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clinical features of Alzheimer

Stavros I Dimitriadis, Dimitris Liparas
Neuroinformatics is a fascinating research field that applies computational models and analytical tools to high dimensional experimental neuroscience data for a better understanding of how the brain functions or dysfunctions in brain diseases. Neuroinformaticians work in the intersection of neuroscience and informatics supporting the integration of various sub-disciplines (behavioural neuroscience, genetics, cognitive psychology, etc.) working on brain research. Neuroinformaticians are the pathway of information exchange between informaticians and clinicians for a better understanding of the outcome of computational models and the clinical interpretation of the analysis...
June 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Holly M Brothers, Maya L Gosztyla, Stephen R Robinson
Amyloid-ß (Aß) is best known as the misfolded peptide that is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and it is currently the primary therapeutic target in attempts to arrest the course of this disease. This notoriety has overshadowed evidence that Aß serves several important physiological functions. Aß is present throughout the lifespan, it has been found in all vertebrates examined thus far, and its molecular sequence shows a high degree of conservation. These features are typical of a factor that contributes significantly to biological fitness, and this suggestion has been supported by evidence of functions that are beneficial for the brain...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Simon McKenzie-Nickson, Jacky Chan, Keyla Perez, Lin W Hung, Lesley Cheng, Amelia Sedjahtera, Lydia Gunawan, Paul A Adlard, David J Hayne, Lachlan E Mcinnes, Paul S Donnelly, David I Finkelstein, Professor Andrew Hill, Kevin J Barnham
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia worldwide accounting around 70% of all cases. There is currently no treatment for AD beyond symptom management and attempts at developing disease-modifying therapies have yielded very little. These strategies have traditionally targeted the peptide Aβ which is thought to drive pathology. However, the lack of clinical translation of these Aβ-centric strategies underscores the need for diverse treatment strategies targeting other aspects of the disease...
June 19, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Tommaso Schirinzi, Francesco Di Lorenzo, Giulia Maria Sancesario, Giulia Di Lazzaro, Viviana Ponzo, Antonio Pisani, Nicola Biagio Mercuri, Giacomo Koch, Alessandro Martorana
BACKGROUND: Although motor disturbances parallel the course of dementia, worsening both quality of life and social costs, the pathogenesis remains still unclear. OBJECTIVE: Through the combination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers assessment and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocols, here we provided a cross-sectional study to understand pathogenic mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related early motor disturbances. METHODS: The motor phenotype, as defined with Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) part 2-3, Rating Scale for Gait Evaluation in Cognitive Deterioration (RSEGCD) and Tinetti scale, together with CSF profile of amyloid-β 42 (Aβ42), total-tau, and phosphorylated-tau were determined in 37 AD patients and compared to 18 patients with vascular dementia (VaD)...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Anna Brzecka, Jerzy Leszek, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Maria Ejma, Marco F Ávila-Rodriguez, Nagendra S Yarla, Vadim V Tarasov, Vladimir N Chubarev, Anna N Samsonova, George E Barreto, Gjumrakch Aliev
Sleep disturbances, as well as sleep-wake rhythm disturbances, are typical symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that may precede the other clinical signs of this neurodegenerative disease. Here, we describe clinical features of sleep disorders in AD and the relation between sleep disorders and both cognitive impairment and poor prognosis of the disease. There are difficulties of the diagnosis of sleep disorders based on sleep questionnaires, polysomnography or actigraphy in the AD patients. Typical disturbances of the neurophysiological sleep architecture in the course of the AD include deep sleep and paradoxical sleep deprivation...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Peng Cao, Xiaoli Liu, Hezi Liu, Jinzhu Yang, Dazhe Zhao, Min Huang, Osmar Zaiane
OBJECTIVE: Alzheimers disease (AD) is characterized by gradual neurodegeneration and loss of brain function, especially for memory during early stages. Regression analysis has been widely applied to AD research to relate clinical and biomarker data such as predicting cognitive outcomes from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) measures. Recently, the multi-task feature learning (MTFL) methods have been widely studied to predict cognitive outcomes and select the discriminative feature subset from MRI features by incorporating inherent correlations among multiple clinical cognitive measures...
August 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Robert H Scannevin
Neurodegenerative diseases can arise from a multitude of different pathological drivers, however protein misfolding appears to be a common molecular feature central to several disorders. Protein folding, and attainment of correct secondary and tertiary structure, is essential for proper protein function. Protein misfolding gives rise to structural perturbations that can result in loss of protein function or a gain of toxic function, such as through aggregation, either of which can initiate and propagate biological responses that are deleterious to cells...
June 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
Koji Kasanuki, Keith A Josephs, Tanis J Ferman, Melissa E Murray, Shunsuke Koga, Takuya Konno, Nobutaka Sakae, Adam Parks, Ryan J Uitti, Jay A Van Gerpen, Neill R Graff-Radford, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Dennis W Dickson
OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical and pathologic characteristics of diffuse Lewy body disease (DLBD) manifesting as corticobasal syndrome (CBS). METHODS: In 523 autopsy-confirmed cases of DLBD, we identified 11 patients diagnosed with CBS. For comparison, we studied 22 DLBD brains with antemortem presentation of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Given previous studies suggesting the importance of pathology in peri-Rolandic cortices in CBS, we used digital pathology to count Lewy bodies and to quantify intracytoplasmic and neuritic α-synuclein and phospho-tau burden in the motor cortex...
June 13, 2018: Neurology
Ting Shen, Yuyi You, Chitra Joseph, Mehdi Mirzaei, Alexander Klistorner, Stuart L Graham, Vivek Gupta
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a unique role in the neuronal development, differentiation, and survival in the developing and adult nervous system. A common single-nucleotide polymorphism in the pro-region of the human BDNF gene, resulting in a valine to methionine substitution (Val66Met), has been associated with the susceptibility, incidence, and clinical features of several neurodegenerative disorders. Much research has been dedicated to evaluating the effects of polymorphism in the past decade, and functional effects of this genetic variation...
June 2018: Aging and Disease
Maria Ruiz, Alfonso Arias, Ernesto Sánchez-Llanos, Maria Pilar Gil, Ricard López-Ortega, Faridé Dakterzada, Francisco Purroy, Gerard Piñol-Ripoll
BACKGROUND: Hallucinations may have a broad spectrum and include so-called minor hallucinations (MHs). MH includes passage hallucinations (PHs), visual illusions, and presence hallucinations (PrHs). OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of MH in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients, and to describe their potential relationship with cognition, behavioral symptoms, and use of psychoactive drugs. METHODS: We have recruited prospectively and consecutively 268 subjects (90 AD mild-moderate drug-naïve patients, 78 aMCI, and 100 controls)...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Judite R M Coimbra, Daniela F F Marques, Salete J Baptista, Cláudia M F Pereira, Paula I Moreira, Teresa C P Dinis, Armanda E Santos, Jorge A R Salvador
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder and the most common type of dementia in the elderly. The clinical symptoms of AD include a progressive loss of memory and impairment of cognitive functions interfering with daily life activities. The main neuropathological features consist in extracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque deposition and intracellular Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) of hyperphosphorylated Tau. Understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie neurodegeneration in AD is essential for rational design of neuroprotective agents able to prevent disease progression...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Andreas Johnen, Matthias Pawlowski, Thomas Duning
BACKGROUND: Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare, progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the NPC1 or the NPC2 gene. Neurocognitive deficits are common in NP-C, particularly in patients with the adolescent/adult-onset form. As a disease-specific therapy is available, it is important to distinguish clinically between the cognitive profiles in NP-C and primary dementia (e.g., early Alzheimer's disease; eAD). METHODS: In a prospective observational study, we directly compared the neurocognitive profiles of patients with confirmed NP-C (n = 7) and eAD (n = 15)...
June 5, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
John J Hanfelt, Limin Peng, Felicia C Goldstein, James J Lah
Given the importance of identifying prodromes of dementia with specific etiologies, we assessed whether seven latent classes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), defined empirically based on cognitive, functional, and neuropsychiatric information at initial visit, are associated with distinct clinical outcomes and neuropathological features. We separated 6034 participants with a baseline diagnosis of MCI into seven latent classes using previously defined criteria. We found that these latent classes of MCI differed significantly in their clinical outcomes, survival time, and neuropathology...
May 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
David Perpetuini, Daniela Cardone, Roberta Bucco, Michele Zito, Arcangelo Merla
Background - Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a form of dementia characterized by failures of memory that becomes more severe with the progression of the disease. The Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) is a clinical test used to evaluate such a deficit. However, since the cognitive performances could depend also on the psychophysiological state of the individual, it is important to monitor that state through the peripheral autonomic activity during the execution of the test. Thermal infrared imaging has been used for this kind of assessment in order to preserve the free and unbiased interaction between doctor and patient, thanks to the contactless features of the technique...
May 3, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Michael L Alosco, Michael A Sugarman, Lilah M Besser, Yorghos Tripodis, Martin Brett, Joseph N Palmisano, Neil W Kowall, Rhoda Au, Jesse Mez, Charles DeCarli, Thor D Stein, Ann C McKee, Ronald J Killiany, Robert A Stern
BACKGROUND: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been postulated to be a core feature of Alzheimer's disease. Clinicopathological studies are needed to elucidate and confirm this possibility. OBJECTIVE: This study examined: 1) the association between antemortem WMH and autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer's disease neuropathology (ADNP), 2) the relationship between WMH and dementia in participants with ADNP, and 3) the relationships among cerebrovascular disease, WMH, and ADNP...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Frank J Wolters, Hieab H Adams, Daniel Bos, Silvan Licher, M Arfan Ikram
The most commonly encountered opening sentence in scientific publications about dementia undoubtedly relates to the overwhelming burden of disease. Finding an effective preventive or therapeutic intervention against dementia has been considered the most important unmet need in contemporary medicine. While efforts on tackling this devastating disease have increased exponentially, it is difficult to imagine that in the 1980s and early-1990s, the disease did not feature prominently on any public health report...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Nicola Amoroso, Marianna La Rocca, Alfonso Monaco, Roberto Bellotti, Sabina Tangaro
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurological disorder, after Alzheimer's disease, and is characterized by a long prodromal stage lasting up to 20 years. As age is a prominent factor risk for the disease, next years will see a continuous increment of PD patients, making urgent the development of efficient strategies for early diagnosis and treatments. We propose here a novel approach based on complex networks for accurate early diagnoses using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data; our approach also allows us to investigate which are the brain regions mostly affected by the disease...
May 17, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
Noriko Ogama, Takashi Sakurai, Naoki Saji, Toshiharu Nakai, Shumpei Niida, Kenji Toba, Hiroyuki Umegaki, Masafumi Kuzuya
Background/Aims: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are exhibited in most patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). Although white matter hyperintensity (WMH) is often observed with AD, the precise role of WMH in BPSD remains unclear. The current study aimed to identify the impact of regional WMH on specific features of BPSD in persons with mild to moderate AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Methods: A sample of 256 female outpatients with AD ( n = 217) and aMCI ( n = 39) were recruited...
January 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Ghazaleh Kheiri, Mahsa Dolatshahi, Farzaneh Rahmani, Nima Rezaei
A myriad of environmental and genetic factors, as well as the physiologic process of aging, contribute to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Neuroinflammation is and has been a focus of interest, as a common gateway for initiation of many of the underlying pathologies of AD. Amyloid beta (Aβ) toxicity, increasing RAGE expression, tau hyperphosphorylation, induction of apoptosis, and deregulated autophagy are among other mechanisms, partly entangled and being explained by activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and MAPK signaling...
May 28, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Carolina Pellegrini, Luca Antonioli, Rocchina Colucci, Corrado Blandizzi, Matteo Fornai
Neurological diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and multiple sclerosis, are often associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders. These gastrointestinal disturbances may occur at all stages of the neurodegenerative diseases, to such an extent that they are now considered an integral part of their clinical picture. Several lines of evidence support the contention that, in central neurodegenerative diseases, changes in gut microbiota and enteric neuro-immune system alterations could contribute to gastrointesinal dysfunctions as well as initiation and upward spreading of the neurologic disorder...
May 24, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
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