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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676205/effects-of-peptidyl-prolyl-isomerase-1-depletion-in-animal-models-of-prion-diseases
#1
Giuseppe Legname, Tommaso Virgilio, Edoardo Bistaffa, Chiara Maria Giulia De Luca, Marcella Catania, Paola Zago, Elisa Isopi, Ilaria Campagnani, Fabrizio Tagliavini, Giorgio Giaccone, Fabio Moda
Pin1 is a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase that induces the cis-trans conversion of specific Ser/Thr-Pro peptide bonds in phosphorylated proteins, leading to conformational changes through which Pin1 regulates protein stability and activity. Since down-regulation of Pin1 has been described in several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's Disease (AD), Parkinson's Disease (PD) and Huntington's Disease (HD), we investigated its potential role in prion diseases. Animals generated on wild-type (Pin1+/+ ), hemizygous (Pin1+/- ) or knock-out (Pin1-/- ) background for Pin1 were experimentally infected with RML prions...
April 20, 2018: Prion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672930/clinical-and-imaging-correlates-of-amyloid-deposition-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#2
Paul C Donaghy, Michael J Firbank, Alan J Thomas, Jim Lloyd, George Petrides, Nicola Barnett, Kirsty Olsen, John T O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Amyloid deposition is common in dementia with Lewy bodies, but its pathophysiological significance is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between amyloid deposition and clinical profile, gray matter volume, and brain perfusion in dementia with Lewy bodies. METHODS: Dementia with Lewy bodies (n = 37), Alzheimer's disease (n = 20), and controls (n = 20) underwent a thorough clinical assessment, 3T MRI, and early- and late-phase 18 F-Florbetapir PET-CT to assess cortical perfusion and amyloid deposition, respectively...
April 19, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671334/alzheimer-disease-non-pharmacological-and-pharmacological-management-of-cognition-and-neuropsychiatric-symptoms
#3
Samantha M Loi, Dhamidhu Eratne, Wendy Kelso, Dennis Velakoulis, Jeffrey Cl Looi
OBJECTIVES: This clinical update review focuses on the management of cognition and the neuropsychiatric features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and highlights current issues regarding pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment, putative therapeutics and recent relevant research findings in this area. CONCLUSIONS: AD is a neurodegenerative progressive condition characterised by cognitive impairment and functional decline. Most people with AD will demonstrate neuropsychiatric features, better known as behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD)...
March 1, 2018: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669461/connected-speech-and-language-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease-a-review-of-picture-description-tasks
#4
Kimberly D Mueller, Bruce Hermann, Jonilda Mecollari, Lyn S Turkstra
INTRODUCTION: The neuropsychological profile of people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia includes a history of decline in memory and other cognitive domains, including language. While language impairments have been well described in AD dementia, language features of MCI are less well understood. Connected speech and language analysis is the study of an individual's spoken discourse, usually elicited by a target stimulus, the results of which can facilitate understanding of how language deficits typical of MCI and AD dementia manifest in everyday communication...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663736/platelets-lymphocytes-and-erythrocytes-from-alzheimer-s-disease-patients-the-quest-for-blood-cell-based-biomarkers
#5
Ryszard Pluta, Marzena Ułamek-Kozioł, Sławomir Januszewski, Stanisław J Czuczwar
In elderly population, Alzheimer's disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder and accounts for about 70% of all cases of dementia. The neurodegenerative processes of this disease start presumably 20 years ahead of the clinical beginning of the disorder. The postmortem histopathological examination, brains from Alzheimer's disease patients with characteristic features like amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, neuronal and synaptic disintegration confirm the final diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651925/heptamer-peptide-disassembles-native-amyloid-in-human-plasma-via-heat-shock-protein-70
#6
Timothy James Cunningham, Jeffrey I Greenstein, Lihua Yao, Itzhak Fischer, Theresa Conners
Proteostasis, which includes the repair and disposal of misfolded proteins, depends in part on the activity of heat shock proteins, a well-known class of chaperone molecules. When this process fails abnormally folded proteins may accumulate in cells, tissues, and blood. These species are a hallmark of protein aggregation diseases but also amass during aging, often in the absence of an identified clinical disorder. We report that a neuroprotective cyclic heptapeptide, CHEC-7, which has been applied systemically as a therapeutic in animal neurodegeneration models, disrupts such aggregates and inhibits amyloidogenesis when added in nanomolar concentrations to human plasma...
April 13, 2018: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648815/peptidomimetic-based-multi-domain-targeting-offers-critical-evaluation-of-a%C3%AE-structure-and-toxic-function
#7
Sunil Kumar, Anja Henning, Mazin Magzoub, Andrew D Hamilton
The processes associated with the conversion of amyloid beta (Aβ) into intractable amyloid fibers are considered to be pivotal events in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The prevailing hypothesis stipulates that the pre-amyloid oligomers of Aβ are the main culprits associated with the onset and progression of AD, which has prompted efforts to search for therapeutic agents with the ability to inhibit Aβ oligomerization and amyloidogenesis. However, the lack of clinical progress is impeded by the limited structural information about the neurotoxic oligomers...
April 12, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629495/lewy-body-disease-clinical-and-pathological-overlap-syndrome-between-synucleinopathies-parkinson-disease-and-tauopathies-alzheimer-disease
#8
REVIEW
Clovis Foguem, Patrick Manckoundia
Lewy body disease (LBD) is a neurodegenerative disease resulting in dementia. It shares clinical and pathological features with Parkinson disease (PD), the most frequent synucleinopathy, Parkinson disease dementia (PDD), and Alzheimer disease (AD), a tauopathy. Even though the diagnostic criteria for these neurodegenerative diseases are clearly established, and recently revised for LBD, their precise clinical diagnosis is often difficult because LBD, PD, PDD, and AD share epidemiological, clinical, and pathological characteristics...
April 8, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624752/biomarkers-for-cognitive-impairment-in-lewy-body-disorders-status-and-relevance-for-clinical-trials
#9
REVIEW
Andrew Siderowf, Dag Aarsland, Brit Mollenhauer, Jennifer G Goldman, Bernard Ravina
Biomarkers have the potential to improve diagnosis and prognosis, and guide clinical treatment decisions. In research, biomarkers can be used for patient selection and as outcome measures in clinical trials. A range of biochemical and imaging biomarkers are relevant to patients with Lewy body disorders, including PD, PD dementia, and dementia with Lewy bodies. Dopaminergic imaging is used for differential diagnosis of parkinsonian disorders versus tremor disorders without dopamingeric deficits, and also to differentiate dementia with Lewy bodies from Alzheimer's disease...
April 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623841/changes-in-speech-chunking-in-reading-aloud-is-a-marker-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-mild-to-moderate-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Celine De Looze, Finnian Kelly, Lisa Crosby, Aisling Vourdanou, Robert F Coen, Cathal Walsh, Brian A Lawlor, Richard B Reilly
BACKGROUND: Speech and language impairments, generally attributed to lexico-semantic deficits, have been documented in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigates the temporal organisation of speech (reflective of speech production planning) in reading aloud in relation to cognitive impairment, particularly working memory and attention deficits in MCI and AD. The discriminative ability of temporal features extracted from a newly designed read speech task is also evaluated for the detection of MCI and AD...
April 4, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623103/linearized-and-kernelized-sparse-multitask-learning-for-predicting-cognitive-outcomes-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Xiaoli Liu, Peng Cao, Jinzhu Yang, Dazhe Zhao
Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been not only the substantial financial burden to the health care system but also the emotional burden to patients and their families. Predicting cognitive performance of subjects from their magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures and identifying relevant imaging biomarkers are important research topics in the study of Alzheimer's disease. Recently, the multitask learning (MTL) methods with sparsity-inducing norm (e.g., ℓ 2,1 -norm) have been widely studied to select the discriminative feature subset from MRI features by incorporating inherent correlations among multiple clinical cognitive measures...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623038/recent-advances-decoding-alzheimer-s-disease-with-stem-cells
#12
REVIEW
Yi Fang, Ting Gao, Baorong Zhang, Jiali Pu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible neurodegenerative disorder that destroys cognitive functions. Recently, a number of high-profile clinical trials based on the amyloid cascade hypothesis have encountered disappointing results. The failure of these trials indicates the necessity for novel therapeutic strategies and disease models. In this review, we will describe how recent advances in stem cell technology have shed light on a novel treatment strategy and revolutionized the mechanistic investigation of AD pathogenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619853/multi-modality-molecular-imaging-characteristics-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#13
Zhong-Bao Gao, Wei Wang, Xing-Li Zhao, Tong Chen, Li-Ping Fu, Bai-Xuan Xu, Zhen-Fu Wang
Objective Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a common type of neurodegenerative dementia. Molecular neuroimaging using dopamine transporter (DaT), Pittsburgh compound B (PIB), and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has advantages in detecting dopaminergic neuron loss, abnormal amyloid β-protein deposition, and glucose metabolism changes in patients with neurodegenerative disorders. However, the multi-modality molecular imaging features of patients with DLB have rarely been reported...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617684/characteristics-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-using-the-thai-version-of-the-consortium-to-establish-a-registry-for-alzheimer-s-disease-tests-a-multivariate-and-machine-learning-study
#14
Chavit Tunvirachaisakul, Thitiporn Supasitthumrong, Sookjareon Tangwongchai, Solaphat Hemrunroj, Phenphichcha Chuchuen, Itthipol Tawankanjanachot, Yuthachai Likitchareon, Kamman Phanthumchinda, Sira Sriswasdi, Michael Maes
BACKGROUND: The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) developed a neuropsychological battery (CERAD-NP) to screen patients with Alzheimer's dementia. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has received attention as a pre-dementia stage. OBJECTIVES: To delineate the CERAD-NP features of MCI and their clinical utility to externally validate MCI diagnosis. METHODS: The study included 60 patients with MCI, diagnosed using the Clinical Dementia Rating, and 63 normal controls...
April 4, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614644/visual-processing-during-short-term-memory-binding-in-mild-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Gerardo Fernández, David Orozco, Osvaldo Agamennoni, Marcela Schumacher, Silvana Sañudo, Juan Biondi, Mario A Parra
Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) typically present with attentional and oculomotor abnormalities that can have an impact on visual processing and associated cognitive functions. Over the last few years, we have witnessed a shift toward the analyses of eye movement behaviors as a means to further our understanding of the pathophysiology of common disorders such as AD. However, little work has been done to unveil the link between eye moment abnormalities and poor performance on cognitive tasks known to be markers for AD patients, such as the short-term memory-binding task...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609811/the-effect-of-feature-selection-on-multivariate-pattern-analysis-of-structural-brain-mr-images
#16
Ayşe Demirhan
Clinical predictions performed using structural magnetic resonance (MR) images are crucial in neuroimaging studies and can be used as a successful complementary method for clinical decision making. Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) is a significant tool that helps correct predictions by exhibiting a compound relationship between disease-related features. In this study, the effectiveness of determining the most relevant features for MVPA of the brain MR images are examined using ReliefF and minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance (mRMR) algorithms to predict the Alzheimer's disease (AD), schizophrenia, autism, and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
March 2018: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602778/clinical-imaging-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#17
REVIEW
Ajenthan Surendranathan, John Tiernan O'Brien
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a common neurodegenerative dementia in older people; however, the clinical features, particularly cognitive fluctuations and rapid eye movement sleep disorder, are often hard to elicit, leading to difficulty in making the diagnosis clinically. Here we examine the literature for the evidence behind imaging modalities that could assist in making the diagnosis. Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging remains the best modality for differentiation from dementia of Alzheimer's type with high sensitivity and specificity reported based on pathological diagnoses...
March 29, 2018: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599706/lipoprotein-lipase-is-a-feature-of-alternatively-activated-microglia-and-may-facilitate-lipid-uptake-in-the-cns-during-demyelination
#18
Kimberley D Bruce, Sachi Gorkhali, Katherine Given, Alison M Coates, Kristen E Boyle, Wendy B Macklin, Robert H Eckel
Severe demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) such as multiple sclerosis (MS), can be devastating for many young lives. To date, the factors resulting in poor remyelination and repair are not well understood, and reparative therapies that benefit MS patients have yet to be developed. We have previously shown that the activity and abundance of Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL)-the rate-limiting enzyme in the hydrolysis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins-is increased in Schwann cells and macrophages following nerve crush injury in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), suggesting that LPL may help scavenge myelin-derived lipids...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596471/predicting-dementia-from-primary-care-records-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Elizabeth Ford, Nicholas Greenslade, Priya Paudyal, Stephen Bremner, Helen E Smith, Sube Banerjee, Shanu Sadhwani, Philip Rooney, Seb Oliver, Jackie Cassell
INTRODUCTION: Possible dementia is usually identified in primary care by general practitioners (GPs) who refer to specialists for diagnosis. Only two-thirds of dementia cases are currently recorded in primary care, so increasing the proportion of cases diagnosed is a strategic priority for the UK and internationally. Variables in the primary care record may indicate risk of developing dementia, and could be combined in a predictive model to help find patients who are missing a diagnosis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587752/alzheimer-like-brain-metabolic-and-structural-features-in-cholesterol-fed-rabbit-detected-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#20
Ping Jin, Yongming Pan, Zhiyong Pan, Jianqin Xu, Min Lin, Zhichao Sun, Minli Chen, Maosheng Xu
BACKGROUND: Hypercholesterolemia is known to increase the risk of AD in later life, the purpose of this study is to illustrate brain metabolic and structural changes in a cholesterol-fed rabbit model of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) by using clinical 3 T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). METHODS: The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University approved the study. Totally 16 Japanese White Rabbits (JWR) were randomly divided into 2 groups including normal control group fed with routine diet (group NC) and high cholesterol diet group (group CD) fed a 2% cholesterol diet with 0...
March 27, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
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