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Qian Sun, Patricia Loughran, Richard Shapiro, Indira H Shrivastava, Daniel J Antoine, Tunliang Li, Zhengzheng Yan, Jie Fan, Timothy R Billiar, Melanie J Scott
: Sterile liver inflammation, such as liver ischemia reperfusion, hemorrhagic shock after trauma and drug-induced liver injury is initiated and regulated by endogenous mediators including DNA and reactive oxygen species. Here we identify a novel mechanism for redox-mediated regulation of AIM2-inflammasome activation in hepatocytes after redox stress in mice, which occurs via interaction with cytosolic HMGB1. We show that in liver during hemorrhagic shock in mice, and in hepatocytes after hypoxia with reoxygenation, cytosolic HMGB1 associates with AIM2 and is required for activation of caspase-1 in response to cytosolic DNA...
October 24, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
M Sartori, S Pagani, A Ferrari, V Costa, V Carina, E Figallo, M C Maltarello, L Martini, M Fini, G Giavaresi
Current treatments for acute or degenerative chondral and osteochondral lesions are in need of improvement, as these types of injuries lead to disability and worsen the quality of life in a high percentage of patients. The aim of this study was to develop a new bi-layered scaffold for osteochondral tissue regeneration through a "biomimetic" and "bioinspired" approach. For chondral regeneration, the scaffold was realized with an organic compound (type I collagen), while for the regeneration of the subchondral layer, bioactive magnesium-doped hydroxyapatite (Mg/HA) crystals were co-precipitated with the organic component of the scaffold...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Alexandra R McNeill, Adam R Hyndman, Roger J Reeves, Alison J Downard, Martin Ward Allen
ZnO is a prime candidate for future use in transparent electronics however development of practical materials requires attention to factors including control of its unusual surface band bending and surface reactivity. In this work, we have modified the O polar (000(1)over bar), Zn-polar (0001), and m-plane (10(1)over bar0) surfaces of ZnO with phosphonic acid (PA) derivatives and measured the effect on the surface band bending and surface sensitivity to atmospheric oxygen. Core level and valence band synchrotron X-ray photoemission spectroscopy were used to measure the surface band bending introduced by PA modifiers with substituents of opposite polarity dipole moment: octadecylphosphonic acid (ODPA) and 3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluorooctylphosphonic acid (F13OPA)...
October 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Liangfa Hu, Morgan O'Neil, Veysel Erturun, Rogelio Benitez, Gwénaëlle Proust, Ibrahim Karaman, Miladin Radovic
The prospect of extending existing metal-ceramic composites to those with the compositions that are far from thermodynamic equilibrium is examined. A current and pressure-assisted, rapid infiltration is proposed to fabricate composites, consisting of reactive metallic and ceramic phases with controlled microstructure and tunable properties. An aluminum (Al) alloy/Ti2AlC composite is selected as an example of the far-from-equilibrium systems to fabricate, because Ti2AlC exists only in a narrow region of the Ti-Al-C phase diagram and readily reacts with Al...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Haomiao Xu, Yongpeng Ma, Wenjun Huang, Jian Mei, Songjian Zhao, Zan Qu, Naiqiang Yan
Mercury temperature-programmed desorption (Hg-TPD) method was employed to clarify mercury species over Mn-based oxides. The elemental mercury (Hg(0)) removal mechanism over MnOx was ascribed to chemical-adsorption. HgO was the primary mercury chemical compound adsorbed on the surface of MnOx. Rare earth element (Ce), main group element (Sn) and transition metal elements (Zr and Fe) were chosen for the modification of MnOx. Hg-TPD results indicated that the binding strength of mercury on these binary oxides followed the order of Sn-MnOx<Ce-MnOx∼MnOx<Fe-MnOx<Zr-MnOx...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Susannah L Woodd, Paul Kelly, John R Koethe, George Praygod, Andrea M Rehman, Molly Chisenga, Joshua Siame, Douglas C Heimburger, Henrik Friis, Suzanne Filteau
BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of HIV-infected adults starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa are malnourished. We aimed to increase understanding of the factors affecting their high mortality, particularly in the high-risk period before ART initiation. METHODS: We analysed potential risk factors for mortality of Zambian and Tanzanian participants enrolled in the NUSTART clinical trial. Malnourished adults (n = 1815; body mass index [BMI] <18...
October 12, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Piyaphong Panpisut, Saad Liaqat, Eleni Zacharaki, Wendy Xia, Haralampos Petridis, Anne Margaret Young
PURPOSE: This study developed light cured dental composites with added monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM), tristrontium phosphate (TSrP) and antimicrobial polylysine (PLS). The aim was to produce composites that have enhanced water sorption induced expansion, can promote apatite precipitation and release polylysine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experimental composite formulations consisted of light activated dimethacrylate monomers combined with 80 wt% powder. The powder phase contained a dental glass with and without PLS (2...
2016: PloS One
Mariusz Piotr Sandomierski, Beata Strzemiecka, Mohamed Mehdi Chehimi, Adam Voelkel
We describe a simple way of modification of three silica-based fillers with in situ generated 4-hydroxymethylbenzenediazonium salt (+N2-C6H4-CH2OH). The rationale for using a hydroxyl-functionalized diazonium salt is that it provides surface-functionalized fillers that can react with phenolic resins. The modification of silica by diazonium salts was assessed by FTIR and XPS. FTIR permitted to track benzene ring breathing and C-C. The absence of the characteristic N≡N stretching vibration at 2200-2300 cm-1 range indicates the loss of the diazonium group...
October 11, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Konstantina Dipla, Areti Triantafyllou, Iris Grigoriadou, Evangelia Kintiraki, Georgios A Triantafyllou, Pavlos Poulios, Ioannis S Vrabas, Andreas Zafeiridis, Stella Douma, Dimitrios G Goulis
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a risk factor for the development of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. However, in vivo microvascular endothelial function in GDM has not been investigated. This study aimed to examine, using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), whether: (1) there are differences in microvascular reactivity and skeletal muscle oxygen consumption (m[Formula: see text]) at rest and during exercise between GDM and uncomplicated pregnancies; and (2) there is an association of NIRS indices with macrovascular function and cardiovascular disease risk factors...
October 8, 2016: Diabetologia
Patrick Gomez, Armin von Gunten, Brigitta Danuser
In the present study, we examined how sex and age shape cardiovascular, electrodermal, and pupillary reactivity to picture series within the valence-arousal affective space in a sample of 176 healthy younger, middle-aged, and older men and women. Across participants, heart rate (HR) decelerated with increasing self-reported unpleasantness, whereas skin conductance level (SCL) and pupil size (PS) increased with increasing self-rated arousal. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure increased with increasing self-rated arousal when valence was pleasant but much less when valence was unpleasant...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Yuqing Sun, Season S Chen, Daniel C W Tsang, Nigel J D Graham, Yong Sik Ok, Yujie Feng, Xiang-Dong Li
Zero-valent iron (ZVI) was tested for the removal of 150 μg L(-1) As(V) and 350 μg L(-1) Se(VI) in high-salinity (ionic strength 0.35-4.10 M) flowback water of hydraulic fracturing. Over 90% As(V) and Se(VI) was removed by 2.5 g L(-1) ZVI in Day-14 flowback water up to 96-h reaction, with the remaining concentration below the maximum contaminant level for As(V) and criterion continuous concentration for Se(VI) recommended by US EPA. The kinetics of As(V) and Se(VI) removal followed a pseudo-second-order rate expression with the observed rates of 4...
October 5, 2016: Chemosphere
Claire Le Dorze, Pascale Gisquet-Verrier
Intrusive re-experiencing of a trauma is a core symptom in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and is often triggered by contextual cues associated with the event. It is not yet established if intrusive re-experiencing is the consequence of PTSD, or if it could contribute to the development of PTSD following a traumatic event. The present study (1) examined the impact of repeated brief re-exposures to trauma reminders on the strength of PTSD-like symptoms, as well as on their time-development and (2) investigated the reactivity over time to these cues in trauma resilient and vulnerable rats, defined on the basis of the PTSD-like symptoms they demonstrated...
October 4, 2016: Brain Research
Robert Krysiak, Małgorzata Gilowska, Bogusław Okopień
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is suggested to reduce cardiovascular risk. HYPOTHESIS: Circulating levels of plasma lipids and other cardiovascular risk factors may differ between statin-treated patients with different vitamin D status. METHODS: We studied 3 age- and weight-matched groups of men with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels: vitamin D-naïve men with vitamin D insufficiency (group A, n = 18), men with vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency effectively treated with vitamin D preparations (group B, n = 16), and vitamin D-naïve men with normal vitamin D status (group C, n = 16)...
September 26, 2016: Clinical Cardiology
Reza Rizvi, Ali Anwer, Hani E Naguib, Geoff Fernie, Tilak Dutta
Fiber de-bonding and pull-out are well understood processes that occur during damage and failure events in composite materials. In this study, we show how these mechanisms, under controlled conditions, can be used to produce multifunctional textured surfaces. A two-step process consisting of (1) achieving longitudinal fiber alignment followed by (2) cutting, rearranging and joining is used to produce the textured surfaces. This process employs common composite manufacturing techniques and uses no reactive chemicals or wet handling, making it suitable for scalability...
October 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Nicholas R J Gascoigne, Vasily Rybakin, Oreste Acuto, Joanna Brzostek
Thymocyte selection involves the positive and negative selection of the repertoire of T cell receptors (TCRs) such that the organism does not suffer autoimmunity, yet has the benefit of the ability to recognize any invading pathogen. The signal transduced through the TCR is translated into a number of different signaling cascades that result in transcription factor activity in the nucleus and changes to the cytoskeleton and motility. Negative selection involves inducing apoptosis in thymocytes that express strongly self-reactive TCRs, whereas positive selection must induce survival and differentiation programs in cells that are more weakly self-reactive...
October 6, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
D A Robinson, J Duay, A M Kondajji, K J Stevenson
Here we investigate the mechanistic aspects of Pt nanoparticle (NP) aggregation in solutions typically used for detecting NP/electrode impacts by electrocatalytic amplification (ECA). We previously proposed a general mechanism for Pt colloid destabilization that involved the participation of both the hydrazine redox probe and the pH buffer species as coagulants. Herein the Pt NP coagulation and aggregation mechanisms were further investigated with microscopic kinetic NP concentration monitoring and zeta potential measurements using nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), as well as open circuit potential experiments with a citrate-treated polycrystalline Pt surface to assess electrical double layer potential...
September 15, 2016: Faraday Discussions
J Ulises Reveles, Khaled M Saoud, M Samy El-Shall
We report a detailed experimental and theoretical study of the gas phase reactivity of Au(+) with CO, O2, N2 and their mixtures in the presence of a trace amount of water impurity. The gold cation is found to strongly interact with CO and H2O molecules via successive addition reactions until reaching saturation. The stoichiometry of the formed complex is determined by the strength of the binding energy of the neutral molecule to the gold cation. CO binds the strongest to Au(+), followed by H2O, N2 and then O2...
October 5, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
N Y Dzade, A Roldan, N H de Leeuw
The control of nanoparticle shape offers promise for improving catalytic activity and selectivity through optimization of the structure of the catalytically active site. Here, we have employed density functional theory calculations with a correction for the long-range interactions (DFT-D2) to investigate the effect of adsorption of the amino acid cysteine on the {001}, {011}, {100}, and {111} surfaces of mackinawite, which are commonly found in FeS nanoparticles. We have calculated the surface energies and adsorption energies for all the surfaces considered, and compared the surface energies of the pure and adsorbed systems...
October 6, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Lu Han, Yanning Zhang, Xiong Lu, Kefeng Wang, Zhenming Wang, Hongping Zhang
Stimuli-responsive hydrogels can respond to stimuli by phase transformation or volume change and exhibit specific functions. Near-infrared (NIR) responsive hydrogel is a type of stimuli-responsive hydrogel, which can be precisely controlled by altering the radiation intensity, exposure time of the light source, and irradiation sites. Here, polydopamine nanoparticles (PDA-NPs) were introduced into a poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) network to fabricate a PDA-NPs/PNIPAM hydrogel with NIR responsibility, self-healability, and cell/tissue adhesiveness...
October 6, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Christian Dubiella, Haissi Cui, Michael Groll
Electrophiles are commonly used for the inhibition of proteases. Notably, inhibitors of the proteasome, a central determinant of cellular survival and a target of several FDA-approved drugs, are mainly characterized by the reactivity of their electrophilic head groups. We aimed to tune the inhibitory strength of peptidic sulfonate esters by varying the leaving groups. Indeed, proteasome inhibition correlated well with the pKa of the leaving group. The use of fluorophores as leaving groups enabled us to design probes that release a stoichiometric fluorescence signal upon reaction, thereby directly linking proteasome inactivation to the readout...
October 10, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
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