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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437871/gut-microbiota-modulate-t-cell-trafficking-into-human-colorectal-cancer
#1
Eleonora Cremonesi, Valeria Governa, Jesus Francisco Glaus Garzon, Valentina Mele, Francesca Amicarella, Manuele Giuseppe Muraro, Emanuele Trella, Virginie Galati-Fournier, Daniel Oertli, Silvio Raffael Däster, Raoul A Droeser, Benjamin Weixler, Martin Bolli, Raffaele Rosso, Ulrich Nitsche, Nina Khanna, Adrian Egli, Simone Keck, Julia Slotta-Huspenina, Luigi M Terracciano, Paul Zajac, Giulio Cesare Spagnoli, Serenella Eppenberger-Castori, Klaus-Peter Janssen, Lubor Borsig, Giandomenica Iezzi
OBJECTIVE: Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) favour survival in human colorectal cancer (CRC). Chemotactic factors underlying their recruitment remain undefined. We investigated chemokines attracting T cells into human CRCs, their cellular sources and microenvironmental triggers. DESIGN: Expression of genes encoding immune cell markers, chemokines and bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (16SrRNA) was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR in fresh CRC samples and corresponding tumour-free tissues...
February 6, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434988/the-effects-of-hemocyanin-on-t-cells-cultured-in-vitro
#2
Jiani Liu, Cong Chen, Chen Ling, Haoyun Hu, Jingsong Cao, Yongqiang Gao
As a broad-spectrum antibiotic, gentamicin is used extensively in T cell culturing in vitro, but preliminary studies have identified that T cell activity is significantly affected by gentamicin. In the present study, the hemocyanin from Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei) was selected as an additive for T cell cultures in vitro. Compared with those in the control group, the cell quantity exhibited no significant difference, and the formation rate of cell colony increased gradually with increases in the hemocyanin concentration...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432913/effects-of-fluconazole-on-the-clinical-outcome-and-immune-response-in-fungal-co-infected-tuberculosis-patients
#3
Xiaojuan Ren, Wei Liu, Yi Liu
With overuse of the broad-spectrum antibiotics, the pulmonary fungal infection increasingly becomes the most common complication associated with senile pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and attracts intensive attentions from clinicians. Here we presented the retrospective analysis of impact of fluconazole treatment on the clinical outcome and immune response in fungal co-infected tuberculosis patients. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of fluconazole (100 mg per day for consecutive weeks) in fungal-positive senile tuberculosis patients was conducted in our hospital...
February 9, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423561/colistin-causes-profound-morphological-alteration-but-minimal-cytoplasmic-membrane-perforation-in-populations-of-escherichia-coli-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#4
Noëlle H O'Driscoll, T P Tim Cushnie, Kerr H Matthews, Andrew J Lamb
Whilst colistin (polymyxin E) represents the last mainstream treatment option for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens, details of its mechanism of action remain to be fully resolved. In this study, the effects of sub-inhibitory, inhibitory-bactericidal, and supra-bactericidal levels of colistin on the membrane integrity and morphology of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were investigated using potassium loss, flow cytometry, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Supra-bactericidal colistin concentrations induced just 4-12% intracellular potassium loss from bacteria after 24 h...
February 8, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422524/evolution-of-enzymes-with-new-specificity-by-high-throughput-screening-using-dmpr-based-genetic-circuits-and-multiple-flow-cytometry-rounds
#5
Kil Koang Kwon, Dae-Hee Lee, Su Jin Kim, Su-Lim Choi, Eugene Rha, Soo-Jin Yeom, Bindu Subhadra, Jinhyuk Lee, Ki Jun Jeong, Seung-Goo Lee
Genetic circuit-based biosensors are useful in detecting target metabolites or in vivo enzymes using transcription factors (Tx) as a molecular switch to express reporter signals, such as cellular fluorescence and antibiotic resistance. Herein, a phenol-detecting Tx (DmpR) was employed as a critical tool for enzyme engineering, specifically for the rapid analysis of numerous mutants with multiple mutations at the active site of tryptophan-indole lyase (TIL, EC 4.1.99.1). Cellular fluorescence was monitored cell-by-cell using flow cytometry to detect the creation of phenolic compounds by a new tyrosine-phenol-lyase (TPL, EC 4...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415902/influence-of-changes-in-the-intestinal-microflora-on-the-immune-function-in-mice
#6
Shigefumi Kishida, Yuko Kato-Mori, Katsuro Hagiwara
The composition of the intestinal microbiota is related to the health and immune function of the host. Administration of antibiotics affects the composition of the intestinal microbiota. However, the effects of immune function on the composition of the intestinal microbiota are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the lymphocyte composition and determined the relationships between lymphocyte function and the intestinal microbiota following antibiotic treatment in mice. To change the composition of the intestinal microbiota, mice were treated with or without antibiotics...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407425/evaluation-of-porcine-beta-defensins-1-and-2-as-antimicrobial-peptides-for-liquid-stored-boar-semen-effects-on-bacterial-growth-and-sperm-quality
#7
Adrià Puig-Timonet, Miriam Castillo-Martín, Barbara A Pereira, Elisabeth Pinart, Sergi Bonet, Marc Yeste
The present study evaluated whether two different antimicrobial peptides (AMP): porcine beta defensins-1 (PBD1) and -2 (PBD2) at three concentrations (1.5 μM, 3 μM and 5 μM) could be a suitable alternative to antibiotics in liquid-stored boar semen. Two separate experiments were conducted with liquid-stored boar semen preserved at 17 °C for 9-10 days. In the first one, we evaluated the impact of adding three concentrations of each AMP on the bacterial growth and sperm quality of boar semen stored for 10 days...
February 1, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385662/a-new-method-of-producing-a-natural-anti-bacterial-peptide-by-encapsulated-probiotics-internalized-with-inulin-nanoparticles-as-prebiotics
#8
Lian-Hua Cui, Chang-Guo Yan, Hui-Shan Li, Whee-Soo Kim, Liang Hong, Sang-Kee Kang, Yun-Jaie Choi, Chong-Su Cho
Synbiotics are a combination of probiotics and prebiotics, which lead to synergistic benefits in host welfare. Probiotics have been used as an alternative to antibiotics. Among the probiotics, Pediococcus acidilactici (PA) has shown excellent antimicrobial activity against Salmonella Gallinarum (SG) as a major poultry pathogen and has improved the production performances of animals. Inulin is widely used as a prebiotic for the improvement of animal health and growth. The main aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the antimicrobial activity of inulin nanoparticles (INs)-internalized PA encapsulated into alginate/chitosan/alginate (ACA) microcapsules (MCs) in future in vivo application...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363485/effect-and-mechanism-of-egfl7-downregulation-in-human-osteosarcoma-cells-on-the-biological-function-of-co-cultured-huvec
#9
Li Xia, Liu Li-Feng, Liu Yang-Zhou, Pan Yu-Tao, Li Guang, Lu Qing-You, Yuan Wen, Li Zeng-Chun
BACKGROUND: Even though epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 is known to be overexpressed in osteosarcoma and is associated with poor clinical outcome, few reports are available regarding its mechanism. AIMS: The objective of this study was to explore the effect and mechanism of downregulating epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 expression in a human osteosarcoma cell line on the biological function of cocultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. STUDY DESIGN: Cell study...
January 24, 2018: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360463/ceragenin-csa13-reduces-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-mice-by-modulating-the-intestinal-microbiome-and-metabolites
#10
Jiani Wang, Sally Ghali, Chunlan Xu, Caroline C Mussatto, Christina Ortiz, Elaine C Lee, Diana H Tran, Jonathan P Jacobs, Venu Lagishetty, Kym F Faull, Travis Moller, Maura Rossetti, Xinhua Chen, Hon Wai Koon
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Clostridium difficile induces intestinal inflammation by releasing toxins A and B. The antimicrobial compound cationic steroid antimicrobial 13 (CSA13) has been developed for treating gastrointestinal infections. The CSA13-Eudragit formulation can be given orally and releases CSA13 in the terminal ileum and colon. We investigated whether this form of CSA13 reduces C difficile infection (CDI) in mice. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were infected with C difficile on day 0, followed by subcutaneous administration of pure CSA13 or oral administration of CSA13-Eudragit (10 mg/kg/day for 10 days)...
January 19, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350524/development-of-a-multiplexed-microsphere-pcr-for-culture-free-detection-and-gram-typing-of-bacteria-in-human-blood-samples
#11
Fang Liang, Daniel J Browne, Megan J Gray, Kate H Gartlan, David D Smith, Ross T Barnard, Geoffrey R Hill, Simon R Corrie, Kate A Markey
Bloodstream infection is a significant clinical problem, particularly in vulnerable patient groups such as those undergoing chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation. Clinical diagnostics for suspected bloodstream infection remain centered around blood culture (highly variable timing, in the order of hours to days to become positive), and empiric use of broad-spectrum antibiotics is therefore employed for patients presenting with febrile neutropenia. Gram-typing provides the first opportunity to target therapy (e...
January 31, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335801/igm-augments-complement-bactericidal-activity-with-serum-from-a-patient-with-a-novel-cd79a-mutation
#12
Jeroen D Langereis, Stefanie S Henriet, Saskia Kuipers, Corry M R Weemaes, Mirjam van der Burg, Marien I de Jonge, Michiel van der Flier
Antibody replacement therapy for patients with antibody deficiencies contains only IgG. As a result, concurrent IgM and IgA deficiency present in a large proportion of antibody deficient patients persists. Especially patients with IgM deficiency remain at risk for recurrent infections of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract. The lack of IgM in the current IgG replacement therapy is likely to contribute to the persistence of these mucosal infections because this antibody class is especially important for complement activation on the mucosal surface...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331652/salinomycin-induces-primary-chicken-cardiomyocytes-death-via-mitochondria-mediated-apoptosis
#13
Xiuge Gao, Yani Zheng, Xiangchun Ruan, Hui Ji, Lin Peng, Dawei Guo, Shanxiang Jiang
Salinomycin, as a polyether ionophore antibiotic, is extensively used as a feed additive against coccidiosis in poultry and as a growth promoter of ruminants worldwide. Owing to its narrow therapeutic index, numerous intoxication have been reported in target/non-target animals by overdosage, misuse or drug interactions as well as human who consumed salinomycin accidently. Salinomycin-induced cardiotoxicity in chicken and non-target animals is considered as a major contributor to animal death. In the current study, we aim to elucidate the underlying mechanism of its myocardial toxicity using primary chicken myocardial cell as an in vitro model...
January 10, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330182/fluorescence-recovery-allows-the-implementation-of-a-fluorescence-reporter-gene-platform-applicable-for-the-detection-and-quantification-of-horizontal-gene-transfer-in-anoxic-environments
#14
Rafael Pinilla, Leise Riber, Søren J Sørensen
The study of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in microbial communities has been revolutionized by significant advances in cultivation-independent methods based on fluorescence reporter gene technologies. Recently, the combination of these novel approaches with flow cytometry has presented itself as one of the most powerful tools to study the spread of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in the environment. However, the use of fluorescent markers like green fluorescent protein (GFP) and mCherry is limited by environmental constraints that affect the correct maturation of their fluorophores, such as oxygen availability and pH levels...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322458/a-flow-cytometry-method-for-assessing-m-tuberculosis-responses-to-antibiotics
#15
Charlotte L Hendon-Dunn, Stephen R Thomas, Stephen C Taylor, Joanna Bacon
Traditional drug susceptibility methods can take several days or weeks of incubation between drug exposure and confirmation of sensitivity or resistance. In addition, these methods do not capture information about viable organisms that are not immediately culturable after drug exposure. Here, we present a rapid fluorescence detection method for assessing the susceptibility of M. tuberculosis to antibiotics. Fluorescent markers Calcein violet-AM and SYTOX-green are used for measuring cell viability or cell death and to capture information about the susceptibility of the whole population and not just those bacteria that can grow in media postexposure...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317687/the-synergistic-bactericidal-effect-of-vancomycin-on-utmd-treated-biofilm-involves-damage-to-bacterial-cells-and-enhancement-of-metabolic-activities
#16
Jian Hu, Ning Zhang, Lifang Li, Ning Zhang, Yanfen Ma, Chedong Zhao, Qian Wu, Ying Li, Nianan He, Xiaoqin Wang
In this study, the synergistic effect of vancomycin, a cell wall synthesis inhibitor, and ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD), on cell viability of Staphylococcus epidermidis, embedded in biofilm, was investigated. Biofilms are the leading causes of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections of medical implants and prosthetics worldwide. The antibiotic-resistant nature of biofilm-embedded pathogens poses a critical challenge to the medical community. Previously, studies have demonstrated the efficacy of using ultrasound waves and UTMD in circumventing this problem...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314863/bacterial-derived-neutrophilic-inflammation-drives-lung-remodeling-in-a-mouse-model-of-copd
#17
Bradley W Richmond, Rui-Hong Du, Wei Han, John T Benjamin, Riet van der Meer, Linda Gleaves, Marshall Guo, Austin McKissack, Yongqin Zhang, Dong-Sheng Cheng, Vasiliy V Polosukhin, Timothy S Blackwell
Loss of secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) is common in the small airways of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and may contribute to disease pathogenesis. Using mice that lack SIgA in the airways due to genetic deficiency of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR-/- mice), we investigated the role of neutrophils in driving the fibrotic small airway wall remodeling and emphysema that develops spontaneously in these mice. By flow cytometry, we found an increase in the percentage of neutrophils among CD45+ cells in the lungs, as well as an increase in total neutrophils, in pIgR-/- mice compared to wild-type (WT) controls...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306197/effects-ofdirect-current-on-klebsiella-spp-viability-and-corresponding-resistance-gene-expression-in-simulative-bio-electrochemical-reactors
#18
Hua Li, Xiao-Li Yang, Hai-Liang Song, Shuai Zhang, Xi-Zi Long
The fate of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and associated antibiotic-resistant gene (ARG) expression under electrolytic stimulation in bio-electrochemical reactors (BERs) was unknown. In this study, sulfadiazine resistant bacteria (Klebsiella spp.), which were isolated from a BER, were subjected to constant direct current (DC) stimulation in a simulated BER. With an increase of the current from 7 to 28 mA, it was found that lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) showed a 1.03-, 1.21-, 1.34-, and 1.46-fold value compared with the control at 48 h, indicating that the cell membrane permeability had increased...
December 28, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282543/characterization-of-bactericidal-efficiency-cell-selectivity-and-mechanism-of-short-interspecific-hybrid-peptides
#19
N Dong, X R Li, X Y Xu, Y F Lv, Z Y Li, A S Shan, J L Wang
Facing rising global antibiotics resistance, physical membrane-damaging antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent promising antimicrobial agents. Various strategies to design effective hybrid peptides offer many advantages in overcoming the adverse effects of natural AMPs. In this study, hybrid peptides from different species were investigated, and three hybrid antimicrobial peptides, LI, LN, and LC, were designed by combining the typical fragment of human cathelicidin-derived LL37 with either indolicidin, pig nematode cecropin P1 (CP-1) or rat neutrophil peptide-1 (NP-1)...
December 27, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276503/synergistic-antimicrobial-interaction-between-honey-and-phage-against-escherichia-coli-biofilms
#20
Ana Oliveira, Henrique G Ribeiro, Ana C Silva, Maria D Silva, Jessica C Sousa, Célia F Rodrigues, Luís D R Melo, Ana F Henriques, Sanna Sillankorva
Chronic wounds afford a hostile environment of damaged tissues that allow bacterial proliferation and further wound colonization. Escherichia coli is among the most common colonizers of infected wounds and it is a prolific biofilm former. Living in biofilm communities, cells are protected, become more difficult to control and eradicate, and less susceptible to antibiotic therapy. This work presents insights into the proceedings triggering E. coli biofilm control with phage, honey, and their combination, achieved through standard antimicrobial activity assays, zeta potential and flow cytometry studies and further visual insights sought by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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