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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234418/effects-of-acupuncture-on-alzheimer-s-disease-in-animal-based-research
#1
REVIEW
Sunjung Park, Jun-Hwan Lee, Eun Jin Yang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and severe functional deficits in the brain. The pathogenesis and treatment of AD remain topics of investigation and significant global socioeconomic issues. The effect of complementary medicine has been investigated in managing AD. Acupuncture, a form of therapy practiced for more than 3000 years, has shown positive effects on several neurological disorders including AD...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228660/motor-deficits-are-independent-of-axonopathy-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model-of-tgcrnd8-mice
#2
Qiuju Yuan, Jian Yang, Wutian Wu, Zhi-Xiu Lin
There have been an increasing number of reports of non-cognitive symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Some symptoms are associated with the loss of motor functions, e.g. gait disturbances, disturbed activity level and balance. Consistent with clinical findings, several AD mouse models harboring amyloid pathology develop motor impairment. Although the factors that contribute to the motor deficits have not yet been determined, it has been suggested that axonopathy is one of the key factors that may contribute to this particular feature of the disease...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226873/modeling-prion-like-processing-of%C3%A2-tau%C3%A2-protein-in-alzheimer-s-disease-for%C3%A2-pharmaceutical-development
#3
Claude M Wischik, Björn O Schelter, Damon J Wischik, John M D Storey, Charles R Harrington
 Following our discovery of a fragment from the repeat domain of tau protein as a structural constituent of the PHF-core in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we developed an assay that captured several key features of the aggregation process. Tau-tau binding through the core tau fragment could be blocked by the same diaminophenothiazines found to dissolve proteolytically stable PHFs isolated from AD brain. We found that the PHF-core tau fragment is inherently capable of auto-catalytic self-propagation in vitro, or "prion-like processing", that has now been demonstrated for several neurodegenerative disorders...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223173/the-worried-well-characteristics-of-cognitively-normal-patients-presenting-to-a-rural-and-remote-memory-clinic
#4
Ryan Verity, Andrew Kirk, Megan E O'Connell, Chandima Karunanayake, Debra G Morgan
INTRODUCTION: In an effort to better understand why cognitively normal patients were referred to a memory clinic, we sought to identify features of "worried well" patients to better identify those more likely to be cognitively normal. METHODS: In total, 375 consecutive patients referred by primary care practitioners to a Rural and Remote Memory Clinic were categorized into two groups based on their neurologic diagnosis, "worried well" (cognitively normal, N=81) or "other" (patients with any neurologic diagnosis, N=294)...
December 10, 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222591/dementia-with-lewy-bodies-and-parkinson-s-disease-dementia-current-concepts-and-controversies
#5
REVIEW
Kurt A Jellinger
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease-dementia (PDD), although sharing many clinical, neurochemical and morphological features, according to DSM-5, are two entities of major neurocognitive disorders with Lewy bodies of unknown etiology. Despite considerable clinical overlap, their diagnosis is based on an arbitrary distinction between the time of onset of motor and cognitive symptoms: dementia often preceding parkinsonism in DLB and onset of cognitive impairment after onset of motor symptoms in PDD...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214587/rare-neurodegenerative-diseases-clinical-and-genetic-update
#6
Antoni Matilla-Dueñas, Marc Corral-Juan, Agustí Rodríguez-Palmero Seuma, Dolores Vilas, Lourdes Ispierto, Sara Morais, Jorge Sequeiros, Isabel Alonso, Víctor Volpini, Carmen Serrano-Munuera, Guillem Pintos-Morell, Ramiro Álvarez, Ivelisse Sánchez
More than 600 human disorders afflict the nervous system. Of these, neurodegenerative diseases are usually characterised by onset in late adulthood, progressive clinical course, and neuronal loss with regional specificity in the central nervous system. They include Alzheimer's disease and other less frequent dementias, brain cancer, degenerative nerve diseases, encephalitis, epilepsy, genetic brain disorders, head and brain malformations, hydrocephalus, stroke, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's Disease), Huntington's disease, and Prion diseases, among others...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201555/background-and-distribution-of-lobar-microbleeds-in-cognitive-dysfunction
#7
Hirofumi Matsuyama, Yuichiro Ii, Masayuki Maeda, Maki Umino, Yukito Ueda, Ken-Ichi Tabei, Hirotaka Kida, Masayuki Satoh, Akihiro Shindo, Akira Taniguchi, Ryosuke Takahashi, Hidekazu Tomimoto
Objectives: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are often observed in memory clinic patients. It has been generally accepted that deep CMBs (D-CMBs) result from hypertensive vasculopathy (HV), whereas strictly lobar CMBs (SL-CMBs) result from cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) which frequently coexists with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mixed CMBs (M-CMBs) have been partially attributed to HV and also partially attributed to CAA. The aim of this study was to elucidate the differences between SL-CMBs and M-CMBs in terms of clinical features and regional distribution...
November 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190943/neuroprotective-effects-of-bajijiasu-against-cognitive-impairment-induced-by-amyloid-%C3%AE-in-app-ps1-mice
#8
Haobin Cai, Yijie Wang, Jiayang He, Tiantian Cai, Jun Wu, Jiansong Fang, Rong Zhang, Zhouke Guo, Li Guan, Qinkai Zhan, Li Lin, Yao Xiao, Huafeng Pan, Qi Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurological degenerative disease. The main clinical manifestations of AD include progressive cognitive impairment and alteration of personality. Senile plaques, neuroinflammation, and destruction of synapse structure stability are the main pathological features of AD. Bajijiasu(BJJS) is extracted from Morinda Officinalis, a Chinese herb. In this study, we explored the effect of BJJS on AD from many aspects in APPswe/PSEN1ΔE9 (APP/PS1) double transgenic mice. The Morris water maze and novel object recognition tests results showed that BJJS could significantly improve the learning and memory abilities in APP/PS1 mice...
November 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187812/adrenomedullin-contributes-to-age-related-memory-loss-in-mice-and-is-elevated-in-aging-human-brains
#9
Ignacio M Larrayoz, Hilda Ferrero, Eva Martisova, Francisco J Gil-Bea, María J Ramírez, Alfredo Martínez
Memory decline is common in elderly individuals and is the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Memory failure follows the loss of synaptic contacts in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, caused in part by cytoskeleton disruption. Adrenomedullin (AM) and its gene-related peptide, proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP), are microtubule-associated proteins (MAP) whose expression has been identified as a potential biomarker for predicting progression from predementia to clinical AD. Here we analyze the connection between AM levels and memory preservation...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181857/whole-exome-sequencing-of-the-bdr-cohort-evidence-to-support-the-role-of-the-pilra-gene-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Tulsi Patel, Keeley J Brookes, James Turton, Sultan Chaudhury, Tamar Guetta-Baranes, Rita Guerreiro, Jose Bras, Dena Hernandez, Andrew Singleton, Paul T Francis, John Hardy, Kevin Morgan
AIM: Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) accounts for 95% of all Alzheimer's cases and is genetically complex in nature. Overlapping clinical and neuropathological features between AD, FTD and Parkinson's disease highlight the potential role of genetic pleiotropy across diseases. Recent GWAS have uncovered 20 new loci for AD risk, however these exhibit small effect sizes. Using NGS, here we perform association analyses using exome-wide and candidate-gene driven approaches. METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing was performed on 132 AD cases and 53 control samples...
November 27, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181491/clinical-development-of-aducanumab-an-anti-a%C3%AE-human-monoclonal-antibody-being-investigated-for-the-treatment-of-early-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
S Budd Haeberlein, J O'Gorman, P Chiao, T Bussière, P von Rosenstiel, Y Tian, Y Zhu, C von Hehn, S Gheuens, L Skordos, T Chen, A Sandrock
The amyloid hypothesis has been the dominant framework for Alzheimer's disease (AD) research, including the development of anti-AD therapies. However, none of the phase III clinical trials conducted to date that targeted amyloid β (Aβ) production, aggregation, or clearance demonstrated a statistically significant treatment effect in patients with AD. This includes the approach of using monoclonal antibodies that recognize various Aβ epitopes and display different binding selectivity. While some monoclonal antibodies have failed in phase III trials, several are still in development...
2017: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181489/the-alzheimer-s-prevention-initiative-generation-program-evaluating-cnp520-efficacy-in-the-prevention-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
C Lopez Lopez, A Caputo, F Liu, M E Riviere, M-L Rouzade-Dominguez, R G Thomas, J B Langbaum, R Lenz, E M Reiman, A Graf, P N Tariot
Alzheimer's disease pathology begins decades before the onset of clinical symptoms. This provides an opportunity for interventional clinical trials to potentially delay or prevent the onset of cognitive impairment or dementia. CNP520 (a beta-site-amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme inhibitor) is in clinical development for the treatment of preclinical Alzheimer's disease under the Alzheimer's Prevention Initiative Generation Program. The Alzheimer's Prevention Initiative is a public-private partnership intended to accelerate the evaluation of Alzheimer's disease prevention therapies...
2017: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174998/psychosis-and-clinical-outcomes-in-alzheimer-disease-a-longitudinal-study
#13
Michael H Connors, David Ames, Michael Woodward, Henry Brodaty
OBJECTIVE: Psychotic symptoms are a common feature in Alzheimer disease (AD), occurring in approximately 40% of patients. These symptoms are associated with worse clinical outcomes. Comparatively little research, however, has distinguished delusions and hallucinations, which may have distinct clinical, neuropathological, and genetic correlates. To address this, the current study examined the clinical outcomes associated with delusions and hallucinations in AD. DESIGN: Three-year observational study...
October 20, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169962/impaired-peripheral-glucose-homeostasis-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
Nadeeja Wijesekara, Rafaella Araujo Gonçalves da Silva, Fernanda G De Felice, Paul E Fraser
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. Recent studies suggest that metabolic disturbances, particularly type 2 diabetes (T2D) increase the risk of cognitive decline and AD. AD is also a risk factor for T2D, and a growing body of evidence indicates that these diseases are connected both at clinical and molecular levels. In T2D, peripheral insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and eventually insulin deficiency develops, leading to an overall decline in tissue health. More recently, brain insulin resistance has been shown to be a key feature of AD that is linked to neuronal dysfunction and cognitive impairment...
November 21, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165085/a-speech-recognition-based-solution-for-the-automatic-detection-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-from-spontaneous-speech
#15
Laszlo Toth, Ildiko Hoffmann, Gabor Gosztolya, Veronika Vincze, Greta Szatloczki, Zoltan Banreti, Magdolna Pakaski, Janos Kalman
BACKGROUND: Even today the reliable diagnosis of the prodromal stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains a great challenge. Our research focuses on the earliest detectable indicators of cognitive decline in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Since the presence of language impairment has been reported even in the mild stage of AD, the aim of this study is to develop a sensitive neuropsychological screening method which is based on the analysis of spontaneous speech production during performing a memory task...
November 20, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163005/in-vivo-imaging-of-tau-pathology-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging-textural-analysis
#16
Niall Colgan, Balaji Ganeshan, Ian F Harrison, Ozama Ismail, Holly E Holmes, Jack A Wells, Nick M Powell, James M O'Callaghan, Michael J O'Neill, Tracey K Murray, Zeshan Ahmed, Emily C Collins, Ross A Johnson, Ashley Groves, Mark F Lythgoe
Background: Non-invasive characterization of the pathological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) could enhance patient management and the development of therapeutic strategies. Magnetic resonance imaging texture analysis (MRTA) has been used previously to extract texture descriptors from structural clinical scans in AD to determine cerebral tissue heterogeneity. In this study, we examined the potential of MRTA to specifically identify tau pathology in an AD mouse model and compared the MRTA metrics to histological measures of tau burden...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161341/distinct-spatiotemporal-accumulation-of-n-truncated-and-full-length-amyloid-%C3%AE-42-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Mitsuru Shinohara, Shunsuke Koga, Takuya Konno, Jeremy Nix, Motoko Shinohara, Naoya Aoki, Pritam Das, Joseph E Parisi, Ronald C Petersen, Terrone L Rosenberry, Dennis W Dickson, Guojun Bu
Accumulation of amyloid-β peptides is a dominant feature in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease; however, it is not clear how individual amyloid-β species accumulate and affect other neuropathological and clinical features in the disease. Thus, we compared the accumulation of N-terminally truncated amyloid-β and full-length amyloid-β, depending on disease stage as well as brain area, and determined how these amyloid-β species respectively correlate with clinicopathological features of Alzheimer's disease...
November 17, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159265/characterizing-biomarker-features-of-cognitively-normal-individuals-with-ventriculomegaly
#18
Xiaofeng Li, Maowen Ba, Kok Pin Ng, Sulantha Mathotaarachchi, Tharick A Pascoal, Pedro Rosa-Neto, Serge Gauthier
Introduction: The clinical significance of ventriculomegaly in cognitively normal elderly individuals remains unclear. Methods: We selected cognitively normal individuals (n = 425) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database and calculated Evans index (EI) based on the ratio of the frontal horn and skull diameter. We defined ventriculomegaly as EI ≥ 0.30, and the participants were stratified into EI ≥ 0.30 group and EI < 0.30 group...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155947/dementia-after-moderate-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-coexistence-of-multiple-proteinopathies
#19
Kimbra Kenney, Diego Iacono, Brian L Edlow, Douglas I Katz, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Kristen Dams-O'Connor, Daniel H Daneshvar, Allison Stevens, Allison L Moreau, Lee S Tirrell, Ani Varjabedian, Anastasia Yendiki, Andre van der Kouwe, Azma Mareyam, Jennifer A McNab, Wayne A Gordon, Bruce Fischl, Ann C McKee, Daniel P Perl
We report the clinical, neuroimaging, and neuropathologic characteristics of 2 patients who developed early onset dementia after a moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Neuropathological evaluation revealed abundant β-amyloid neuritic and cored plaques, diffuse β-amyloid plaques, and frequent hyperphosphorylated-tau neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) involving much of the cortex, including insula and mammillary bodies in both cases. Case 1 additionally showed NFTs in both the superficial and deep cortical layers, occasional perivascular and depth-of-sulci NFTs, and parietal white matter rarefaction, which corresponded with decreased parietal fiber tracts observed on ex vivo MRI...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151169/parkinson-s-disease-experimental-models-and-reality
#20
REVIEW
Peizhou Jiang, Dennis W Dickson
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive movement disorder of adults and the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease. Neuropathologic diagnosis of PD requires moderate-to-marked neuronal loss in the ventrolateral substantia nigra pars compacta and α-synuclein (αS) Lewy body pathology. Nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration correlates with the Parkinsonian motor features, but involvement of other peripheral and central nervous system regions leads to a wide range of non-motor features...
November 18, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
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