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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046671/generation-of-persister-cells-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-staphylococcus-aureus-by-chemical-treatment-and-evaluation-of-their-susceptibility-to-membrane-targeting-agents
#1
Lucia Grassi, Mariagrazia Di Luca, Giuseppantonio Maisetta, Andrea C Rinaldi, Semih Esin, Andrej Trampuz, Giovanna Batoni
Persister cells (PCs) are a subset of dormant, phenotypic variants of regular bacteria, highly tolerant to antibiotics. Generation of PCs in vivo may account for the recalcitrance of most chronic infections to antimicrobial treatment and demands for the identification of new antimicrobial agents able to target such cells. The present study explored the possibility to obtain in vitro PCs of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus at high efficiency through chemical treatment, and to test their susceptibility to structurally different antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and two clinically used peptide-based antibiotics, colistin and daptomycin...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043783/marine-mammal-microbiota-yields-novel-antibiotic-with-potent-activity-against-clostridium-difficile
#2
Jessica L Ochoa, Laura M Sanchez, Byoung-Mo Koo, Jennifer S Doherty, Manohary Rajendram, Kerwyn Casey Huang, Carol A Gross, Roger G Linington
The recent explosion of research on the microbiota has highlighted the important interplay between commensal microorganisms and the health of their cognate hosts. Metabolites isolated from commensal bacteria have been demonstrated to possess a range of antimicrobial activities, and it is widely believed that some of these metabolites modulate host behavior, affecting predisposition to disease and pathogen invasion. Our access to the local marine mammal stranding network and previous successes in mining the fish microbiota poised us to test the hypothesis that the marine mammal microbiota is a novel source of commensal bacteria-produced bioactive metabolites...
October 18, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042988/toll-like-receptor-2-and-dectin-1-function-as-promising-biomarker-for-aspergillus-fumigatus-infection
#3
Peng-Peng Zhang, Xiao-Feng Xin, Xiao-Yong Xu, Li-Ping Fang, Jie Wu, Yi Shi
In recent years, along with the wide application of organ transplantation and immunosuppressive agents, as well as the abuse of broad spectrum antibiotics, the incidence of invasive fungal infections has been increasing gradually. The present study aimed to identify novel biomarkers in cells infected with Aspergillus fumigatus. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were infected with Aspergillus fumigatus and then harvested at different time-points (0, 1, 2, 4 and 6 h). The expression Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and dectin-1 expression were examined using flow cytometry and western blotting, and fluorescence-based microscopy was used to evaluate their distribution...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018116/quinolone-resistance-reversion-by-targeting-the-sos-response
#4
E Recacha, J Machuca, P Díaz de Alba, M Ramos-Güelfo, F Docobo-Pérez, J Rodriguez-Beltrán, J Blázquez, A Pascual, J M Rodríguez-Martínez
Suppression of the SOS response has been postulated as a therapeutic strategy for potentiating antimicrobial agents. We aimed to evaluate the impact of its suppression on reversing resistance using a model of isogenic strains of Escherichia coli representing multiple levels of quinolone resistance. E. coli mutants exhibiting a spectrum of SOS activity were constructed from isogenic strains carrying quinolone resistance mechanisms with susceptible and resistant phenotypes. Changes in susceptibility were evaluated by static (MICs) and dynamic (killing curves or flow cytometry) methodologies...
October 10, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017327/enhancing-the-bactericidal-efficacy-of-nanostructured-multifunctional-surface-using-an-ultra-thin-metal-coating
#5
Abinash Tripathy, Syama Sreedharan, Chetana Bhaskarla, Shamik Majumdar, Sudheer Kumar Peneti, Dipankar Nandi, Prosenjit Sen
Insects and plants exhibit bactericidal behaviour through nanostructures which leads to physical contact killing that does not require antibiotics or chemicals. Also, certain metallic ions (e.g. Ag+ & Cu2+) are well known to kill bacteria by disrupting their cellular functionalities. The aim of this study is to explore the improvement in bactericidal activity by combining extreme physical structure with surface chemistry. We have fabricated tall (8-9µm high) nanostructures on silicon surfaces (NSS) having sharp tips (35-110nm) using a single step maskless deep reactive ion etching technique inspired by dragonfly wing...
October 10, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960193/an-early-report-a-modified-porphyrin-linked-metronidazole-targeting-intracellular-porphyromonas-gingivalis-in-cultured-oral-epithelial-cells
#6
Ping Ye, Jiho Chang, Lin Feng Foo, Benjamin C-M Yap
Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) has a strong association with the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Recurrence of periodontal disease following therapy is attributed to numerous factors, and of growing interest is the potential problem of intracellular bacteria that are able to persist and multiply within the host cell, thereby facilitating relapse of infection. The effect of antibiotic therapy in controlling P. gingivalis is questionable. Accordingly, while metronidazole is very effective against anaerobic extracellular P...
September 2017: International Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955313/antibacterial-effect-of-potassium-tetraborate-tetrahydrate-against-soft-rot-disease-agent-pectobacterium-carotovorum-in-tomato
#7
Firas A Ahmed, Mohammad Arif, Anne M Alvarez
Soft rot caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum is one of most common bacterial diseases occurring in fruits and vegetables worldwide, yet consumer-acceptable options for post-harvest disease management are still insufficient. We evaluated the effect of potassium tetraborate tetrahydrate (B4K2O7.4H2O) (PTB) on the growth of P. carotovorum using strain BA17 as a representative of high virulence. Complete inhibition of bacterial growth was achieved by treatment with PTB at 100 mM both at pH 9.2 and after adjustment to pH 7...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940167/th2-biased-immune-response-and-agglutinating-antibodies-generation-by-a-chimeric-protein-comprising-ompc-epitope-323-336-of-aeromonas-hydrophila-and-ltb
#8
Mahima Sharma, Pujarini Dash, Pramod K Sahoo, Aparna Dixit
Aeromonas hydrophila is responsible for causing fatal infections in freshwater fishes. Besides chemical/antibiotic treatment and whole-cell vaccine, no subunit vaccine is currently available for A. hydrophila. Outer membrane proteins of gram-negative bacteria have been reported as effective vaccine candidates. Peptide antigens elicit focused immune responses against immunodominant stretches of the antigen. We have attempted to characterize the immunogenicity of linear B-cell epitopes of outer membrane protein (OmpC) of A...
September 22, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934314/mode-of-action-of-plectasin-derived-peptides-against-gas-gangrene-associated-clostridium-perfringens-type-a
#9
Xueling Zheng, Xiumin Wang, Da Teng, Ruoyu Mao, Ya Hao, Na Yang, Lifen Zong, Jianhua Wang
NZ2114 and MP1102 are novel plectasin-derived peptides with potent activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The antibacterial characteristics and mechanism of NZ2114 and MP1102 against gas gangrene-associated Clostridium perfringens were studied for the first time. The minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration of NZ2114 and MP1102 against resistant C. perfringens type A strain CVCC 46 were 0.91 μM. Based on the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) result, an additive or synergic effect was observed between NZ2114 (FICI = 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933263/anticancer-properties-of-a-new-hybrid-analog-ad-013-combining-a-coumarin-scaffold-with-an-%C3%AE-methylene-%C3%AE-lactone-motif
#10
Angelika Długosz, Katarzyna Gach-Janczak, Jacek Szymański, Dariusz Deredas, Henryk Krawczyk, Tomasz Janecki, Anna Janecka
Background Coumarin is a natural phytochemical but as such has no medical uses. However, various natural and synthetic coumarin analogs attract attention due to their interesting biological properties. </P><P> Objective Here, we evaluated and compared anticancer properties of a new synthetic hybrid compound AD-013, which integrates a coumarin moiety and an α-methylene-δ-lactone motif, with novobiocin, a natural antibiotic bearing a coumarin scaffold. </P><P> Method Cytotoxic activities of compound AD-013 and novobiocin were assessed by the MTT assay...
September 21, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932297/flow-cytometry-in-detecting-resistant-e-coli-strains
#11
Lyudmila Akhmaltdinova, Alyona Lavrinenko, Ilya Belyayev
Antibacterial drugs are the most consumed group of drugs in the modern hospitals. Standard methods of antibiotic sensitivity are labour and time-consuming, taking up to 24 hours after the pure culture is isolated (the analysis typically lasts up to 72 hours). Working out express diagnostic methods is of importance, and studies are made in various directions. Flow cytometry in detecting resistant E. coli strains was used. Flow cytometry fluorescent dyes were used to stain viable and dead cells. For method validation, relative accuracy, relative susceptibility, relative specificity and Cohen's kappa test were determined compared to the delusion test...
August 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898742/neutrophil-cd64-c-reactive-protein-and-procalcitonin-in-the-identification-of-sepsis-in-the-icu-post-test-probabilities
#12
Joel Jämsä, Tero Ala-Kokko, Virva Huotari, Pasi Ohtonen, Eeva-Riitta Savolainen, Hannu Syrjälä
PURPOSE: We were interested in whether C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) distinguish sepsis from non-septic controls and whether a combination of CRP, PCT, and neutrophil CD64 improves identification of sepsis in the intensive care unit (ICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the CRP and PCT concentrations from 27 patients with sepsis and 15 ICU controls. In addition, CD64 on neutrophils was measured using quantitative flow cytometry. We present a multiple marker analysis for sepsis diagnostics combining neutrophil CD64, CRP, and PCT using post-test analysis...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877719/absolute-quantification-of-microparticles-by-flow-cytometry-in-ascites-of-patients-with-decompensated-cirrhosis-a-cohort-study
#13
Cornelius Engelmann, Katrin Splith, Sandra Krohn, Adam Herber, Albrecht Boehlig, Stephan Boehm, Johann Pratschke, Thomas Berg, Moritz Schmelzle
BACKGROUND: Microparticles (MPs) are small (<1 μm) cell membrane-derived vesicles that are formed in response to cellular activation or early stages of apoptosis. Increased plasma MP levels have been associated with liver disease severity. Here we investigated the clinical impact of ascites MPs in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis. METHODS: Ascites and blood samples of 163 patients with cirrhosis (ascites n = 163, blood n = 31) were collected between February 2011 and December 2012...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860757/photodynamic-antimicrobial-chemotherapy-for-staphylococcus-aureus-and-multidrug-resistant-bacterial-burn-infection-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#14
Bingjie Mai, Yiru Gao, Min Li, Xiaobing Wang, Kun Zhang, Quanhong Liu, Chuanshan Xu, Pan Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Antibiotic resistance has emerged as one of the most important determinants of outcome in patients with serious infections, along with the virulence of the underlying pathogen. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) has been proposed as an alternative approach for the inactivation of bacteria. This study aims to evaluate the antibacterial effect of sinoporphyrin sodium (DVDMS)-mediated PACT on Staphylococcus aureus and multidrug resistant S. aureus in vitro and in vivo...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750328/inactivation-efficiency-of-plasmid-encoded-antibiotic-resistance-genes-during-water-treatment-with-chlorine-uv-and-uv-h2o2
#15
Younggun Yoon, Hay Jung Chung, Doris Yoong Wen Di, Michael C Dodd, Hor-Gil Hur, Yunho Lee
This study assessed the inactivation efficiency of plasmid-encoded antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) both in extracellular form (e-ARG) and present within Escherichia coli (intracellular form, i-ARG) during water treatment with chlorine, UV (254 nm), and UV/H2O2. A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) method was used to quantify the ARG damage to amp(R) (850 bp) and kan(R) (806 bp) amplicons, both of which are located in the pUC4K plasmid. The plate count and flow cytometry methods were also used to determine the bacterial inactivation parameters, such as culturability and membrane damage, respectively...
October 15, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750142/feline-leukocyte-adhesion-cd18-deficiency-caused-by-a-deletion-in-the-integrin-%C3%AE-2-itgb2-gene
#16
Thomas R Bauer, Suzanne M Pratt, Christina M Palena, Karthik Raj, Urs Giger
BACKGROUND: Leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) or CD18 deficiency is an autosomal recessive immunodeficiency which has been described in people, cattle, dogs, and knockout mice. OBJECTIVES: The study goals were to characterize the clinicopathologic, immunologic, and molecular genetic features of feline LAD (FLAD) in a neutered male adult Domestic Longhair cat with severe leukocytosis and recurrent infections. METHODS: Flow cytometry evaluated surface expression of CD18 on neutrophils...
September 2017: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720485/ceftaroline-modulates-the-innate-immune-and-host-defense-responses-of-immunocompetent-cells-exposed-to-cigarette-smoke
#17
A Bruno, C Cipollina, S Di Vincenzo, L Siena, P Dino, F Di Gaudio, M Gjomarkaj, E Pace
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke, the principal risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), negatively influences the effectiveness of the immune system's response to a pathogen. The antibiotic ceftaroline exerts immune-modulatory effects in bronchial epithelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke. AIMS AND METHODS: The present study aims to assess the effects of ceftaroline on TLR2 and TLR4 expression, LPS binding and TNF-α and human beta defensin (HBD2) release in an undifferentiated and PMA-differentiated human monocyte cell line (THP-1) exposed or not to cigarette smoke extracts (CSE)...
September 5, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717895/correlating-uptake-and-activity-of-proline-rich-antimicrobial-peptides-in-escherichia-coli
#18
Luzia Holfeld, Ralf Hoffmann, Daniel Knappe
Increasing death tolls accounted for by antimicrobial drug resistance demand novel antibiotic lead compounds. Among different promising candidate classes, proline-rich antimicrobial peptides (PrAMPs) are very favorable due to their intracellular mechanism, i.e., binding to the 70S ribosome and DnaK, after active uptake relying on bacterial transporters like SbmA and MdtM. Studies on peptide internalization as the first step of their complex mode of action rely typically on fluorophore or radioactive labeling and quantification using microscopy, flow cytometry, or radioactivity...
July 17, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707067/phagocytosis-of-escherichia-coli-biofilm-cells-with-different-aspect-ratios-a-role-of-substratum-material-stiffness
#19
Yanrui Zhao, Fangchao Song, Hao Wang, Junlin Zhou, Dacheng Ren
Bacterial biofilms play an important role in chronic infections due to high-level tolerance to antibiotics. Thus, it is important to eradicate bacterial cells that are attached to implanted medical devices of different materials. Phagocytosis is a key process of the innate immunity to eliminate invading pathogens. Previous research demonstrated that the efficiency of phagocytosis is affected by the aspect ratio of polymer beads. Recently, we reported that the stiffness of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) influences Escherichia coli biofilm formation and the biofilm cells on stiff (5:1) PDMS are 46...
August 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693187/salinomycin-inhibits-canine-mammary-carcinoma-in-vitro-by-targeting-cancer-stem-cells
#20
Hongchao Du, Bin Zhou, Hong Zhang, Yipeng Jin, Di Zhang, Degui Lin
Salinomycin (SAL), a polyether ionophore antibiotic, has been demonstrated to selectively kill cancer stem cells (CSCs) in various types of human tumor. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of SAL on canine mammary CSCs. CSCs in canine mammary carcinoma cell lines (CMT7364 and CIPp) were identified using a sphere formation assay and flow cytometry. The chemoresistance, invasive potential and expression of stem cell-associated proteins of these spheres was then analyzed. This demonstrated that the spheres exhibited characteristics of CSCs, including a cluster of differentiation (CD)44(+)/CD24(-/low) phenotype, upregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway-associated proteins and chemoresistance...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
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