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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726050/a-single-center-study-a%C3%AE-42-p-tau181-csf-ratio-to-discriminate-ad-from-ftd-in-clinical-setting
#1
Andrea Vergallo, Cecilia Carlesi, Cristina Pagni, Filippo Sean Giorgi, Filippo Baldacci, Lucia Petrozzi, Roberto Ceravolo, Gloria Tognoni, Gabriele Siciliano, Ubaldo Bonuccelli
Abnormal levels of beta amyloid (Aβ42) and tau protein concentrations in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) have been largely described in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, CSF analysis of these biomarkers has been incorporated in recent AD diagnostic criteria, and it is increasingly performed for neurodegenerative dementia diagnostic workout in clinical setting. Nevertheless, the precise biomarkers CSF features in neurodegenerative dementia, either AD or Frontotemporal dementia (FTD), are still not fully clear today...
July 19, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721826/clinical-uses-of-melatonin-in-neurological-diseases-and-mental-and-behavioural-disorders
#2
Emilio J Sánchez-Barceló, Noemi R Revilla, María D Mediavilla, Carmen Martínez-Cué, Russel J Reiter
Melatonin is a molecule with numerous properties applicable to the treatment of neurological diseases. Among these properties are the following: potent scavenger of oxygen and nitrogen reactive species, anti-inflammatory features, immuno-enhancing nature, and modulation of circadian rhythmicity. Furthermore, low concentrations of melatonin are usually found in patients with neurological diseases and mental disorders. The positive results obtained in experimental models of diverse pathologies, including diseases of the nervous system (e...
July 18, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721032/-11-c-pib-pet-imaging-reveals-that-amyloid-deposition-in-cases-with-early-onset-alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-absence-of-known-mutations-retains-higher-levels-of-pib-in-the-basal-ganglia
#3
Young Chul Youn, Jae-Won Jang, Su-Hyun Han, HyeRyoun Kim, Ju-Won Seok, Jun Soo Byun, Kwang-Yeol Park, Seong Soo A An, In Kook Chun, SangYun Kim
PURPOSE: Early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) has a different pathologic burden and clinical features compared with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). We examined the effects of age at onset on the burden and distribution of β-amyloid in patients with EOAD, in whom well-characterized mutations associated with Alzheimer's disease were absent. METHODS: We genotyped ApoE, APP, PSEN1 and PSEN2 in the patients with Alzheimer's disease: 9 patients with EOAD (age <65), 11 with LOAD (age >70) and 8 normal controls (NCs), all of whom had undergone (11)C-labeled Pittsburgh compound B-positron emission tomography imaging...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716886/clinical-neurology-and-epidemiology-of-the-major-neurodegenerative-diseases
#4
Michael G Erkkinen, Mee-Ohk Kim, Michael D Geschwind
Neurodegenerative diseases are a common cause of morbidity and cognitive impairment in older adults. Most clinicians who care for the elderly are not trained to diagnose these conditions, perhaps other than typical Alzheimer's disease (AD). Each of these disorders has varied epidemiology, clinical symptomatology, laboratory and neuroimaging features, neuropathology, and management. Thus, it is important that clinicians be able to differentiate and diagnose these conditions accurately. This review summarizes and highlights clinical aspects of several of the most commonly encountered neurodegenerative diseases, including AD, frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and its variants, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), multiple system atrophy (MSA), and Huntington's disease (HD)...
July 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715462/cell-specificity-dictates-similarities-in-gene-expression-in-multiple-sclerosis-parkinson-s-disease-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Yuichiro Itoh, Rhonda R Voskuhl
Drug repurposing is an efficient approach in new treatment development since it leverages previous work from one disease to another. While multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are all neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) and differ in many clinical and pathological aspects, it is possible that they may share some mechanistic features. We hypothesized that focusing on gene expression in a CNS cell type specific manner might uncover similarities between diseases that could be missed using whole tissue gene expression analyses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709585/patients-come-from-populations-and-populations-contain-patients-a-two-stage-scientific-and-ethics-review-the-next-adaptation-for-single-institutional-review-boards
#6
David Knopman, Eli Alford, Kaitlin Tate, Mark Long, Ara S Khachaturian
INTRODUCTION: For nearly 50 years, institutional review boards (IRB) and independent ethics committees have featured local oversight as a core function of research ethics reviews. However growing complexity in Alzheimer's clinical research suggests current approaches to research volunteer safety is hampering development of new therapeutics. As a partial response to this challenge, the NIH has mandated that all NIH-funded multi-site studies will use a single Institutional Review Board...
July 11, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692196/genotype-phenotype-study-in-patients-with-vcp-valosin-containing-protein-mutations-associated-with-multisystem-proteinopathy
#7
Ebaa Al-Obeidi, Sejad Al-Tahan, Abhilasha Surampalli, Namita Goyal, Annabel Wang, Andreas Hermann, Molly Omizo, Charles Smith, Tahseen Mozaffar, Virginia Kimonis
Mutations in valosin-containing protein (VCP), an ATPase involved in protein degradation and autophagy, cause VCP disease, a progressive autosomal dominant adult onset multisystem proteinopathy. The goal of this study is to examine if phenotypic differences in this disorder could be explained by the specific gene mutations. We therefore studied 231 individuals (118 males, 113 females) from 36 families carrying 15 different VCP mutations. We analyzed correlation between the different mutations and prevalence, age of onset and severity of myopathy, PDB, and FTD, and other comorbidities...
July 10, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684136/open-innovation-towards-sharing-of-data-models-and-workflows
#8
Daniela J Conrado, Mats O Karlsson, Klaus Romero, Céline Sarr, Justin J Wilkins
Sharing of resources across organisations to support open innovation is an old idea, but which is being taken up by the scientific community at increasing speed, concerning public sharing in particular. The ability to address new questions or provide more precise answers to old questions through merged information is among the attractive features of sharing. Increased efficiency through reuse, and increased reliability of scientific findings through enhanced transparency, are expected outcomes from sharing...
July 3, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676298/joint-prediction-of-multiple-scores-captures-better-individual-traits-from-brain-images
#9
Mehdi Rahim, Bertrand Thirion, Danilo Bzdok, Irène Buvat, Gaël Varoquaux
To probe individual variations in brain organization, population imaging relates features of brain images to rich descriptions of the subjects such as genetic information or behavioral and clinical assessments. Capturing common trends across these measurements is important: they jointly characterize the disease status of patient groups. In particular, mapping imaging features to behavioral scores with predictive models opens the way toward more precise diagnosis. Here we propose to jointly predict all the dimensions (behavioral scores) that make up the individual profiles, using so-called multi-output models...
July 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672838/recent-advances-in-conotoxin-classification-by-using-machine-learning-methods
#10
REVIEW
Fu-Ying Dao, Hui Yang, Zhen-Dong Su, Wuritu Yang, Yun Wu, Ding Hui, Wei Chen, Hua Tang, Hao Lin
Conotoxins are disulfide-rich small peptides, which are invaluable peptides that target ion channel and neuronal receptors. Conotoxins have been demonstrated as potent pharmaceuticals in the treatment of a series of diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. In addition, conotoxins are also ideal molecular templates for the development of new drug lead compounds and play important roles in neurobiological research as well. Thus, the accurate identification of conotoxin types will provide key clues for the biological research and clinical medicine...
June 25, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666881/distinguishing-early-and-late-brain-aging-from-the-alzheimer-s-disease-spectrum-consistent-morphological-patterns-across-independent-samples
#11
Nhat Trung Doan, Andreas Engvig, Krystal Zaske, Karin Persson, Martina Jonette Lund, Tobias Kaufmann, Aldo Cordova-Palomera, Dag Alnæs, Torgeir Moberget, Anne Brækhus, Maria Lage Barca, Jan Egil Nordvik, Knut Engedal, Ingrid Agartz, Geir Selbæk, Ole A Andreassen, Lars T Westlye
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a debilitating age-related neurodegenerative disorder. Accurate identification of individuals at risk is complicated as AD shares cognitive and brain features with aging. We applied linked independent component analysis (LICA) on three complementary measures of gray matter structure: cortical thickness, area and gray matter density of 137 AD, 78 mild (MCI) and 38 subjective cognitive impairment patients, and 355 healthy adults aged 18-78 years to identify dissociable multivariate morphological patterns sensitive to age and diagnosis...
June 27, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664662/functional-joint-model-for-longitudinal-and-time-to-event-data-an-application-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Kan Li, Sheng Luo
Functional data are increasingly collected in public health and medical studies to better understand many complex diseases. Besides the functional data, other clinical measures are often collected repeatedly. Investigating the association between these longitudinal data and time to a survival event is of great interest to these studies. In this article, we develop a functional joint model (FJM) to account for functional predictors in both longitudinal and survival submodels in the joint modeling framework. The parameters of FJM are estimated in a maximum likelihood framework via expectation maximization algorithm...
June 30, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664265/-networks-involved-in-motor-cognition-physiology-and-pathophysiology-of-apraxia
#13
REVIEW
M Martin, J Hermsdörfer, S Bohlhalter, P H Weiss
Apraxia is an umbrella term for different disorders of higher motor abilities that are not explained by elementary sensorimotor deficits (e. g. paresis or ataxia). Characteristic features of apraxia that are easy to recognize in clinical practice are difficulties in pantomimed or actual use of tools as well as in imitation of meaningless gestures. Apraxia is bilateral, explaining the cognitive motor disorders and occurs frequently (but not exclusively) after left hemispheric lesions, as well as in neurodegenerative diseases, such as corticobasal syndrome and Alzheimer's disease...
June 29, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664032/five-class-differential-diagnostics-of-neurodegenerative-diseases-using-random-undersampling-boosting
#14
Tong Tong, Christian Ledig, Ricardo Guerrero, Andreas Schuh, Juha Koikkalainen, Antti Tolonen, Hanneke Rhodius, Frederik Barkhof, Betty Tijms, Afina W Lemstra, Hilkka Soininen, Anne M Remes, Gunhild Waldemar, Steen Hasselbalch, Patrizia Mecocci, Marta Baroni, Jyrki Lötjönen, Wiesje van der Flier, Daniel Rueckert
Differentiating between different types of neurodegenerative diseases is not only crucial in clinical practice when treatment decisions have to be made, but also has a significant potential for the enrichment of clinical trials. The purpose of this study is to develop a classification framework for distinguishing the four most common neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal lobe degeneration, Dementia with Lewy bodies and vascular dementia, as well as patients with subjective memory complaints...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653647/advances-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-new-diagnostic-criteria-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-approaches
#15
REVIEW
Adam L Boxer, Jin-Tai Yu, Lawrence I Golbe, Irene Litvan, Anthony E Lang, Günter U Höglinger
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), previously believed to be a common cause of atypical parkinsonism, is now recognised as a range of motor and behavioural syndromes that are associated with a characteristic 4-repeat tau neuropathology. New research criteria that recognise early presentations of PSP and operationalise diagnosis of the full spectrum of clinical phenotypes have been reported. The Movement Disorders Society PSP diagnostic criteria include syndromes with few or mild symptoms that are suggestive of underlying PSP pathology and could provide an opportunity for earlier therapeutic interventions in the future...
July 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641509/brain-information-sharing-during-visual-short-term-memory-binding-yields-a-memory-biomarker-for-familial-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Mario A Parra, Ezequiel Mikulan, Natalia Trujillo, Sergio Della Sala, Francisco Lopera, Facundo Manes, John Starr, Agustin Ibanez
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) as a disconnection syndrome disrupts both brain information sharing and memory binding functions. The extent to which these two phenotypic expressions are shared pathophysiological mechanisms remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To unveil the electrophysiological correlates of integrative memory impairments in AD towards new memory biomarkers for its prodromal stages. METHODS: Patients with 100% risk of familial AD (FAD) and healthy controls underwent assessment with the VSTM binding test (VSTMBT) while we recorded their EEG...
June 14, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632523/frontotemporal-dementia-presenting-as-gambling-disorder-when-a-psychiatric-condition-is-the-clue-to-a-neurodegenerative-disease
#17
Giacomo Tondo, Fabiola De Marchi, Emanuela Terazzi, Marta Sacchetti, Roberto Cantello
Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, the most common form of frontotemporal dementia, is characterized by executive dysfunction and changes in personality and behavior, sometimes with associated psychiatric disorders. We report a man who suddenly developed a gambling disorder when he was 55 years old. A year later he developed personality changes of agitation, euphoria, and disinhibition, along with binge eating and dysthymia. He did not improve on paroxetine 40 mg/day. Two years after the onset of his symptoms, he came to our clinic for evaluation...
June 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625786/drug-induces-depression-like-phenotypes-and-alters-gene-expression-profiles-in-drosophila
#18
Ming-Di Jiang, Ya Zheng, Jia-Lin Wang, Yu-Feng Wang
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a severe mental illness that affects more than 350 million people worldwide. However, the molecular mechanisms of depression are currently unclear. Studies suggest that Drosophila and humans have similar depression-like symptoms under pressure. In this research, we choose Drosophila melanogaster as the animal model to explore the molecular mechanisms that trigger depression. RESULTS: We found that feeding D. melanogaster with the medium containing Levodopa or Chlorpromazine could induce depression-like phenotypes in both behavioral and biochemical biomarkers, including significantly decreased food intake, mating frequency, serotonin (5-HT) concentration, and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration as well as reduced activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD)...
June 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624881/discriminative-self-representation-sparse-regression-for-neuroimaging-based-alzheimer-s-disease-diagnosis
#19
Xiaofeng Zhu, Heung-Il Suk, Seong-Whan Lee, Dinggang Shen
In this paper, we propose a novel feature selection method by jointly considering (1) 'task-specific' relations between response variables (e.g., clinical labels in this work) and neuroimaging features and (2) 'self-representation' relations among neuroimaging features in a sparse regression framework. Specifically, the task-specific relation is devised to learn the relative importance of features for representation of response variables by a linear combination of the input features in a supervised manner, while the self-representation relation is used to take into account the inherent information among neuroimaging features such that any feature can be represented by a weighted sum of the other features, regardless of the label information, in an unsupervised manner...
June 17, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622692/motor-deficits-are-independent-of-axonopathy-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model-of-tgcrnd8-mice
#20
Qiuju Yuan, Jian Yang, Wutian Wu, Zhi-Xiu Lin
There have been an increasing number of reports of non-cognitive symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Some symptoms are associated with the loss of motor functions, e.g. gait disturbances, disturbed activity level and balance. Consistent with clinical findings, several AD mouse models harboring amyloid pathology develop motor impairment. Although the factors that contribute to the motor deficits have not yet been determined, it has been suggested that axonopathy is one of the key factors that may contribute to this particular feature of the disease...
June 9, 2017: Oncotarget
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