilin genes (presenilin conditional double knockout [PS cDKO]) after one-trial contextual fear conditioning by using biochemical, immunohistochemical, and gene expression analyses...
July 11, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Mario Caruana, Ruben Cauchi, Neville Vassallo
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorders and hence pose remarkable socio-economical burdens to both families and state. Although AD and PD have different clinical and neuropathological features, they share common molecular mechanisms that appear to be triggered by multi-factorial events, such as protein aggregation, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress (OS), and neuroinflammation, ultimately leading to neuronal cell death. Currently, there are no established and validated disease-modifying strategies for either AD or PD...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
Ramesk Kandimalla, Vani Thirumala, P Hemachandra Reddy
Recently researchers proposed the term 'Type-3-Diabetes' for Alzheimer's disease (AD) because of the shared molecular and cellular features among Type-1-Diabetes, Type-2-Diabetes and insulin resistance associated with memory deficits and cognitive decline in elderly individuals. Recent clinical and basic studies on patients with diabetes and AD revealed previously unreported cellular and pathological among diabetes, insulin resistance and AD. These studies are also strengthened by various basic biological studies that decipher the effects of insulin in the pathology of AD through cellular and molecular mechanisms...
August 24, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Boaz Levy, Elena Tsoy, Samuel Gable
A comprehensive approach to the prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD) warrants a synergy across multiple domains and procedures. Whereas the study of biological markers has mobilized major activity in the field, the development of cognitive markers is largely ignored, despite the unique advantages they may offer. Cognitive markers essentially assess the core clinical feature that biological markers intend to predict. In this respect, cognitive markers expand the foundation of preclinical diagnostics and disease staging in a manner that integrates both physiological and psychological factors...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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