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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457783/cellular-senescence-in-brain-aging-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-evidence-and-perspectives
#1
Darren J Baker, Ronald C Petersen
Along with a general decline in overall health, most chronic degenerative human diseases are inherently associated with increasing age. Age-associated cognitive impairments and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, are potentially debilitating conditions that lack viable options for treatment, resulting in a tremendous economic and societal cost. Most high-profile clinical trials for neurodegenerative diseases have led to inefficacious results, suggesting that novel approaches to treating these pathologies are needed...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455029/heterogeneous-patterns-of-brain-atrophy-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Konstantinos Poulakis, Joana B Pereira, Patrizia Mecocci, Bruno Vellas, Magda Tsolaki, Iwona Kłoszewska, Hilkka Soininen, Simon Lovestone, Andrew Simmons, Lars-Olof Wahlund, Eric Westman
There is increasing evidence showing that brain atrophy varies between patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), suggesting that different anatomical patterns might exist within the same disorder. We investigated AD heterogeneity based on cortical and subcortical atrophy patterns in 299 AD subjects from 2 multicenter cohorts. Clusters of patients and important discriminative features were determined using random forest pairwise similarity, multidimensional scaling, and distance-based hierarchical clustering. We discovered 2 typical (72...
January 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445429/classification-of-mri-and-psychological-testing-data-based-on-support-vector-machine
#3
Wenlu Yang, Xinyun Chen, David S Cohen, Eric R Rosin, Arthur W Toga, Paul M Thompson, Xudong Huang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, and often fatal, brain disease that causes neurodegeneration, resulting in memory loss as well as other cognitive and behavioral problems. Here, we propose a novel multimodal method combining independent components from MRI measures and clinical assessments to distinguish Alzheimer's patients or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects from healthy elderly controls. 70 AD subjects (mean age: 77.15 ± 6.2 years), 98 MCI subjects (mean age: 76.91 ± 5.7 years), and 150 HC subjects (mean age: 75...
December 2017: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439335/abnormalities-of-resting-state-cortical-eeg-rhythms-in-subjects-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-due-to-alzheimer-s-and-lewy-body-diseases
#4
Claudio Babiloni, Claudio Del Percio, Roberta Lizio, Giuseppe Noce, Susanna Lopez, Andrea Soricelli, Raffaele Ferri, Maria Teresa Pascarelli, Valentina Catania, Flavio Nobili, Dario Arnaldi, Francesco Famà, Dag Aarsland, Francesco Orzi, Carla Buttinelli, Franco Giubilei, Marco Onofrj, Fabrizio Stocchi, Laura Vacca, Paola Stirpe, Peter Fuhr, Ute Gschwandtner, Gerhard Ransmayr, Heinrich Garn, Lucia Fraioli, Michela Pievani, Giovanni B Frisoni, Fabrizia D'Antonio, Carlo De Lena, Bahar Güntekin, Lutfu Hanoğlu, Erol Başar, Görsev Yener, Derya Durusu Emek-Savaş, Antonio Ivano Triggiani, Raffaella Franciotti, John Paul Taylor, Maria Francesca De Pandis, Laura Bonanni
The present study tested the hypothesis that cortical sources of resting state eyes-closed electroencephalographic (rsEEG) rhythms reveal different abnormalities in cortical neural synchronization in groups of patients with mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (ADMCI) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLBMCI) as compared to cognitively normal elderly (Nold) subjects. Clinical and rsEEG data in 30 ADMCI, 23 DLBMCI, and 30 Nold subjects were available in an international archive. Age, gender, and education were carefully matched in the three groups...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422002/identification-and-temporal-characterization-of-features-associated-with-the-conversion-from-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Antonio Martinez-Torteya, Hugo Gomez-Rueda, Victor Trevino, Joshua Farber, Jose Tamez-Pena, For The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative
BACKGROUND: Diagnosing Alzheimer's disease (AD) in its earliest stages is important for therapeutic and support planning. Similarly, being able to predict who convert from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to AD would have clinical implications. OBJECTIVES: This study's goals were to identify features from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database associated with the conversion from MCI to AD, and to characterize the temporal evolution of that conversion...
February 1, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419487/genetically-engineered-pigs-as-models-for-human-disease
#6
REVIEW
Carolin Perleberg, Alexander Kind, Angelika Schnieke
Genetically modified animals are vital for gaining a proper understanding of disease mechanisms. Mice have long been the mainstay of basic research into a wide variety of diseases but are not always the most suitable means of translating basic knowledge into clinical application. The shortcomings of rodent preclinical studies are widely recognised, and regulatory agencies around the world now require preclinical trial data from nonrodent species. Pigs are well suited to biomedical research, sharing many similarities with humans, including body size, anatomical features, physiology and pathophysiology, and they already play an important role in translational studies...
January 22, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415084/mr-guided-transcranial-focused-ultrasound-safely-enhances-interstitial-dispersion-of-large-polymeric-nanoparticles-in-the-living-brain
#7
David S Hersh, Pavlos Anastasiadis, Ali Mohammadabadi, Ben A Nguyen, Sijia Guo, Jeffrey A Winkles, Anthony J Kim, Rao Gullapalli, Asaf Keller, Victor Frenkel, Graeme F Woodworth
Generating spatially controlled, non-destructive changes in the interstitial spaces of the brain has a host of potential clinical applications, including enhancing the delivery of therapeutics, modulating biological features within the tissue microenvironment, altering fluid and pressure dynamics, and increasing the clearance of toxins, such as plaques found in Alzheimer's disease. Recently we demonstrated that ultrasound can non-destructively enlarge the interstitial spaces of the brain ex vivo. The goal of the current study was to determine whether these effects could be reproduced in the living brain using non-invasive, transcranial MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414437/conversion-and-time-to-conversion-predictions-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-using-low-rank-affinity-pursuit-denoising-and-matrix-completion
#8
Kim-Han Thung, Pew-Thian Yap, Ehsan Adeli, Seong-Whan Lee, Dinggang Shen
In this paper, we aim to predict conversion and time-to-conversion of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients using multi-modal neuroimaging data and clinical data, via cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. However, such data are often heterogeneous, high-dimensional, noisy, and incomplete. We thus propose a framework that includes sparse feature selection, low-rank affinity pursuit denoising (LRAD), and low-rank matrix completion (LRMC) in this study. Specifically, we first use sparse linear regressions to remove unrelated features...
January 31, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413314/accelerated-long-term-forgetting-in-presymptomatic-autosomal-dominant-alzheimer-s-disease-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Philip S J Weston, Jennifer M Nicholas, Susie M D Henley, Yuying Liang, Kirsty Macpherson, Elizabeth Donnachie, Jonathan M Schott, Martin N Rossor, Sebastian J Crutch, Christopher R Butler, Adam Z Zeman, Nick C Fox
BACKGROUND: Tests sensitive to presymptomatic changes in Alzheimer's disease could be valuable for clinical trials. Accelerated long-term forgetting-during which memory impairment becomes apparent over longer periods than usually assessed, despite normal performance on standard cognitive testing-has been identified in other temporal lobe disorders. We assessed whether accelerated long-term forgetting is a feature of presymptomatic autosomal dominant (familial) Alzheimer's disease, and whether there is an association between accelerated long-term forgetting and early subjective memory changes...
February 2018: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412849/evaluating-cognitive-reserve-through-the-prism-of-preclinical-alzheimer-disease
#10
REVIEW
Anja Soldan, Corinne Pettigrew, Marilyn Albert
The concept of cognitive reserve (CR) was proposed to account for the discrepancy between levels of brain pathologic features or damage and clinical and cognitive function. This article provides a detailed review of prospective longitudinal studies that have investigated the interaction between CR and Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers on clinical and cognitive outcomes among individuals with preclinical AD. Current evidence shows that higher levels of CR are associated with a delay in the onset of symptoms of mild cognitive impairment and that there may be multiple pathways by which CR exerts its protective effects...
March 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409157/sentence-composition-ability-in-two-patients-with-non-fluent-agrammatic-variant-primary-progressive-aphasia
#11
Hiroyuki Watanabe, Minoru Matsuda, Shoko Ota, Toru Baba, Osamu Iizuka, Etsuro Mori
Agrammatism is one of the core clinical features of non-fluent/agrammatic variant primary progressive aphasia, and it has traditionally been considered the hallmark of non-fluent aphasia in Western countries. However, agrammatic speech may remain undetected in Japanese patients because of the agglutinative structure of the language and high flexibility in word order. In the present study, we aimed to analyze agrammatism in the speech production of Japanese patients with aphasia due to neurodegenerative disease using an anagram test generated by our laboratory...
February 6, 2018: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397305/spatial-patterns-of-neuroimaging-biomarker-change-in-individuals-from-families-with-autosomal-dominant-alzheimer-s-disease-a-longitudinal-study
#12
Brian A Gordon, Tyler M Blazey, Yi Su, Amrita Hari-Raj, Aylin Dincer, Shaney Flores, Jon Christensen, Eric McDade, Guoqiao Wang, Chengjie Xiong, Nigel J Cairns, Jason Hassenstab, Daniel S Marcus, Anne M Fagan, Clifford R Jack, Russ C Hornbeck, Katrina L Paumier, Beau M Ances, Sarah B Berman, Adam M Brickman, David M Cash, Jasmeer P Chhatwal, Stephen Correia, Stefan Förster, Nick C Fox, Neill R Graff-Radford, Christian la Fougère, Johannes Levin, Colin L Masters, Martin N Rossor, Stephen Salloway, Andrew J Saykin, Peter R Schofield, Paul M Thompson, Michael M Weiner, David M Holtzman, Marcus E Raichle, John C Morris, Randall J Bateman, Tammie L S Benzinger
BACKGROUND: Models of Alzheimer's disease propose a sequence of amyloid β (Aβ) accumulation, hypometabolism, and structural decline that precedes the onset of clinical dementia. These pathological features evolve both temporally and spatially in the brain. In this study, we aimed to characterise where in the brain and when in the course of the disease neuroimaging biomarkers become abnormal. METHODS: Between Jan 1, 2009, and Dec 31, 2015, we analysed data from mutation non-carriers, asymptomatic carriers, and symptomatic carriers from families carrying gene mutations in presenilin 1 (PSEN1), presenilin 2 (PSEN2), or amyloid precursor protein (APP) enrolled in the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer's Network...
January 31, 2018: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394035/copper-complexes-in-cancer-therapy
#13
Delphine Denoyer, Sharnel A S Clatworthy, Michael A Cater
Copper homeostasis is tightly regulated in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells to ensure sufficient amounts for cuproprotein biosynthesis, while limiting oxidative stress production and toxicity. Over the last century, copper complexes have been developed as antimicrobials and for treating diseases involving copper dyshomeostasis (e.g., Wilson's disease). There now exists a repertoire of copper complexes that can regulate bodily copper through a myriad of mechanisms. Furthermore, many copper complexes are now being appraised for a variety of therapeutic indications (e...
February 5, 2018: Metal Ions in Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391909/development-of-tau-pet-imaging-ligands-and-their-utility-in-preclinical-and-clinical-studies
#14
REVIEW
Yoori Choi, Seunggyun Ha, Yun-Sang Lee, Yun Kyung Kim, Dong Soo Lee, Dong Jin Kim
The pathological features of Alzheimer's disease are senile plaques which are aggregates of β-amyloid peptides and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. Neurofibrillary tangles are aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins, and these induce various other neurodegenerative diseases, such as progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17), and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. In the case of Alzheimer's disease, the measurement of neurofibrillary tangles associated with cognitive decline is suitable for differential diagnosis, disease progression assessment, and to monitor the effects of therapeutic treatment...
February 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370822/slowly-progressive-dementia-caused-by-mapt-r406w-mutations-longitudinal-report-on-a-new-kindred-and-systematic-review
#15
Emil Ygland, Danielle van Westen, Elisabet Englund, Rosa Rademakers, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Karin Nilsson, Christer Nilsson, Maria Landqvist Waldö, Irina Alafuzoff, Oskar Hansson, Lars Gustafson, Andreas Puschmann
BACKGROUND: The MAPT c.1216C > T (p.Arg406Trp; R406W) mutation is a known cause of frontotemporal dementia with Parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 tau with Alzheimer's disease-like clinical features. METHODS: We compiled clinical data from a new Swedish kindred with R406W mutation. Seven family members were followed longitudinally for up to 22 years. Radiological examinations were performed in six family members and neuropathological examinations in three...
January 9, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363108/can-exercise-improve-cognitive-symptoms-of-alzheimer-s-disease-a-meta-analysis
#16
Gregory A Panza, Beth A Taylor, Hayley V MacDonald, Blair T Johnson, Amanda L Zaleski, Jill Livingston, Paul D Thompson, Linda S Pescatello
OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of exercise training on cognitive function in individuals at risk of or diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD). DESIGN: Meta-analysis. SETTING: PubMed, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ProQuest were searched from inception until August 1, 2017. PARTICIPANTS: Nineteen studies with 23 interventions including 1,145 subjects with a mean age of 77.0 ± 7.5 were included. Most subjects were at risk of AD because they had mild cognitive impairment (64%) or a parent diagnosed with AD (1%), and 35% presented with AD...
January 24, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362011/neuropsychiatric-symptoms-and-cognitive-profile-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-with-lewy-bodies
#17
Paul C Donaghy, John-Paul Taylor, John T O'Brien, Nicola Barnett, Kirsty Olsen, Sean J Colloby, Jim Lloyd, George Petrides, Ian G McKeith, Alan J Thomas
BACKGROUND: The accurate clinical characterisation of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is becoming increasingly important. The aim of this study was to compare the neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive profile of MCI with Lewy bodies (MCI-LB) with Alzheimer's disease MCI (MCI-AD). METHODS: Participants were ⩾60 years old with MCI. Each had a thorough clinical and neuropsychological assessment and 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)-nortropane single photon emission computed tomography FP-CIT SPECT)...
January 24, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360176/advancements-of-the-sfida-method-for-oligomer-based-diagnostics-of-neurodegenerative-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Andreas Kulawik, Henrike Heise, Christian Zafiu, Dieter Willbold, Oliver Bannach
Early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is of great importance for the development of therapeutics and their application in the clinical environment. Amyloid β (Aβ) oligomers are crucial for the onset and progression of AD and represent a popular drug target, being presumably the most direct biomarker. Efforts to measure Aβ oligomers in body fluids are hampered by the low analyte concentration and presence of Aβ monomers. The surface-based fluorescence intensity distribution analysis (sFIDA) features both highly specific and sensitive oligomer quantitation as well as total insensitivity towards monomers...
January 23, 2018: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357893/alzheimer-s-disease-diagnosis-based-on-the-hippocampal-unified-multi-atlas-network-human-algorithm
#19
Nicola Amoroso, Marianna La Rocca, Roberto Bellotti, Annarita Fanizzi, Alfonso Monaco, Sabina Tangaro
BACKGROUND: Hippocampal atrophy is a supportive feature for the diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, even for an expert neuroradiologist, tracing the hippocampus and measuring its volume is a time consuming and extremely challenging task. Accordingly, the development of reliable fully-automated segmentation algorithms is of paramount importance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study evaluates (i) the precision and the robustness of the novel Hippocampal Unified Multi-Atlas Network (HUMAN) segmentation algorithm and (ii) its clinical reliability for AD diagnosis...
January 22, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355711/implication-of-the-kallikrein-kinin-system-on-neurological-disorders-quest-for-potential-biomarkers-and-mechanisms
#20
REVIEW
Amaly Nokkari, Hadi Abou-El-Hassan, Yehia Mechref, Stefania Mondello, Mark S Kindy, Ayad A Jaffa, Firas Kobeissy
Neurological disorders represent major health concerns in terms of comorbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite a tremendous increase in our understanding of the pathophysiological processes involved in disease progression and prevention, the accumulated knowledge so far resulted in relatively moderate translational benefits in terms of therapeutic interventions and enhanced clinical outcomes. Aiming at specific neural molecular pathways, different strategies have been geared to target the development and progression of such disorders...
January 16, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
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