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Kun-Ling Tsai, Ching-Hsia Hung, Shih-Hung Chan, Jhih-Yuan Shih, Yung-Hsin Cheng, Yi-Ju Tsai, Huei-Chen Lin, Pei-Ming Chu
Atherosclerosis is considered to be a form of chronic inflammation and a disorder of lipid metabolism. Oxidative transformations in the lipid and apolipoprotein B (Apo B) constituent of low density lipoprotein drive the initial step in atherogenesis due to macrophage scavenger receptors identify oxidized LDL (oxLDL) but non-oxidized LDL. The human vascular endothelial cells fact a critical role in vasodilation, provides a nonadhesive surface for circulation, reduces vascular smooth muscle proliferation, inflammation, thrombus formation and platelet aggregation...
October 20, 2016: Oncotarget
Antonis Sakellarios, Lorenz Raeber, Christos Bourantas, Themis Exarchos, Lambros Athanasiou, Gualtiero Pelosi, Oberdan Parodi, Konstantinos Koskinas, Katerina Naka, Lampros Michalis, Patrick Wjc Serruys, Hector Garcia-Garcia, Stephan Windecker, Dimitrios Fotiadis
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to explore major mechanisms of atherosclerotic plaque growth, presenting a proof-of-concept numerical model. METHODS: To this aim, a human reconstructed left circumflex coronary artery is utilized for a multi-level modeling approach. More specifically, the first level consists of the modeling of blood flow and endothelial shear stress (ESS) computation. The second level includes the modeling of low and high density lipoprotein (LDL, HDL) and monocytes transport through the endothelial membrane to vessel wall...
October 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Amal H Hamza, Widad M Al-Bishri, Laila A Damiati, Hanaa H Ahmed
BACKGROUND: The progresses made in stem cell therapy offer an innovative approach and exhibit great potential for the repair of damaged organs and tissues. This study was conducted with a view to find the mechanisms responsible for the effectiveness of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in the suppression of diabetes and experimentally-induced diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: To realize this objective, diabetic and diabetic nephropathy subject groups that underwent MSC treatment were studied through numerous biochemistry and molecular genetics analyses...
October 23, 2016: Renal Failure
Eliza de Oliveira Cardoso, Bruno José Conti, Karina Basso Santiago, Fernanda Lopes Conte, Lucas Pires Garcia Oliveira, Rodrigo Tavanelli Hernandes, Marjorie de Assis Golim, José Maurício Sforcin
OBJECTIVES: Propolis is a natural product with a complex chemical composition. Its isolated compounds exert biological activities; however, its synergistic effects are unknown. The involvement of phenolic acids (caffeic - Caf, dihydrocinnamic - Cin and p-coumaric - Cou) alone or in combination was investigated in the action of propolis in human monocytes. METHODS: Cell viability was analysed by MTT assay; TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 production by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); cell markers expression by flow cytometry; colony-forming units were counted to assess the microbicidal activity; and H2 O2 production was analysed by colorimetric assay...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Francis Vallières, Denis Girard D
The interleukin (IL)-21/IL-21 receptor (R) is a promising system to be exploited for the development of therapeutic strategies. Although the biological activities of IL-21 and its cell signaling events have been largely studied in immunocytes, its interaction with human monocytes and macrophages have been neglected. Previously, we reported that IL-21 enhances FcRγ-mediated phagocytosis in human monocytes and in human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM) and identified Syk as a novel molecular target of IL-21...
October 24, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
John S Thompson, Debra L Hardin, Judy F Glass, Joshua Dziba, Jeffrey Campion, Stephen A Brown
We have previously reported that GR-1 neutrophil/monocytes rose dramatically in the spleen, peaked by day 7 and declined through day 14. This period corresponded to the peak of acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease (aGVHD) in BALB/c mice transplanted with allogeneic donor cells. We now asked: what cytokines did these splenic neutrophil/monocytes express on day 7 and 14 post transplant? BALB/c mice were transplanted with allogeneic B6 or syngeneic BALB/c donor cells. Long term survival was recorded through day 31...
2016: SOJ Immunology
Marco Siccardi, Phillip Martin, Darren Smith, Paul Curley, Tom McDonald, Marco Giardiello, Neill Liptrott, Steve Rannard, Andrew Owen
Solid drug nanoparticles (SDNs) are a nanotechnology with favourable characteristics to enhance drug delivery and improve the treatment of several diseases, showing benefit for improved oral bioavailability and injectable long-acting medicines. The physicochemical properties and composition of nanoformulations can influence the absorption, distribution, and elimination of nanoparticles; consequently, the development of nanoparticles for drug delivery should consider the potential role of nanoparticle characteristics in the definition of pharmacokinetics...
September 2016: J Interdiscip Nanomed
Katja Kettler, Christina Giannakou, Wim H de Jong, A Jan Hendriks, Petra Krystek
Human health risks by silver nanoparticle (AgNP) exposure are likely to increase due to the increasing number of NP-containing products and demonstrated adverse effects in various cell lines. Unfortunately, results from (toxicity) studies are often based on exposure dose and are often measured only at a fixed time point. NP uptake kinetics and the time-dependent internal cellular concentration are often not considered. Macrophages are the first line of defense against invading foreign agents including NPs. How macrophages deal with the particles is essential for potential toxicity of the NPs...
2016: Journal of Nanoparticle Research: An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology
Namrita Lall, Vivek Kumar, Debra Meyer, Nomasomi Gasa, Chris Hamilton, Motlalepula Matsabisa, Carel Oosthuizen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The Natal gwarri or Natal ebony (Euclea natalensis A.DC.) is a deciduous tree found widespread throughout southern Africa, especially in Kwazulu-Natal and the southern cost. It has been widely used by indigenous communities such as the Zulus, Tsongas and Vendas for symptoms related to tuberculosis (TB). The decoctions made from the plant parts are administered for chest diseases to treat complications such as chest pains, bronchitis, pleurisy and asthma...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Shu Jiang, Yulan Liu, Jing Wang, Yue Zhang, Yaocheng Rui, Yuefan Zhang, Tiejun Li
Monocyte locomotion inhibitory factor (MLIF), a heat-stable pentapeptide produced by Entamoeba histolytica, has anti-inflammatory function and protective effect on ischemic stroke. In this study, we evaluated the effect of MLIF on myocardial ischemia. The myocardial ischemia reperfusion (I/R) model was established by ligation of the left anterior descending branch (LAD) using 8-0 silk suture for 30min followed by 3h reperfusion in mice. After sacrifice, the serum concentrations of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as well as the heart infarct size were measured...
October 20, 2016: Life Sciences
Marzena Lenart, Magdalena Rutkowska-Zapała, Rafał Szatanek, Kazimierz Węglarczyk, Małgorzata Stec, Karolina Bukowska-Strakova, Anna Gruca, Jarosław Czyż, Maciej Siedlar
Tripartite motif-containing protein 21 (TRIM21) play a dual role in the cytoplasm of the cells where it facilitates destruction of some antibody-coated viruses and some bacteria, and initiates synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. Macrophages and CD16(+) monocyte subset can particularly participate in a proinflammatory response caused by viral infection, however, the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine the level of TRIM21-mRNA expression in monocyte subsets including: classical (CD14(++)CD16(-)), intermediate (CD14(++)CD16(+)) and non-classical (CD14(+)CD16(++)) monocytes, as well as during in vitro differentiation of the isolated monocytes towards dendritic cells or macrophages...
October 18, 2016: Immunobiology
H Agut, P Bonnafous, A Gautheret-Dejean
Human herpesviruses 6A, 6B, and 7 (HHV-6A, HHV-6B, HHV-7) are genetically related to cytomegalovirus. They belong to the Roseolovirus genus and to the Betaherpesvirinae subfamily. They infect T cells, monocytes-macrophages, epithelial cells, and central nervous system cells. These viruses are ubiquitous and are responsible for lifelong chronic infections, most often asymptomatic, in the vast majority of the general adult population. HHV-6B is responsible for exanthema subitum, which is a benign disease of infants...
October 20, 2016: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
Zhongping Xu, Monal Sharma, Andrew Gelman, Ramsey Hachem, Thalachallour Mohanakumar
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) were recently identified as modulators of immune responses after human lung transplantation (LTx). This study was undertaken to assess the contribution of miRNAs to the pathogenesis of primary graft dysfunction (PGD) after LTx. METHODS: Of the 39 recipients, 14 (35.9%) developed Grade 3 PGD (i.e., severe PGD) within the first 72 hours of LTx. The remaining 25 recipients (64.1%) had Grade 2 or less PGD, and served as the control group...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Yandong Zhang, Xinchun Yu, Shuhui Sun, Qian Li, Yunli Xie, Qiang Li, Yifan Zhao, Jianfeng Pei, Wenmin Zhang, Peng Xue, Zhijun Zhou, Yubin Zhang
The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is known to modulate immunity and cause osteoporosis. However, how Cd influences on hematopoiesis remain largely unknown. Herein, we show that wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice exposed to Cd for 3months had expanded bone marrow (BM) populations of long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs), common myeloid progenitors (CMPs) and granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs), while having reduced populations of multipotent progenitors (MPPs) and common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs). A competitive mixed BM transplantation assay indicates that BM from Cd-treated mice had impaired LT-HSC ability to differentiate into mature cells...
October 19, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Sergio Montserrat-de la Paz, M Carmen Naranjo, Sergio Lopez, Rocio Abia, Francisco J Garcia Muriana, Beatriz Bermudez
Niacin is a broad-spectrum lipid-regulating drug used for clinical therapy of chronic high-grade inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms by which either niacin or the byproducts of its catabolism ameliorate these inflammatory diseases are not clear yet. Human circulating monocytes and mature macrophages were used to analyze the effects of niacin and its metabolites (NAM, NUA and 2-Pyr) on oxidative stress, plasticity and inflammatory response by using biochemical, flow cytometry, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot technologies...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Maria-Cristina Arcangeletti, Rosita Vasile Simone, Isabella Rodighiero, Flora De Conto, Maria-Cristina Medici, Clara Maccari, Carlo Chezzi, Adriana Calderaro
BACKGROUND: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an opportunistic pathogen leading to severe and even fatal diseases in 'at-risk' categories of individuals upon primary infection or the symptomatic reactivation of the endogenous virus. The mechanisms which make the virus able to reactivate from latency are still matter of intense study. However, the very low number of peripheral blood monocytes (an important latent virus reservoir) harbouring HCMV DNA makes it very difficult to obtain adequate viral quantities to use in such studies...
October 22, 2016: Virology Journal
Agata A Cisek, Iwona Dąbrowska, Karolina P Gregorczyk, Zbigniew Wyżewski
African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious viral disease of swine with a mortality rate approaching 100 percent. African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) is a double-stranded DNA virus with a complex molecular structure. Its large genome, encoding multiple virulence factors, allows for efficient replication, which takes place predominantly in the cytoplasm of monocytes and macrophages. Also, ASFV has the ability to interfere with cell signalling pathways, which leads to various modulations in the synthesis profiles of interferon and other cytokines...
October 1, 2016: Annals of Parasitology
Iêda Maria Martinez Paino, Fabrício Santos, Valtencir Zucolotto
Graphene Oxide (GO) has received enormous attention regarding its possible applications in medical areas including cancer treatment. Nevertheless, graphene biocompatibility and its interactions with cancer, normal and immune system cells still remain a major issue. In the current study, we focused on the immunological impact of GO in the oxidative burst by GO produced in fresh isolated primary human neutrophils, the most abundant leukocyte of immune system. We also studied the GO cytotoxicity, cell uptake and genotoxicity in fresh isolated primary human monocyte, neutrophil, human carcinoma cervical (HeLa) and L929 cells...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Xuehua Piao, Soh Yamazaki, Sachiko Komazawa-Sakon, Sanae Miyake, Osamu Nakabayashi, Takeyuki Kurosawa, Tetsuo Mikami, Minoru Tanaka, Nico Van Rooijen, Masaki Ohmuraya, Akira Oikawa, Yuko Kojima, Soichiro Kakuta, Yasuo Uchiyama, Masato Tanaka, Hiroyasu Nakano
: Tissue-resident macrophages and bone marrow (BM)-derived monocytes play a crucial role in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis; however, their contribution to recovery from acute tissue injury is not fully understood. To address this issue, we generated an acute murine liver injury model using hepatocyte-specific Cflar-deficient (Cflar(Hep-low) ) mice. Cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (cFLIP) expression was downregulated in Cflar-deficient hepatocytes, which thereby increased susceptibility of hepatocytes to death receptor-induced apoptosis...
October 22, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Marek Sierzega, Marzena Lenart, Magdalena Rutkowska, Marta Surman, Bozenna Mytar, Andrzej Matyja, Maciej Siedlar, Jan Kulig
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR) may serve as a simple index of the immune function. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of NLR, PLR, and LMR in patients with resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and to verify whether such biomarkers are associated with changes in populations of lymphoid cells. METHODS: The prognostic implications of blood count parameters were evaluated in a retrospective cohort of 442 subjects undergoing pancreatic resections for PDAC...
October 21, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
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